A review of mentation in Rem and NRem sleep: “Covert” Rem sleep as a possible reconciliation of two opposing models [Book Review]
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):851-866 (2000)
Numerous studies have replicated the finding of mentation in both rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, two different theoretical models have been proposed to account for this finding: (1) a one-generator model, in which mentation is generated by a single set of processes regardless of physiological differences between REM and NREM sleep; and (2) a two-generator model, in which qualitatively different generators produce cognitive activity in the two states. First, research is reviewed demonstrating conclusively that mentation can occur in NREM sleep; global estimates show an average mentation recall rate of about 50% from NREM sleep – a value that has increased substantially over the years. Second, nine different types of research on REM and NREM cognitive activity are examined for evidence supporting or refuting the two models. The evidence largely, but not completely, favors the two-generator model. Finally, in a preliminary attempt to reconcile the two models, an alternative model is proposed that assumes the existence of covert REM sleep processes during NREM sleep. Such covert activity may be responsible for much of the dreamlike cognitive activity occurring in NREM sleep. Key Words: cognition in sleep; dreaming; NREM sleep; REM sleep; sleep mentation.
|Keywords||cognition in sleep dreaming NREM sleep REM sleep sleep mentation|
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Yuval Nir & Giulio Tononi (2010). Dreaming and the Brain: From Phenomenology to Neurophysiology. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):88-100.
Delphine Oudiette, Marie-José Dealberto, Ginevra Uguccioni, Jean-Louis Golmard, Milagros Merino-Andreu, Mehdi Tafti, Lucile Garma, Sophie Schwartz & Isabelle Arnulf (2012). Dreaming Without REM Sleep. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1129-1140.
Jennifer M. Windt & Valdas Noreika (2011). How to Integrate Dreaming Into a General Theory of Consciousness—A Critical Review of Existing Positions and Suggestions for Future Research. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1091-1107.
K. Valli, A. Revonsuo, O. Palkas, K. Ismail, K. Ali & R. Punamaki (2005). The Threat Simulation Theory of the Evolutionary Function of Dreaming: Evidence From Dreams of Traumatized Children. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):188-218.
Jennifer M. Windt (2010). The Immersive Spatiotemporal Hallucination Model of Dreaming. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (2):295-316.
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