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  1. H. A. Abramson (ed.) (1952). Problems of Consciousness: Transactions of the Third Conference. Josiah Macy Foundation.
  2. John S. Antrobus (2000). How Does the Dreaming Brain Explain the Dreaming Mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):904-907.
    Recent work on functional brain architecture during dreaming provides invaluable clues for an understanding of dreaming, but identifying active brain regions during dreaming, together with their waking cognitive and cognitive functions, informs a model that accounts for only the grossest characteristics of dreaming. Improved dreaming models require cross discipline apprehension of what it is we want dreaming models to “explain.” [Hobson et al.; Neilsen; Revonsuo; Solms].
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  3. J. B. Arden (1996). Consciousness, Dreams, and Self: A Transdisciplinary Approach. Psychosocial Press.
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  4. Isabelle Arnulf, Laure Grosliere, Thibault Le Corvec, Jean-Louis Golmard, Olivier Lascols & Alexandre Duguet (2014). Will Students Pass a Competitive Exam That They Failed in Their Dreams? Consciousness and Cognition 29:36-47.
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  5. Denholm J. Aspy, Paul Delfabbro & Michael Proeve (2015). Is Dream Recall Underestimated by Retrospective Measures and Enhanced by Keeping a Logbook? A Review. Consciousness and Cognition 33:364-374.
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  6. D. Barrett & Patrick McNamara (eds.) (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers.
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  7. Deirdre Barrett & Patrick McNamara (eds.) (2007). The New Science of Dreaming Vol 3: Cultural and Theoretical Perspectives. Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
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  8. Imants Baruss (2003). Alterations of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis for Social Scientists. American Psychological Association.
  9. Imants Baruss (2003). Dreams. In Alterations of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis for Social Scientists. American Psychological Association 79-106.
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  10. Imants Baruss (2003). Sleep. In Alterations of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis for Social Scientists. American Psychological Association 51-78.
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  11. Claudio Bassetti (2001). Disturbances of Consciousness and Sleep-Wake Functions. In Julien Bogousslavsky & Louis R. Caplan (eds.), Stroke Syndromes. Cambridge University Press 192-210.
  12. Errol Bedford (1961). Dreaming, by Norman Malcolm. (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1959. Pp. 128. Price 12s. 6d.). Philosophy 36 (138):377-.
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  13. E. Bentley (2000). Awareness: Biorhythms, Sleep and Dreaming. Routledge.
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  14. Susan Blackmore, Published in Skeptical Inquirer 1991, 15, 362-370.
    What could it mean to be conscious in your dreams? For most of us, dreaming is something quite separate from normal life. When we wake up from being chased by a ferocious tiger, or seduced by a devastatingly good-looking Nobel Prize winner we realize with relief or disappointment that "it was only a dream.".
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  15. Susan J. Blackmore (1991). Lucid Dreaming: Awake in Your Sleep? Skeptical Inquirer 15:362-370.
    What could it mean to be conscious in your dreams? For most of us, dreaming is something quite separate from normal life. When we wake up from being chased by a ferocious tiger, or seduced by a devastatingly good-looking Nobel Prize winner we realize with relief or disappointment that "it was only a dream.".
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  16. M. Blagrove, S. Blakemore & B. Thayer (2006). The Ability to Self-Tickle Following Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Dreaming. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):285-294.
    Self-produced tactile stimulation usually feels less tickly—is perceptually attenuated—relative to the same stimulation produced externally. This is not true, however, for individuals with schizophrenia. Here, we investigate whether the lack of attenuation to self-produced stimuli seen in schizophrenia also occurs for normal participants following REM dreams. Fourteen participants were stimulated on their left palm with a tactile stimulation device which allowed the same stimulus to be generated by the participant or by the experimenter. The level of self-tickling attenuation did not (...)
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  17. Mark Blagrove (2000). Dreams Have Meaning but No Function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):910-911.
    Solms shows the cortical basis for why dreams reflect waking concerns and goals, but with deficient volition. I argue the latter relates to Hobson et al.'s process I as well as M. A memory function for REM sleep is possible, but may be irrelevant to dream characteristics, which, contrary to Revonsuo, mirror the range of waking emotions, positive and negative. [Hobson et al.; Nielsen; Solms; Revonsuo; Vertes & Eastman].
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  18. Mark Blagrove (1996). Problems with the Cognitive Psychological Modeling of Dreaming. Journal of Mind and Behavior 17 (2):99-134.
    It is frequently assumed that dreaming can be likened to such waking cognitive activities as imagination, analogical reasoning, and creativity, and that these models can then be used to explain instances of problem solving during dreams. This paper emphasizes instead the lack of reflexivity and intentionality within dreams, which undermines their characterization as analogs of the waking world, and opposes claims that dreams can complement and aid waking world problem solving. The importance of reflexivity in imagination, in analogical reasoning and (...)
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  19. Julien Bogousslavsky & Louis R. Caplan (eds.) (2001). Stroke Syndromes. Cambridge University Press.
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  20. R. Bootsen, John F. Kihlstrom & Daniel L. Schacter (eds.) (1990). Sleep and Cognition. American Psychological Association Press.
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  21. Alexander A. Borbély & Lutz Wittmann (2000). Sleep, Not Rem Sleep, is the Royal Road to Dreams. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):911-912.
    The advent of functional imaging has reinforced the attempts to define dreaming as a sleep state-dependent phenomenon. PET scans revealed major differences between nonREM sleep and REM sleep. However, because dreaming occurs throughout sleep, the common features of the two sleep states, rather than the differences, could help define the prerequisite for the occurrence of dreams. [Hobson et al.; Nielsen; Solms; Revonsuo; Vertes & Eastman].
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  22. Jan Born & Steffen Gais (2000). Rem Sleep Deprivation: The Wrong Paradigm Leading to Wrong Conclusions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):912-913.
    There are obvious flaws in REM sleep suppression paradigms that do not allow any conclusion to be drawn either pro or contra the REM sleep-memory hypothesis. However, less intrusive investigations of REM sleep suggest that this sleep stage or its adjunct neuroendocrine characteristics exert a facilitating influence on certain aspects of ongoing memory formation during sleep. [Nielsen; Vertes & Eastman].
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  23. M. Bosinelli (1995). Mind and Consciousness During Sleep. Behavioural Brain Research 69:195-201.
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  24. Robert Botkin (1972). What Can We Do When Dreaming? A Reply to Professor Davis. Southern Journal of Philosophy 10 (3):367-372.
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  25. Robert Botkin (1972). What Can We Do When Dreaming? Southern Journal of Philosophy 10 (3):367-372.
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  26. Derek P. Brereton (2000). Dreaming, Adaptation, and Consciousness: The Social Mapping Hypothesis. Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 28 (3):377-409.
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  27. Bill Brewer (2001). Precis of Perception and Reason, and Response to Commentator (Michael Ayers). Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    What is the role of conscious perceptual experience in the acquisition of empirical knowledge? My central claim is that a proper account of the way in which perceptual experiences contribute to our understanding of the most basic beliefs about particular things in the mind-independent world around us reveals how such experiences provide peculiarly fundamental reasons for such beliefs. There are, I claim, epistemic requirements upon the very possibility of empirical belief. The crucial epistemological role of experiences lies in their essential (...)
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  28. R. J. Broughton (1982). Human Consciousness and Sleep/Waking Rhythms: A Review and Some Neuropsychological Considerations. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology 4:193-218.
  29. Alice Browne (1977). Descartes's Dreams. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 40:256-273.
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  30. Kelly Bulkeley (ed.) (2001). Dreams: A Reader on Religious, Cultural, and Psychological Dimensions of Dreaming. Palgrave.
    "Dreams" is a long overdue collection of writing on dreams from many of the top scholars in religious studies, anthropology, and psychology departments.
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  31. Robert L. Caldwell (1965). Malcolm and the Criterion of Sleep. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 43 (December):339-352.
  32. Brian Cantwell Smith (1965). Dreaming. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 43 (May):48-57.
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  33. Rosalind Cartwright (2000). How and Why the Brain Makes Dreams: A Report Card on Current Research on Dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):914-916.
    The target articles in this volume address the three major questions about dreaming that have been most responsible for the delay in progress in this field over the past 25 years. These are: (1) Where in the brain is dreaming produced, given that dream reports can be elicited from sleep stages other than REM? (2) Do dream plots have any intrinsic meaning? (3) Does dreaming serve some specialized function? The answers offered here when added together support a new model of (...)
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  34. Corrado Cavallero (2000). Rem Sleep = Dreaming: The Never-Ending Story. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):916-917.
    It has been widely demonstrated that dreaming occurs throughout human sleep. However, we once again are facing new variants of the equation “REM sleep = Dreaming.” Nielsen proposes a model that assumes covert REM processes in NREM sleep. I argue against this possibility, because dream research has shown that REM sleep is not a necessary condition for dreaming to occur. [Nielson].
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  35. Yu Chang (2010). The Spirit of the School of Principles in Zhu XI's Discussion of “Dreams”—and on “Confucius Did Not Dream of Duke Zhou”. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (1):94-110.
    Dreams were a topic of study even in ancient times, and they are a special spiritual phenomenon. Generations of literati have defined the meaning of dreams in their own way, while Zhu Xi was perhaps the most outstanding one among them. He made profound explanations of dreams from aspects such as the relationship between dreams and the principles li and qi, the relationship between dreams and the state of the heart, and the relationship between dreams and an individual’s moral improvement. (...)
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  36. Peter Chapman & Geoffrey Underwood (2000). Mental States During Dreaming and Daydreaming: Some Methodological Loopholes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):917-918.
    Relatively poor memory for dreams is important evidence for Hobson et al.'s model of conscious states. We describe the time-gap experience as evidence that everyday memory for waking states may not be as good as they assume. As well as being surprisingly sparse, everyday memories may themselves be systematically distorted in the same manner that Revonsuo attributes uniquely to dreams. [Hobson et al.; Revonsuo].
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  37. Vere C. Chappell (1963). The Concept of Dreaming. Philosophical Quarterly 13 (July):193-213.
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  38. J. A. Cheyne (2000). Play, Dreams, and Simulation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):918-919.
    Threat themes are clearly over-represented in dreams. Threat is, however, not the only theme with potential evolutionary significance. Even for hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations during sleep paralysis, for which threat themes are far commoner than for ordinary dreaming, consistent non-threat themes have been reported. Revonsuo's simulation hypothesis represents an encouraging initiative to develop an evolutionary functional approach to dream-related experiences but it could be broadened to include evolutionarily relevant themes beyond threat. It is also suggested that Revonsuo's evolutionary re-interpretation of (...)
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  39. J. A. Cheyne, S. D. Rueffer & I. R. Newby-Clark (1999). Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations During Sleep Paralysis: Neurological and Cultural Construction of the Night-Mare. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (3):319-337.
    Hypnagogic and hypnopompic experiences (HHEs) accompanying sleep paralysis (SP) are often cited as sources of accounts of supernatural nocturnal assaults and paranormal experiences. Descriptions of such experiences are remarkably consistent across time and cultures and consistent also with known mechanisms of REM states. A three-factor structural model of HHEs based on their relations both to cultural narratives and REM neurophysiology is developed and tested with several large samples. One factor, labeled Intruder, consisting of sensed presence, fear, and auditory and visual (...)
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  40. P. Cicogna & M. Bosinelli (2001). Consciousness During Dreams. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (1):26-41.
    Two aspects of consciousness are first considered: consciousness as awareness (phenomenological meaning) and consciousness as strategic control (functional meaning). As to awareness, three types can be distinguished: first, awareness as the phenomenal experiences of objects and events; second, awareness as meta-awareness, i.e., the awareness of mental life itself; third, awareness as self-awareness, i.e., the awareness of being oneself. While phenomenal experience and self-awareness are usually present during dreaming (even if many modifications are possible), meta-awareness is usually absent (apart from some (...)
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  41. Jonathan D. Cohen & Jonathan W. Schooler (eds.) (1997). Scientific Approaches to Consciousness. Lawrence Erlbaum.
  42. Allan Combs, David Kahn & Stanley Krippner (2000). Dreaming and the Self-Organizing Brain. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (7):4-11.
    We argue that the rapid eye movement dream experiences owe their structure and meaning to inherent self-organizing properties of the brain itself. Thus, we offer a common meeting ground for brain based studies of dreaming and traditional psychological dream theory. Our view is that the dreaming brain is a self-organizing system highly sensitive to internally generated influences. Several lines of evidence support a process view of the brain as a system near the edge of chaos, one that is highly sensitive (...)
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  43. Allan Combs & Stanley Krippner (1998). Dream Sleep and Waking Reality: A Dynamical View. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press
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  44. Rodney M. J. Cotterill (2003). Conscious Unity, Emotion, Dreaming, and the Solution of the Hard Problem. In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press
  45. Edward William Cox (1875). On Some of the Phenomena of Sleep and Dream [a Paper].
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  46. Ralph Davis (1972). Dreams and Dreaming: A Reply to Professor Botkin. Southern Journal of Philosophy 10 (3):373-378.
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  47. Stephen LaBerge Donald J. DeGracia (2000). Varieties of Lucid Dreaming Experience. In Robert G. Kunzendorf & Benjamin Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. Amsterdam: J Benjamins 269.
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  48. William Dement & Nathaniel Kleitman (1957). The Relation of Eye Movements During Sleep to Dream Activity: An Objective Method for the Study of Dreaming. Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (5):339.
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  49. D. Deshpande (1976). Professor Malcolm on Dreaming. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 3 (3):259-272.
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  50. Ilham Dilman (1966). Professor Malcolm on Dreams. Analysis 26 (March):129-134.
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