Philosophy East and West 60 (2):pp. 207-250 (2010)

Authors
Brian Bruya
Eastern Michigan University
Abstract
Scholars working in philosophy of action still struggle with the freedom/determinism dichotomy that stretches back to Hellenist philosophy and the metaphysics that gave rise to it. Although that metaphysics has been repudiated in current philosophy of mind and cognitive science, the dichotomy still haunts these fields. As such, action is understood as distinct from movement, or motion. In early China, under a very different metaphysical paradigm, no such distinction is made. Instead, a notion of self-caused movement, or spontaneity, is elaborated. In this article a general conception of spontaneity from early Daoism is explained, detailing its constituent aspects. Similar notions appeared from time to time in Western philosophy, and these instances are pursued, exploring how their instantiations differed from Daoist spontaneity and why. Based on these approximate examples of spontaneity and on early Daoist spontaneity, new criteria are postulated for a plausible theory of action that dispenses with presuppositions that eventuate in a freedom/determinism dichotomy, and instead the possibility is offered of a general model of action that can be applied smoothly across current philosophical and cognitive scientific subdisciplines.
Keywords Spontaneity  Ziran  Wu Wei  Action  Free Will  Determinism  Zhuangzi  Daoism  Laozi  Schiller
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DOI 10.1353/pew.0.0102
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References found in this work BETA

Attention and Effort.Daniel Kahneman - 1973 - Prentice-Hall.
The Taming of Chance.Ian Hacking - 1990 - Cambridge University Press.
The Problem of Action.Harry G. Frankfurt - 1978 - American Philosophical Quarterly 15 (2):157-162.
The World of Thought in Ancient China.Benjamin I. Schwartz - 1985 - Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

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Citations of this work BETA

The Limits of Decision and Choice.Gabriel Abend - 2018 - Theory and Society 47 (6):805-841.
A Confucian Theory of Shame.Nathaniel F. Barrett - 2015 - Sophia 54 (2):143-163.

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