The paper presents a variation of the EMAIL Game, originally proposed byRubinstein (American Economic Review, 1989), in which coordination ofthe more rewarding-risky joint course of actions is shown to obtain, evenwhen the relevant game is, at most, ``mutual knowledge.'' In the exampleproposed, a mediator is introduced in such a way that two individualsare symmetrically informed, rather than asymmetrically as in Rubinstein,about the game chosen by nature. As long as the message failure probabilityis sufficiently low, with the upper bound being a function of the gamepayoffs, conditional beliefs in the opponent's actions can allow playersto choose a more rewarding-risky action. The result suggests that, forefficient coordination to obtain, the length of interactive knowledge onthe game, possibly up to ``almost common knowledge,'' does not seem to bea major conceptual issue and that emphasis should be focused instead onthe communication protocol and an appropriate relationship between thereliability of communication channels and the payoffs at stake.
Keywords choice  communication  coordination  efficiency  email  games  information  knowledge  mediation  risk-dominance
Categories (categorize this paper)
Reprint years 2004
DOI 10.1023/A:1021180407318
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 69,959
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

Reasoning About Knowledge: An Overview.Joseph Y. Halpern - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):660-661.
Approximate Common Knowledge and Co-Ordination: Recent Lessons From Game Theory.Stephen Morris & Hyun Shin - 1997 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 6 (2):171-190.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

The Circumstances of Justice.Peter Vanderschraaf - 2006 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 5 (3):321-351.
Backward Induction Without Common Knowledge.Cristina Bicchieri - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:329 - 343.
Consciousness, Agents and the Knowledge Game.Luciano Floridi - 2005 - Minds and Machines 15 (3):415-444.
Knowledge, Equilibrium and Convention.P. Vanderschraaf - 1998 - Erkenntnis 49 (3):337-369.
Common Knowledge Logic and Game Logic.Mamoru Kaneko - 1999 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (2):685-700.
Game Theory and “Convention‘.Margaret Gilbert - 1981 - Synthese 46 (1):41 - 93.


Added to PP index

Total views
37 ( #306,717 of 2,504,605 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
1 ( #416,529 of 2,504,605 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes