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    Between Training and Popularization: Regulating Science Textbooks in Secondary Education.Adam R. Shapiro - 2012 - Isis 103 (1):99-110.
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    Civic Biology and the Origin of the School Antievolution Movement.Adam R. Shapiro - 2008 - Journal of the History of Biology 41 (3):409 - 433.
    In discussing the origins of the antievolution movement in American high schools within the framework of science and religion, much is overlooked about the influence of educational trends in shaping this phenomenon. This was especially true in the years before the 1925 Scopes trial, the beginnings of the school antievolution movement. There was no sudden realization in the 1920's – sixty years after the "Origin of Species" was published – that Darwinism conflicted with the Bible, but until evolution was being (...)
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    Darwin’s Foil: The Evolving Uses of William Paley’s Natural Theology 1802–2005.Adam R. Shapiro - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):114-123.
    This essay traces the divergent readings of William Paley’s 1802 Natural Theology from its initial publication to the recent controversies over intelligent design. It argues that the misinterpretation of the Natural Theology as a scientific argument about the origins of complex life—which Darwin’s Origin of Species refutes—did not develop all at once. Rather this reading evolved gradually, drawing from a variety of uses and appropriations during the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This study demonstrates the fluidity of “science” (...)
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