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  1.  30
    Retractions in the Scientific Literature: Is the Incidence of Research Fraud Increasing?R. Grant Steen - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (4):249-253.
    Next SectionBackground Scientific papers are retracted for many reasons including fraud (data fabrication or falsification) or error (plagiarism, scientific mistake, ethical problems). Growing attention to fraud in the lay press suggests that the incidence of fraud is increasing. Methods The reasons for retracting 742 English language research papers retracted from the PubMed database between 2000 and 2010 were evaluated. Reasons for retraction were initially dichotomised as fraud or error and then analysed to determine specific reasons for retraction. Results Error was (...)
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  2.  54
    Retractions in the Scientific Literature: Do Authors Deliberately Commit Research Fraud?R. Grant Steen - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (2):113-117.
    Background Papers retracted for fraud (data fabrication or data falsification) may represent a deliberate effort to deceive, a motivation fundamentally different from papers retracted for error. It is hypothesised that fraudulent authors target journals with a high impact factor (IF), have other fraudulent publications, diffuse responsibility across many co-authors, delay retracting fraudulent papers and publish from countries with a weak research infrastructure. Methods All 788 English language research papers retracted from the PubMed database between 2000 and 2010 were evaluated. Data (...)
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  3.  33
    Retractions in the Medical Literature: How Can Patients Be Protected From Risk?R. Grant Steen - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (4):228-232.
    Background Medical research so flawed as to be retracted may put patients at risk by influencing treatments. Objective To explore hypotheses that more patients are put at risk if a retracted paper appears in a journal with a high impact factor (IF) so that the paper is widely read; is written by a ‘repeat offender’ author who has produced other retracted research; or is a clinical trial. Methods English language papers (n=788) retracted from the PubMed database between 2000 and 2010 (...)
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