Species Extinction and the Vice of Thoughtlessness: The Importance of Spiritual Exercises for Learning Virtue [Book Review]
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (1-2):61-83 (2010)
In this paper, I present a sample spiritual exercise—a contemporary form of the written practice that ancient philosophers used to shape their characters. The exercise, which develops the ancient practice of the examination of conscience, is on the sixth mass extinction and seeks to understand why the extinction appears as a moral wrong. It concludes by finding a vice in the moral character of the author and the author’s society. From a methodological standpoint, the purpose of spiritual exercises is to create a habit of thoughtfulness in the writer, and by way of teaching, to suggest one to the reader. Such a habit is important, at least, because virtue is a habit. In other words, there can be no learning of virtue itself without habituation into it. Accordingly, I frame the sample spiritual exercise with a deliberately controversial objection to contemporary academic virtue ethics and with a justification for why the spiritual exercise is important for taking virtue ethically. And I end the paper with some further remarks explaining the form of the exercise and its relevance to doing philosophy. In this way, the paper makes and illustrates a methodological point about virtue ethics based on a meta-ethical assumption about virtue as a habit, and it does this by focusing on a pressing environmental problem in the twenty-first century
|Keywords||Species extinction Sixth mass extinction Virtue theory Spiritual exercises Meta-ethics Meta-philosophy|
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References found in this work BETA
Frederic L. Bender (2003). The Culture of Extinction: Toward a Philosophy of Deep Ecology. Humanity Books.
Jeremy Bendik-Keymer (2006). The Ecological Life: Discovering Citizenship and a Sense of Humanity. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Ben Bradley (2001). The Value of Endangered Species. Journal of Value Inquiry 35 (1):43-58.
René Descartes (1996). Meditations on First Philosophy: With Selections From the Objections and Replies. Cambridge University Press.
John Dewey (1916/2004). Democracy and Education : An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. Macmillan.
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