Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):61-68 (1992)

Abstract
I examine the relationship between evolutionary definitions of altruism that are based on fitness effects and psychological definitions that are based on the motives of the actor. I show that evolutionary altruism can be motivated by proximate mechanisms that are psychologically either altruistic or selfish. I also show that evolutionary definitions do rely upon motives as a metaphor in which the outcome of natural selection is compared to the decisions of a psychologically selfish (or altruistic) individual. Ignoring the precise nature of both psychological and evolutionary definitions has obscured many important issues, including the biological roots of psychological altruism.
Keywords Altruism  evolution  group selection  selfishness
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DOI 10.1007/BF00130164
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References found in this work BETA

Reason in Human Affairs.Herbert Simon - 1983 - Stanford University Press.
Taking Darwin Seriously.Michael Ruse - 1988 - Ethics 98 (2):400-402.
Vaulting Ambition.Philip Kitcher - 1988 - Noûs 22 (3):479-482.
Evolutionary Altruism, Psychological Egoism, and Morality: Disentangling the Phenotypes.Elliott Sober - 1993 - In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. pp. 199--216.

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Citations of this work BETA

Burying the Vehicle.Richard Dawkins - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):616-617.
Why is Group Selection Such a Problem?Randolph M. Nesse - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):633-634.
Adaptation and Natural Selection: A New Look at Some Old Ideas.Jeffry A. Simpson - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):634-636.
Hominids, Coalitions, and Weapons: Not Vehicles.Jim Moore - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):632-632.

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