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  1. Materteral and Avuncular Tendencies in Samoa.Paul L. Vasey & Doug P. VanderLaan - 2009 - Human Nature 20 (3):269-281.
    Androphilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal to adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal to adult females. In Independent Samoa, androphilic males, most of whom are effeminate or transgendered, are referred to as fa’afafine, which means “in the manner of a woman.” Previous research has established that fa’afafine report significantly higher avuncular tendencies relative to gynephilic men. We hypothesized that Samoan fa’afafine might adopt feminine gender role orientations with respect to childcare activity. If so, then the (...)
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    Male Androphilia in the Ancestral Environment.Doug P. VanderLaan, Zhiyuan Ren & Paul L. Vasey - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (4):375-401.
    The kin selection hypothesis posits that male androphilia (male sexual attraction to adult males) evolved because androphilic males invest more in kin, thereby enhancing inclusive fitness. Increased kin-directed altruism has been repeatedly documented among a population of transgendered androphilic males, but never among androphilic males in other cultures who adopt gender identities as men. Thus, the kin selection hypothesis may be viable if male androphilia was expressed in the transgendered form in the ancestral past. Using the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS), (...)
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    Birth Order and Androphilic Male-to-Female Transsexualism in Brazil.Doug P. Vanderlaan, Ray Blanchard, Kenneth J. Zucker, Raffael Massuda, Anna Martha Vaitses Fontanari, André Oliveira Borba, Angelo Bradelli Costa, Maiko Abel Schneider, Andressa Mueller, Bianca Machado Borba Soll, Karine Schwarz, Dhiordan Cardoso Da Silva & Maria Inês Rodrigues Lobato - 2017 - Journal of Biosocial Science 49 (4):527-535.
    SummaryPrevious research has indicated that biological older brothers increase the odds of androphilia in males. This finding has been termed thefraternal birth order effect. Thematernal immune hypothesissuggests that this effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens involved in fetal male brain masculinization. Exposure to these antigens, as a result of carrying earlier-born sons, is hypothesized to produce maternal immune responses towards later-born sons, thus leading to female-typical neural development of brain regions underlying sexual orientation. Because this (...)
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