Le présent numéro réunit les contributions de spécialistes internationaux de la question du νόος-νοεῖν avec pour optique de reconstruire une histoire des termes liés à l’intelligence et ses activités dans la Grèce antique. Il s’agit de tracer, sans prétendre à l’exhaustivité, les grandes lignes de l'évolution de ces termes, en s’attachant à en approfondir certaines étapes les plus significatives. Naturellement, chaque article a aussi, ou avant tout, une valeur en tant que tel et peut être lu...
In this paper, I argue that the temporal connective prima (‘before’) is a comparative adverb. The argument is based on a number of grammatical facts from Italian, showing that there is an asymmetry between prima and dopo (‘after’). On the ground of their divergent behaviour, I suggest that dopo has a different grammatical status from prima. I propose a semantic treatment for prima that is based on an independently motivated analysis of comparatives which can be traced back to Seuren (in: (...) Kiefer and Ruwet (eds.) Generative grammar in Europe, 1973). Dopo is analyzed instead as an atomic two-place predicate which contributes a binary relation over events to the sentence meaning. The different semantic treatments of the two connectives provide an explanation for the grammatical asymmetries considered at the outset; interestingly, they also shed some light on other asymmetries between prima and dopo, which are known to hold for the English temporal connectives before and after as well: these asymmetries are related to the veridicality properties, the distribution of NPIs, and the logical properties of these connectives first described in Anscombe (Philos Rev 73:3–24, 1964). (shrink)
This paper focuses on the interpretation of the Italian approximative adverb quasi 'almost' by primarily looking at cases in which it modifies temporal connectives, a domain which, to our knowledge, has been largely unexplored thus far. Consideration of this domain supports the need for a scalar account of the semantics of quasi (close in spirit to Hitzeman's semantic analysis of almost, in: Canakis et al. (eds) Papers from the 28th regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 1992). When paired with (...) suitable analyses of temporal connectives, such an account can provide a simple explanation of the patterns of implication that are observed when quasi modifies locational (e. g. quando 'when'), directional (e. g. fino 'until' and da 'since'), and event-sequencing temporal connectives (e. g. prima 'before' and dopo ' after'). A challenging empirical phenomenon that is observed is a contrast between the modification of fino and da by quasi, on the one hand, and the modification of prima and dopo by the same adverb, on the other. While quasi fino and quasi da behave symmetrically, a puzzling asymmetry is observed between quasi prima and quasi dopo. To explain the asymmetry, we propose an analysis of prima and dopo on which the former has the meaning of the temporal comparative più presto 'earlier', while the latter is seen as an atomic predicate denoting temporal succession between events (Del Prete, Nat Lang Semantics 16: 157-203, 2008). We show that the same pattern of implication observed for quasi prima is attested when quasi modifies overt comparatives, and propose a pragmatic analysis of this pattern that uniformly applies to both cases, thus providing new evidence for the claim that prima is underlyingly a comparative. A major point of this paper is a discussion of the notion of scale which is relevant for the semantics of quasi', in particular, we show that the notion of Horn (entailment-based) scale is not well-suited for handling modification of temporal connectives, and that a more general notion of scale is required in order to provide a uniform analysis of quasi as a cross-categorial modifier. (shrink)
Thinking the origin in a radical way amounts to thinking the movement by which what does not proceed from something else - what does not have its origin elsewhere - comes to itself, has within itself precisely the ontological energy to detach itself from itself and to exist as origin. In its primordial sense, then, origin is self-origin: it is, becomes, and is known starting from itself. This self-presupposition of the origin constitutes the very advent of Being, its unmotivated and (...) permanent upsurge, which has to be thought in terms of creation. Human creation responds to this ontological genesis, to its indeterminacy and to its incompletion - and, consequently, to its temporality. At once individual and collective - that is, both psychical and social - human creation alone can give meaning to ontological genesis. (shrink)
In this paper we show the adequacy of tense logic with unary operators for dealing with finite trees. We prove that models on finite trees can be characterized by tense formulas, and describe an effective method to find an axiomatization of the theory of a given finite tree in tense logic. The strength of the characterization is shown by proving that adding the binary operators "Until" and "Since" to the language does not result in a better description than that given (...) by unary tense logic; although the greater expressive power of "Until" and "Since" can be exploited by using the semantics of e-frames instead of traditional Kripke semantics. (shrink)
Creatures living under the rule of domestication form a communicative union based on shared morphological, behavioural, cognitive, and immunological resemblances. Domestic animals live under particular conditions that substantially differ from the original settings of their wild relatives. Here we focus on the fact that many parallel characters have appeared in various domestic forms that had been selected for different purposes. These characters are often unique for domestic animals and do not exist in wild forms. We argue that parallel similarities appear (...) in different groups in response to their interaction with the umwelt of a particular host. In zoosemiotic sense, the process of domestication represents a kind of interaction in which both sides are affected and eventually transformed in such a way that one is more integrated with the other than in the time of initial encounter. (shrink)
Is freedom of research protected at the constitutional level? No obvious answer can be given to this question, as European and Northern American constitutional systems are not unequivocal and the topic has not been discussed deeply enough.Looking at the constitutions of some European and Northern American countries, it is possible to immediately note that there are essentially two ways to deal with freedom of scientific research. On the one hand, in Canada and in the US, constitutions have no specific provisions (...) to protect freedom of scientific research, with the result that such freedom ends up having to be protected as a specific aspect of the wider freedom of thought and expression . On the other hand, other countries’ constitutional systems, mainly European ones, expressly recognise freedom of research and teaching arts and science. For instance, article 5 of the German Constitution states that “Art and science, research and teaching are free”, article 33 of the Italian Constitution1i establishes that “The arts and sciences as well as their teaching are free” and article 59 of the Slovenian Constitution states that “Freedom of scientific research and artistic endeavor shall be guaranteed”.Within this second group, some constitutions limit their protection to the provision of freedom of scientific research, whereas other fundamental laws engage governments in promoting and supporting it. For example, the Italian Constitution, which states that “The Republic promotes cultural development and scientific and technical research” , the Spanish Constitution, according to which “public authorities shall promote science and scientific and technical research for the benefit of general interest” and, also, the Greek Constitution, whose article 16 establishes that art, science, research and their teaching are free, and their promotion is mandatory for the State.2 It …. (shrink)
We show that, given extensive exploration of a three-dimensional volume, grid units can form with the approximate periodicity of a face-centered cubic crystal, as the spontaneous product of a self-organizing process at the single unit level, driven solely by firing rate adaptation.
Lo scopo di questo articolo è di mostrare come Leo Strauss usi la parola esoterico riguardo alla filosofia islamica ed in particolare ad al-Fārābī. La parola esoterico è usata da Strauss in due differenti modi. Nel primo modo, Strauss usa la parola per spiegare la differenza tra opere popolari e opere esoteriche, le quali contengono il reale pensiero del filosofo. Il secondo modo è il più importante e il meno studiato. In questo significato esoterico è una metodologia di studio e (...) di spiegazione della filosofia. L’articolo si concentra specialmente su questo secondo significato della parola esoterico e sul ruolo di questa parola per comprendere meglio la visione socio-politica della filosofia di al-Fārābī The aim of this article is to show how Leo Strauss uses the word esoteri c about the Islamic philosophy, and in particular about al-Fārābī. The word esoteric is used by Strauss in two different ways. In the first way, Strauss uses the word to explain the difference between the popular works of al-Fārābī, and the esoteric works, which contain the real thought of the philosopher. The second way is the most important and the least studied. In this meaning esoteric is a methodology to study and explain philosophy. The article focuses especially on this second meaning of the word esoteric and on the role of this word to better understand the political and social view of al-Fārābī’s philosophy. (shrink)
Le recours aux esclaves n’a pas eu seulement des motivations économiques, l’exploitation sexuelle aussi faisait partie des raisons esclavagistes. Dans le monde musulman et ses harem, certes, mais aussi chez les chrétiens. Depuis la mise en place par l’Eglise, au milieu du Moyen Age, du contrôle sexuel de ses fidèles, nombre de chrétiens trouvèrent dans la servante domestique, et en particulier dans l’esclave, l’échappatoire qu’ils désiraient. Le dossier florentin portant sur les derniers siècle du Moyen Age, et en particulier des (...) correspondances privées, éclairent un sujet gardé secret. Les informations sérielles provenant de la Péninsule Ibérique, font apparaître l’ampleur d’un phénomène déjà connu pour les Amériques. Des législations différentes déterminaient le destin des enfants nés de ces unions ancillaires: le plus souvent abandonnés à Florence, vendus, affranchis ou gardés comme esclaves en Espagne. (shrink)
In questo articolo verrà preso in esame il tema della prigionia dell’anima e della sua successiva liberazione, partendo da uno dei tre racconti visionari di Avicenna, intitolato Hayy Ibn Yaqzân e indagandone le fonti filosofiche. Si partirà dall’analisi del il mito della caverna di Platone e dell’interpretazione allegorica data ad esso dal filosofo al-Fārābī. Tenendo presente questa lettura, saranno sviluppate alcune riflessioni sull’oggetto e sul significato di questi racconti visionari: allegorie filosofiche sulla natura della conoscenza, allegorie religiose di carattere gnostico (...) sul tema della liberazione dell’anima dalla sua prigione terrena raffigurata dall’occidente e della sua conseguente salvezza, o un insieme di queste due possibili interpretazioni.Sebbene il focus del contributo sia l’opera avicenniana si terrà conto anche dello scritto successivo di Suhrawardī, contenutisticamente analogo, ma con finalità diverse.In this article I study the theme of imprisonment of the soul and its subsequent release, starting from one of the three visionary tales of Avicenna, entitled Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān. I start with the analysis of the possible sources of Islamic authors, such as the Plato’s myth of the cave and its allegorical interpretation given by the philosopher al-Fārābī.I develop some thoughts about the Avicenna’s possible objectives in writing the visionaries tales: 1. the philosophical allegories about the nature of knowledge, 2. the religious allegories with Gnostic character on the theme of the liberation of the soul from its earthly prison, represented by the West, and its consequent salvation, or 3. a combination of these two possible interpretations?The article focuses on Avicenna and the philosophical sources that could have inspired his tales, and taking into account Suhrawardī’s later writing, that has a similar content, but probably with different intentions. (shrink)
Creatures living under the rule of domestication form a communicative union based on shared morphological, behavioural, cognitive, and immunologicalresemblances. Domestic animals live under particular conditions that substantially differ from the original settings of their wild relatives. Here we focus on the fact that many parallel characters have appeared in various domestic forms that had been selected for different purposes. These characters are often unique for domestic animals and do not exist in wild forms. We argue that parallel similarities appear in (...) different groups in response to their interaction with theumwelt of a particular host. In zoosemiotic sense, the process of domestication represents a kind of interaction in which both sides are affected and eventuallytransformed in such a way that one is more integrated with the other than in the time of initial encounter. (shrink)
The aim of this essay is to focus the function of women in Aristophanes’ theatre and in Plato’s book V of the Republic, in an attempt to compare the different strategies adopted by these two authors in staging the female subject on the scene of their respective writings. This enquiry involves raising some fundamental questions such as : is the world of women, evoked by Aristophanes in his dramas and by Plato in his dialogues, a simple metaphor and a mere (...) instrument, if not an utopian mirage, of political theorizing? If this is not the case, what is the real and practical importance of women within the models of society and collective life outlined by Aristophanes and Plato? Do Aristophanes and Plato share a same perspective about the role of women in their hypothetical ideal cities? If not, what are the differences between Aristophanes’ and Plato’s views on this matter? (shrink)
« Rythmes et Croyances au Moyen-Âge » Journée d'études organisée par Marie Formarier et Jean-Claude Schmitt 23 juin 2012 – Paris Présentation : Cette journée d'études a eu pour objectif de faire dialoguer les diverses disciplines concernées par le rapport entre rythmes et croyances au Moyen-Âge. Elle a accueilli des historiens, des anthropologues, des sociologues, des philologues et des linguistes. Présents dans la langue latine et les langues vernaculaires, dans la rhétorique du sermon, la prière et (...) - Histoire – (...) NOUVELLE JOURNÉE d'ÉTUDES. (shrink)