Journal of the History of Biology 40 (4):601 - 635 (2007)
|Abstract||There is a pervasive contrast in the early natural history writings of the co-discoverers of natural selection, Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Darwin. In his writings from South America and the Malay Archipelago (1848-1852, 1854-1862). Wallace consistently emphasized species and genera, and separated these descriptions from his rarer and briefer discussions of individual organisms. In contrast, Darwin's writings during the Beagle voyage (1831-1836) emphasized individual organisms, and mingled descriptions of individuals and groups. The contrast is explained by the different practices of the two naturalists in the field. Wallace and Darwin went to the field with different educational experiences and social connections, constrained by different responsibilities and theoretical interests. These in turn resulted in different natural history practices; i.e., different habits and working routines in the field. Wallace's intense collecting activities aimed at a complete inventory of different species and their distributions at many localities. Darwin's less intense collecting practice focused on detailed observations of individual organisms. These different practices resulted in different material, textual and conceptual products. Placing natural history practices at the center of analysis reveals connections among these diverse products, and throws light on Wallace and Darwin's respective treatment of individuals and groups in natural history. In particular, this approach clarifies the relation between individuals and groups in Wallace's theory of natural selection, and provides an integrative starting point for further investigations of the broader social factors that shaped Victorian natural history practices and their scientific products.|
|Keywords||Alfred Russel Wallace Charles Darwin natural history scientific practice natural selection specimen collecting Beagle voyage Malay Archipelago|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
|Through your library||Configure|
Similar books and articles
James Rachels (1986). Darwin's Moral Lapse. National Forum:22-24.
Charles Darwin (1958/1971). Evolution by Natural Selection. New York,Johnson Reprint Corp..
David L. Hull (2005). Deconstructing Darwin: Evolutionary Theory in Context. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 38 (1):137 - 152.
Barbara G. Beddall (1968). Wallace, Darwin, and the Theory of Natural Selection: A Study in the Development of Ideas and Attitudes. Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2):261 - 323.
Jerry Fodor (2008). Against Darwinism. Mind and Language 23 (1):1–24.
Jeremy Vetter (2006). Wallace's Other Line: Human Biogeography and Field Practice in the Eastern Colonial Tropics. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (1):89 - 123.
Joel S. Schwartz (1990). Darwin, Wallace, and Huxley, and "Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation". Journal of the History of Biology 23 (1):127 - 153.
Edward S. Reed (1978). Darwin's Evolutionary Philosophy: The Laws of Change. Acta Biotheoretica 27 (3-4).
Richard England (1997). Natural Selection Before the Origin: Public Reactions of Some Naturalists to the Darwin-Wallace Papers (Thomas Boyd, Arthur Hussey, and Henry Baker Tristram). [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 30 (2):267 - 290.
Bert James Loewenberg (1959). Darwin, Wallace, and the Theory of Natural Selection. Cambridge, Arlington Books.
Charles Darwin (1975). Charles Darwin's Natural Selection: Being the Second Part of His Big Species Book Written From 1856 to 1858. Cambridge University Press.
George Lewis Levine (2011). Darwin the Writer. Oxford University Press.
Scott A. Kleiner (1985). Darwin's and Wallace's Revolutionary Research Programme. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36 (4):367-392.
Charles Darwin (1933/1988). Charles Darwin's Beagle Diary. Cambridge University Press.
Added to index2011-05-29
Total downloads6 ( #154,629 of 722,703 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #60,247 of 722,703 )
How can I increase my downloads?