Epistemological Contextualism and Transparent Possibilities Antti Karjalainen, University of Bristol
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
When knowledge is being doubted one way to express this doubt is by a counterfactual. Typically this counterfactual quotes some elements of the actual case or a case considered as actual and dodges the connection between proposition believed and what makes that proposition true. For example, when Descartes states his dreaming skepticism case, he gives us instances where he has previously been lying in his bed fast asleep while dreaming that he is awake. What triggers the loss of knowledge in Descartes’ case is that if he were asleep, he would still believe that he is sitting by the fire, holding a paper in his hand etc. The fact that he cannot distinguish between his dream-state and awake-state entails that he doesn’t know in the awake-state, considered as actual, either. So, a description of counterfactual possibilities that can be used to doubt knowledge in a possibility considered as actual has to make the truth of p indistinguishable from the falsity of p. Any possibility that falls under this description will be called transparent. Here is a definition: For any possibility W and any proposition believed p, W is transparent iff, in W the truth of p is indistinguishable from the falsity of p
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library||
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
B. Brogaard (2004). Contextualism, Skepticism, and the Gettier Problem. Synthese 139 (3):367 - 386.
Marcus Willaschek (2007). Contextualism About Knowledge and Justification by Default. Grazer Philosophische Studien 74 (1):251-272.
M. Jason Reddoch (2011). Philo of Alexandria’s Use of Sleep and Dreaming as Epistemological Metaphors in Relation to Joseph. International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 5 (2):283-302.
Wlodek Rabinowicz & Krister Segerberg (1994). Actual Truth, Possible Knowledge. Topoi 13 (2):101-115.
Adam Morton & Antti Karjalainen (2008). Contrastivity and Indistinguishability. Social Epistemology 22 (3):271 – 280.
Antti Kauppinen (2010). The Pragmatics of Transparent Belief Reports. Analysis 70 (3):438-446.
Antti Karjalainen & Adam Morton (2003). Contrastive Knowledge. Philosophical Explorations 6 (2):74 – 89.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads42 ( #98,044 of 1,796,170 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #468,533 of 1,796,170 )
How can I increase my downloads?