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  1. A. E. Adam & H. J. Richardson, Feminist Philosophy and Information Systems.
    This paper offers a new approach to the philosophical foundations of information systems through feminist philosophy and, in particular, feminist epistemology. This can be used to expose the universalizing tendency of many information systems and to show the importance of using real-life complex examples rather than the simplified examples often favored by philosophers. Within traditional epistemology and its relation to IS, subjectivity, the propositional/skills distinction and epistemic hierarchies are subject to arguments from feminist epistemology. With respect to the emerging critical (...)
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  2. Fred Adams (2012). Extended Cognition Meets Epistemology. Philosophical Explorations 15 (2):107 - 119.
    This article examines the intersection of the theory of extended mind/cognition and theory of knowledge. In the minds of some, it matters to conditions for knowing whether the mind extends beyond the boundaries of body and brain. I examine these intuitions and find no support for this view from tracking theories of knowledge. I then argue that the apparent difference extended mind is supposed to have for ability or credit theories is also illusory.
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  3. Fred Adams (2005). Tracking Theories of Knowledge. Veritas: Revista de Filosofia da PUCRS 50 (4):1-35.
    As teorias epistemológicas do rastreamento sustentam que o conhecimento é uma relação real entre o agente cognitivo e seu ambiente. Os estados cognitivos de um agente epistêmico fazem o rastreamento da verdade das proposições que são objeto de conhecimento ao embasarem a crença em indicadores confiáveis da verdade (evidência, razões, ou métodos de formação de crença). A novidade nessa abordagem é que se dá pouca ênfase no tipo de justificação epistêmica voltada ao fornecimento de procedimentos de decisão doxástica ou regras (...)
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  4. Fred Adams & Murray Clarke (2005). Resurrecting the Tracking Theories. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (2):207 – 221.
    Much of contemporary epistemology proceeds on the assumption that tracking theories of knowledge, such as those of Dretske and Nozick, are dead. The word on the street is that Kripke and others killed these theories with their counterexamples, and that epistemology must move in a new direction as a result. In this paper we defend the tracking theories against purportedly deadly objections. We detect life in the tracking theories, despite what we perceive to be a premature burial.
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  5. John A. Barker & Fred Adams (2012). Conclusive Reasons, Knowledge, and Action. Philosophical Issues 22 (1):35-52.
  6. Niels Ole Bernsen (1978). Knowledge: A Treatise on Our Cognitive Situation. Odense University Press.
  7. Steffen Borge (2008). Stanley on the Knowledge-Relation. SATS: Northern European Journal of Philosophy 9 (1):109-124.
    The latest newcomer on the epistemology scene is Subject-Sensitive Invariantism (SSI), which is the view that even though the semantics of the verb “know” is invariant, the answer to the question of whether someone knows something is sensitive to factors about that person. Factors about the context of the purported knower are relevant to whether he knows some proposition p or not. In this paper I present Jason Stanley's version of SSI, a theory Stanley calls Interest-Relative Invariantism (IRI). The core (...)
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  8. Jessica Brown (2013). Impurism, Practical Reasoning, and the Threshold Problem. Noûs 47 (1):179-192.
    I consider but reject one broad strategy for answering the threshold problem for fallibilist accounts of knowledge, namely what fixes the degree of probability required for one to know? According to the impurist strategy to be considered, the required degree of probability is fixed by one's practical reasoning situation. I distinguish two different ways to implement the suggested impurist strategy. According to the Relevance Approach, the threshold for a subject to know a proposition at a time is determined by the (...)
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  9. Jessica Brown (2012). Practial Reasoning, Decision Theory and Anti-Intellectualism. Episteme 9 (1):1-20.
    In this paper, I focus on the most important form of argument for anti-intellectualism, one that exploits alleged connections between knowledge and practical reasoning. I first focus on a form of this argument which exploits a universal principle, Sufficiency, connecting knowledge and practical reasoning. In the face of putative counterexamples to Sufficiency, a number of authors have attempted to reformulate the argument with a weaker principle. However, I argue that the weaker principles suggested are also problematic. I conclude that, so (...)
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  10. Lawrence R. Carleton (1982). Justification and Knowledge: New Studies in Epistemology. Edited by George Pappas. Modern Schoolman 60 (1):60-61.
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  11. Quassim Cassam (2009). The Possibility of Knowledge • by Quassim Cassam • Oxford University Press, 2007. X + 256 Pp. £32.00 Cloth: Summary. [REVIEW] Analysis 69 (2):307-309.
    An epistemological how-possible question asks how knowledge, or knowledge of some specific kind, is possible. Familiar epistemological how-possible questions include ‘How is knowledge of the external world possible?’, ‘How is knowledge of other minds possible?’ and ‘How is a priori knowledge possible?’ These are the three questions that I tackle in my book. In each case, I explain how and why the question arises and propose a way of answering it. The main negative claim of the book is that transcendental (...)
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  12. Quassim Cassam (2007). The Possibility of Knowledge. Grazer Philosophische Studien 74 (1):125-141.
    I focus on two questions: what is knowledge, and how is knowledge possible? The latter is an example of a how-possible question. I argue that how-possible questions are obstacle-dependent and that they need to be dealt with at three different levels, the level of means, of obstacle-removal, and of enabling conditions. At the first of these levels the possibility of knowledge is accounted for by identifying means of knowing, and I argue that the identification of such means also contributes to (...)
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  13. Albert Casullo (2012). Essays on a Priori Knowledge and Justification: Essays. OUP Usa.
    The past twenty-five years have seen a major renewal of interest in the topic of a priori knowledge. In the sixteen essays collected here, which span this entire period, philosopher Albert Casullo documents the complex set of issues motivating the renewed interest, identifies the central epistemological questions, and provides the leading ideas of a unified response to them.
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  14. Albert Casullo, Annotated Bibliography on A Priori Knowledge.
    Contents 1. Introduction 2. General Overviews 3. Textbooks 4. Anthologies 5. Historical Background to the Contemporary Debate 6. General Accounts 7. Mathematical Knowledge 8. Logical Knowledge 9. Intuitions and Conceptual Analysis 10. Modal Knowledge a. Overviews b. Primary Sources 11. Testimonial Knowledge 12. Naturalism 13. Scepticism 14. New Developments..
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  15. Jonathan Cohen, Philosophy 111: Contemporary Work in Metaphysics and Epistemology.
    This course is an introduction to contemporary work in epistemology -- roughly, the theory of knowledge -- and metaphysics -- roughly, the theory of what there is in the world. As such, the course will be devoted to fundamental questions about the world and our knowledge of it. What is matter? How is a priori knowledge possible? What does it mean for evidence to confirm a theory? In addressing these topics, we'll also discuss classic paradoxes involving truth, vagueness, space-time, and (...)
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  16. Jonathan Cohen, Philosophy 132: Epistemology.
    This is a course in recent and contemporary approaches to the theory of knowledge. We'll be looking at some of the major debates in epistemology, including those over the structure of knowledge, the proper analysis of knowledge, justification, and related notions, as well as some meta-epistemological issues that have arisen in recent discussions of so-called naturalized epistemology. The course will not presuppose any exposure to the relevant literatures, and will be a broad overview of some of the going accounts and (...)
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  17. Sam Cowling (2008). Keith Hossack, The Metaphysics of Knowledge. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 28:341-343.
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  18. Richard Foley, Epistemology.
    In epistemology Chisholm was a defender of FOUNDATIONALISM [S]. He asserted that any proposition that it is justified for a person to believe gets at least part of its justification from basic propositions, which are themselves justified but not by anything else. Contingent propositions are basic insofar as they correspond to selfpresenting states of the person, which for Chisholm are states such that whenever one is in the state and believes that one is in it, one’s belief is maximally justified. (...)
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  19. Charles Edward Gauss (1943). Epistemology, Referential or Representative? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 3 (3):349-359.
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  20. Antti Karjalanien, Epistemological Contextualism and Transparent Possibilities Antti Karjalainen, University of Bristol.
    When knowledge is being doubted one way to express this doubt is by a counterfactual. Typically this counterfactual quotes some elements of the actual case or a case considered as actual and dodges the connection between proposition believed and what makes that proposition true. For example, when Descartes states his dreaming skepticism case, he gives us instances where he has previously been lying in his bed fast asleep while dreaming that he is awake. What triggers the loss of knowledge in (...)
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  21. Peter D. Klein (1982). Reply to Professor Odegard. Philosophical Books 23 (4):409-19.
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  22. Kepa Korta (2008). Review of Franois Recanati, Perspectival Thought: A Plea for (Moderate) Relativism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (7).
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  23. Henri Lauener (1977). Ferdinand Gonseth 1890-1975. Dialectica 31 (1-2):113-118.
    In 1946 Ferdinand Gonseth founded, together with Paul Bernays, Karl Dürr , and Sir Karl Popper, the International Society for Logic and Philosophy of Science. In the next year the first number of Dialectica, a philosophical review devoted mainly to epistemological subjects, was issued. Gonseth's bibliography presents more than 190 items — roughly 25 books, several prefaces, and, for the rest, papers published in numerous reviews. A good deal of his publications concern mathematics — he was appointed professor of mathematics (...)
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  24. M. Lockard (2010). The Metaphysics of Knowledge, by Keith Hossack. Mind 118 (472):1145-1149.
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  25. Scott MacDonald (1993). Theory of Knowledge. In Norman Kretzman & Eleonore Stump (eds.), Cambridge Companion to Aquinas. Cambridge University Press 160.
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  26. Scott MacDonald (1993). Theory of Knowledge. In Norman Kretzman & Eleonore Stump (eds.), Cambridge Companion to Aquinas. Cambridge University Press 160.
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  27. Francisco Miró Quesada (1983). Ortega y el conocimiento absoluto / Ortega and Absolute Knowledge. Ideas Y Valores 63:31-46.
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  28. Thomas Morawetz (1974). Causal Accounts of Knowledge. Southern Journal of Philosophy 12 (3):365-369.
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  29. Anna Mudde (2008). Karen Barad's Agential Realism and Reflexive Epistemic Authority. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 25:65-75.
    Feminist and post-colonial epistemologists, philosophers of science, and thinkers more generally may find themselves in a distinct form of difficult situation regarding their access to and authority over knowledge within the academic world. Because feminist and post-colonial approaches to knowledge require an acute awareness of relations of domination and the ways in which these pervade the social and epistemic world, it is often difficult to know how to proceed in making theory. These theorists are in particularly ripe positions to benefit (...)
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  30. Antonio Nunziante (2010). Sulla struttura “a specchio” della mente in Leibniz. Tra solipsismo e concezione organica della materia. Rivista di Filosofia 2 (2):243-268.
    One of the symbolic images to which Leibniz constantly entrusted the synthesis of his own thought regards the idea of looking upon the same city from different perspectives. This is an image that is diffused throughout all Leibniz's writings and it clearly reflects the philosopher's passion for matters regarding perspective as well as optical phenomena. The point of view of the inhabitants who look at it can be therefore compared to a mirror which reflects a certain portion of reality, according (...)
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  31. José Ortega Y. Gasset (2002). What is Knowledge? State University of New York Press.
    Appearing in English for the first time, this book comprises two of Ortega’s most important works, ¿Qué es conocimiento? and the essay “Ideas y creencias.” This is Ortega’s attempt to systematically present the foundations of his metaphysics of human life and, on that basis, to provide a radical philosophical account of knowledge. In so doing, he criticizes idealism and overcomes it. Accordingly, this book goes well beyond a treatise on epistemology; in fact, as understood in modern philosophy, this discipline and (...)
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  32. Paweł Pasieka (2005). Wisdom as Epistemological Utopia and Scepticism. Dialogue and Universalism 15 (5-6):103-110.
    In this essay I wish to discuss the notions of utopia, especially the notion of epistemological utopia as Leszek Kołakowski described it in one of his paper. Epistemological utopia is not tantamount to the conception of perfect and unalterable knowledge. On the contrary, in its realm there is also a place for scepticism, because scepticism is a kind of epistemological utopia but à rebours. Epistemological fundamentalism and scepticism are indeed two opposite attitudes but they finally belong to each other. Nevertheless, (...)
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  33. John Pollock (1970/1975). Knowledge and Justification. Princeton University Press.
    Princeton University Press, 1974. This book is out of print, but can be downloaded as a pdf file (5 MB).
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  34. Vincent G. Potter (1986). Philosophy of Knowledge. Distributed by Fordham University Press.
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  35. Bertrand Russell (2009). Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits. Routledge.
    First published in 1948, this provocative work contributed significantly to an explosive intellectual discourse that continues to this day.
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  36. Wesley C. Salmon (1974). Human Knowledge. Duckworth.
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  37. Sean Sayers (1989). Knowledge as a Social Phenomenon. Radical Philosophy 52 (52):34-7.
    The idea that knowledge is a social phenomenon is no longer either novel or unfamiliar. With the growth of the social sciences, we are accustomed to seeing ideas and beliefs in social and historical terms, and trying to understand how they arise and why they take the forms that they do. Philosophers, however, are only gradually coming to terms with these views. For they call in question ideas about the nature of knowledge which have dominated epistemology since the seventeenth century.
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  38. Robert K. Shope (1984). Cognitive Abilities, Conditionals, and Knowledge: A Response to Nozick. Journal of Philosophy 81 (1):29-48.
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  39. Basil Smith (2013). Epistemology, by Ian Evans and Nicholas Smith. [REVIEW] Teaching Philosophy 36 (2):204-209.
  40. John Turri (forthcoming). From Virtue Epistemology to Abilism: Theoretical and Empirical Developments. In Tbd (ed.), TBD.
    I review several theoretical and empirical developments relevant to assessing contemporary virtue epistemology’s theory of knowledge. What emerges is a leaner theory of knowledge that is more empirically adequate, better captures the ordinary conception of knowledge, and is ripe for cross-fertilization with cognitive science. I call this view abilism. Along the way I identify several topics for future research.
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  41. John Turri (2013). Knowledge and Suberogatory Assertion. Philosophical Studies (3):1-11.
    I accomplish two things in this paper. First I expose some important limitations of the contemporary literature on the norms of assertion and in the process illuminate a host of new directions and forms that an account of assertional norms might take. Second I leverage those insights to suggest a new account of the relationship between knowledge and assertion, which arguably outperforms the standard knowledge account.
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  42. John Turri & Ori Friedman (forthcoming). Winners and Losers in the Folk Epistemology of Lotteries. In James Beebe (ed.), Advances in Experimental Epistemology.
    We conducted five experiments that reveal some main contours of the folk epistemology of lotteries. The folk tend to think that you don't know that your lottery ticket lost, based on the long odds ("statistical cases"); by contrast, the folk tend to think that you do know that your lottery ticket lost, based on a news report ("testimonial cases"). We evaluate three previous explanations for why people deny knowledge in statistical cases: the justification account, the chance account, and the statistical (...)
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  43. John van Ingen (2003). Ortega y Gasset, José. What is Knowledge? [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 57 (1):172-173.
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  44. Lucinda Vandervort (2012). Affirmative Sexual Consent in Canadian Law, Jurisprudence, and Legal Theory. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 23 (2):395-442.
    This article examines the development of affirmative sexual consent in Canadian jurisprudence and legal theory and its adoption in Canadian law. Affirmative sexual consent requirements were explicitly proposed in Canadian legal literature in 1986, codified in the 1992 Criminal Code amendments, and recognized as an essential element of the common law and statutory definitions of sexual consent by the Supreme Court of Canada in a series of cases decided since 1994. Although sexual violence and non-enforcement of sexual assault laws are (...)
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  45. Kenneth R. Westphal (ed.) (2009). The Blackwell Guide to Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. Wiley-Blackwell.
  46. Kenneth R. Westphal (2006). 'Science and the Philosophers'. In Pihlström & Vilkko Koskinen (ed.), Science: A Challenge to Philosophy? Pp. 125-152.
    The advent of distinctively Modern European philosophy at the turn of the seventeenth century was occasioned by two major developments: the painful recognition after thirty years of religious war that principles of public conduct must be justified independently of sectarian religious dogma; and the growth of natural science, especially discoveries in astronomy that linked terrestrial and celestial physics in a newly mathematicized, explanatory mechanics founded by Galileo and dramatically extended by Newton. The roles of reason and empirical evidence in inquiry, (...)
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  47. Kenneth R. Westphal (2004). ‘Must the Transcendental Conditions for the Possibility of Experience Be Ideal?’. In C. Ferrini (ed.), Eredità Kantiane (1804–2004): questioni emergenti e problemi irrisolti. Bibliopolis
    Three genuinely transcendental conditions for the possibility of self-conscious experience are and can only be material (§§2–4). Identifying these conditions shows that the link between transcendental proof and transcendental idealism is not direct, but must be justified by substantive argument (§§ 4, 5). This illuminates the prospect of separating transcendental proofs from transcendental idealism. Indeed, examining these conditions reveals a powerful strategy for using transcendental proof to defend realism sans phrase. Strikingly, this prospect illuminates some otherwise occluded aspects of post-Kantian (...)
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  48. Kenneth R. Westphal (2003). ‘Can Pragmatic Realists Argue Transcendentally?’. In John Shook (ed.), Pragmatic Naturalism and Realism. Prometheus
    Kant’s and Hegel’s transcendental argument for mental-content externalism breaks the deadlock between ‘internal’ and genuine realists. This argument shows that human beings can only be self-conscious in a world that provides a humanly recognizable regularity and variety among the things (or events) we sense. This feature of the world cannot result from human thought or language. Hence semantic arguments against realism can only be developed if realism about the world is true. Some of Putnam’s arguments for internal realism are taken (...)
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  49. Kenneth R. Westphal (1999). ‘Hegel’s Epistemology? Reflections on Some Recent Expositions’. Clio 28 (3):303-323.
    The notion that Hegel repudiated epistemology has had dire consequences for our understanding of Hegel. By disregarding epistemology, Hegel’s expositors often disregarded the general issues central to epistemology of how one can establish or justify a philosophical view. If Hegel did address epistemological issues and tried to justify (not simply to expound) ‘absolute knowledge’, then that disregard would produce skewed interpretations of Hegel. Recent attention to Hegel’s epistemology (e.g., by Klaus Hartmann, Joseph Flay, Robert Pippin, Michael Forster, Terry Pinkard, and (...)
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  50. Kenneth R. Westphal (1998). Hegel's Solution to the Dilemma of the Criterion. In Jon Stewart (ed.), History of Philosophy Quarterly. SUNY 173 - 188.
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