David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Philosophical Studies 158 (1):17-30 (2012)
Fiery Cushman and Alfred Mele recently proposed a ‘two-and-a-half rules’ theory of folk intentionality. They suggested that laypersons attribute intentionality employing: one rule based on desire, one based on belief, and another principle based on moral judgment, which may either reflect a folk concept (and so count as a third rule) or a bias (and so not count as a rule proper) and which they provisionally count as ‘half a rule’. In this article, I discuss some cases in which an agent is judged as having neither belief nor desire to bring about an action, and yet laypersons find the agent’s action to be intentional. Many lay responses apparently follow a rule, but many other seem biased. The contribution of this study is two-fold: by addressing actions performed without desire or belief, it expands Mele and Cushman’s account; it also helps discriminate between a two-rules and a three-rules theory. As a conclusion, I argue in favor of a three-and-a-half concepts theory
|Keywords||Action theory Experimental philosophy Folk concepts Knobe effect Intentionality|
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Michael Bratman (1987). Intention, Plans, and Practical Reason. Center for the Study of Language and Information.
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Stacey Swain, Joshua Alexander & Jonathan Weinberg (2008). The Instability of Philosophical Intuitions: Running Hot and Cold on Truetemp. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 76 (1):138-155.
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Citations of this work BETA
James Beebe (2013). A Knobe Effect for Belief Ascriptions. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (2):235-258.
Paulo Sousa, Colin Holbrook & Lauren Swiney (2015). Moral Asymmetries in Judgments of Agency Withstand Ludicrous Causal Deviance. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
Nikolaus Dalbauer & Andreas Hergovich (2013). Is What is Worse More Likely?—The Probabilistic Explanation of the Epistemic Side-Effect Effect. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (4):639-657.
Hanno Sauer & Tom Bates (2013). Chairmen, Cocaine, and Car Crashes: The Knobe Effect as an Attribution Error. Journal of Ethics 17 (4):305-330.
Katarzyna Paprzycka (2015). The Omissions Account of the Knobe Effect and the Asymmetry Challenge. Mind and Language 30 (5):550-571.
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