Philosophia 41 (3):617-634 (2013)

Authors
Petr Dvorak
Palacky University
Abstract
The paper deals with the problem of divine causation in relation to created agents in general and human rational agents in particular. Beyond creation and conservation, Aquinas specifies divine contribution to created agents’ operation as application in the role of the first cause and the operation of the principal cause employing an instrumental cause. It is especially the latter which is open to varying interpretation and which might be potentially threatening to human freedom. There are different readings of what it is for the secondary agent to “act through the power of the principal cause”. Either the divine cause causes only the existence of the effect of the secondary cause, or it also causes the cause to operate in the sense that it determines its outcome. The latter seems to contradict human freedom. Both readings of Aquinas were developed in the latter half of the sixteenth century within scholastic philosophy and theology
Keywords Concurrentism  Human freedom  Causation  Thomism  Scotism  Molinism
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DOI 10.1007/s11406-013-9483-9
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References found in this work BETA

Divine Providence: The Molinist Account.David Basinger - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (2):274.

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Citations of this work BETA

Peter Olivi's Rejection of God's Concurrence with Created Causes.Gloria Frost - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (4):655-679.

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