Hermann Grassmann's ideas on the nature and foundations of mathematics were published as an integral part of his mathematical treatise, the Ausdehnungslehre, in 1844. In spite of its notoriously obscure style we can better understand the work if we view it as an expression of the dialectical philosophy of his mentor, the theologian F. Schleiermacher. The relation to Schleiermacher is presented here through an analysis of the principal ideas of the Ausdehnungslehre.
Hermann Grassmann's Ausdehnungslehre of 1844 and his Lehrbuch der Arithmetik of 1861 are landmark works in mathematics; the former not only developed new mathematical fields but also both contributed to the setting of modern standards of rigor. Their very modernity, however, may obscure features of Grassmann's view of the foundations of mathematics that were not adopted since. Grassmann gave a key role to the learning of mathematics that affected his method of presentation, including his emphasis on making initial assumptions explicit. (...) In order to better understand this less well-known aspect of his work it will help to examine why some commentators have overlooked his theme of unifying logic, pedagogy and foundations, while others have recognised it. (shrink)
During the First World War, Bertrand Russell was political commentator for _The Tribunal_, the official weekly publication of the No-Conscription Fellowship, of which Russell was Action Chairman. This volume contains many short papers from that period, which reflect Russell's immediate reponses to developments in the conflict. These documents bear witness to Russell's growing commitment to pacifism, and reveal the development of the patterns of political argument, rhetoric and activism which were to characterise his work throughout his life.
The 1896-1899 papers, few of which were published in Russell's lifetime, concentrate primarily on physics, arithmetic and the concept of quantity. Several views that later became well-known in his The Principles of Mathematics actually originate in his earlier work, and though incomplete, An Analysis of Mathematical Reasoning , forms a centrepiece of the volume.