A continuing challenge for researchers and practitioners alike is the lack of data on the effectiveness of corporate–community investment programmes. The focus of this article is on the minerals industry, where companies currently face the challenge of matching corporate drivers for strategic partnership with community needs for programmes that contribute to local and regional sustainability. While many global mining companies advocate a strategic approach to partnerships, there is no evidence currently available that suggests companies are monitoring these partnerships to see (...) if they do, in fact, represent ‘strategic’ investments. This article argues that applying the management concept of ‘investment performance’ to corporate–community partnerships requires questioning traditional evaluation methods that focus on the results of programmes or activities. We adopt a case study approach to introduce an evaluation framework that considers performance from both corporate and community perspectives and that conceptualises partnership performance as comprising four aspects: (1) the contribution of the partnership to the overall portfolio of a company’s community investment programmes, (2) the appropriateness of the partnership model, (3) the effectiveness of the partnering relationship and (4) the ability of the partners to achieve programme goals. The application of this evaluation framework to an established corporate–community partnership programme provided some useful insights as to how partnership performance can be improved. (shrink)
This paper considers the UN efforts to introduce a legally binding Treaty on corporate accountability for human rights impacts in the context of other proposed legislation at country level, on the one hand, and existing voluntary initiatives like the UN Guiding Principles, on the other. What we are interested in is whether the proposed Treaty signals a transition from voluntary initiatives to law, and the extent to which it might stimulate or hinder links between judicial and non-judicial initiatives. The scholars (...) who have explicitly addressed these two divides are – Michael Sandel, on theory v. practice; and Amartya Sen, on law v. morality. We engage with their views, in sections II and III respectively, seeking to build an integrated approach to help us overcome these dualisms. We further consider John Ruggie’s “principled pragmatism”, a strategy that he uses to build the Protect, Respect and Remedy Framework; and we invoke arguments from casuistry as well as a practice-focused deontology in favour of an ethics ‘beyond cognition’, which we consider better suited than either utilitarian or principle-based theories to guide the debate on human rights. This is because it allows us to take non-rational factors into account, when judging the kind of common good we consider worth pursuing. In the last section of the paper, we investigate whether and how might the Treaty illustrate the two divides, trying to distinguish between purely legal elements and those of a wider nature, to do with morality; and understand what might help bridge the gap between theoretical commitments to the universality of human rights and various practical challenges. Our aim is not to evaluate the Treaty, from a legal viewpoint, or suggest improvements to it ; rather, we seek to investigate the way in which the proposed Treaty – which is the first attempt to address the challenge of transnational business and human rights in international law – combines moral and legal aspects, and what this tells us about the world we live in. (shrink)
Spin is a fundamental and distinctive property of the electron, having far-reaching implications. Yet its purely formal treatment often blurs the physical content and meaning of the spin operator and associated observables. In this work we propose to advance in disclosing the meaning behind the formalism, by first recalling some basic facts about the one-particle spin operator. Consistently informed by and in line with the quantum formalism, we then proceed to analyse in detail the spin projection operator correlation function \=\left\langle (...) \left \left \right\rangle \) for the bipartite singlet state, and show it to be amenable to an unequivocal probabilistic reading. In particular, the calculation of \\) entails a partitioning of the probability space, which is dependent on the directions \.\) The derivation of the CHSH- or other Bell-type inequalities, on the other hand, does not consider such partitioning. This observation puts into question the applicability of Bell-type inequalities to the bipartite singlet spin state. (shrink)
The article intends to show: a) that the modist Martin of Dacia sides with the traditional reading of the first chapter of Aristotle’s De interpretatione that we find in masters of arts from the first half of the thirteenth century; and b) that the modist Boethius of Dacia is one of the first thirteenth-century scholars to depart from this reading. In fact, Boethius presents us with an account of propositional verification where the terms’ signification is not operational and where the (...) immediate truth-maker of statements like ‘homo est animal’ is an external state of affairs. In Martin’s case, to the contrary, the terms’ signification is operational in his account of propositional verification and the immediate truth-bearer of such statements is a mental composition or division. (shrink)
Las vanguardias artísticas nacieron insertas en un mundo de cambios para destronar un sistema de órdenes que estaban en decadencia. En los inicios del XX se experimentó la primera gran crisis del canon estético que hasta entonces definía el arte, los vanguardistas lo cuestionaron provocando la ruptura del discurso narrativo tradicional y lo reinventaron hasta convertirlo en uno de los pilares del mundo contemporáneo, abriendo una puerta desde lo imposible a lo posible. Como se verá en este artículo, debido a (...) su sentido crítico, la obra de Nietzsche fue capaz de anticipar las coordenadas generales de las vanguardias con los ejes de su pensamiento: el nihilismo, la dicotomía dionisiaca/apolínea y la voluntad de poder como conceptos clave para comprender su génesis, el proceso de acción artística y su sentido. Para ello se recorrerá su obra en sus distintas etapas, y se interrelacionarán con las vanguardias, especialmente con el dadaísmo y el surrealismo. (shrink)
Famous Brazilian educational and social theorist Paulo Freire presents his ideas on community solidarity in moving toward social justice in schools and society in a set of talks and interviews shortly before his death, supplemented with ...
Resumen: En este artículo reviso la interpretación de Eduardo Nicol de la teoría de la propiedad de Francisco Suárez. Para ello, presento la posición de Suárez acerca de la propiedad y la propiedad privada atendiendo dos cuestiones fundamentales. La primera es si la propiedad y la propiedad privada son derechos; la segunda es si ambos pertenecen a la naturaleza humana o no. Al final, argumento que la lectura de Nicol es insostenible, pues difícilmente puede admitirse que Suárez defendió algún tipo (...) de comunismo.: In this paper I revisit Eduardo Nicol’s interpretation of Suarez’s theory of property. To this purpose, I present Suárez’s account of property and private property focusing on two main aspects. The first is whether property and private property are rights; the second is whether they belong to the human nature or not. Finally, I argue that Nicol’s reading of Suárez is untenable for it can hardly be accepted that Suárez defended some kind of communism. (shrink)
Con Prólogo de José Luis Pinillos, una especialista en Estética, Ana María Leyra, y otra en Filosofía de la Ciencia, Carmen Mataix, han publicado este libro, en el que pretenden aproximar e interrelacionar conceptualmente la ciencia y el arte. Su punto de partida consiste en considerar, citando a Prigogine, que “la ciencia es sobre todo un fenómeno cultural”. Superando la escisión entre ciencia y cultura, las autoras se proponen confrontar el recorrido experimentado por la Estética desde el siglo XIX con (...) las modificaciones habidas en la propia ciencia, sobre todo a partir de la aparición de la mecánica cuántica. Según las autoras, el principio de indeterminación de Heisenberg ha introducido a la ciencia en la vía del fenomenismo, e incluso de un fenomenismo mucho más fuerte que el que en su día propusieron Berkeley o Mach. Las discusiones entre Bohr y Einstein son comparadas, siguiendo de nuevo a Prigogine, con las que mantuvieron Leibniz y Clarke a principios del siglo XVIII. La noción de “realidad” está en el centro del debate entre los científicos, habiéndose introducido nuevas variables, como el tiempo y el sujeto, que hasta el siglo XX habían quedado fuera del contexto científico. Por el contrario, tanto el tiempo como el sujeto “ocupaban con pleno derecho el mundo de la estética, del arte o de la literatura”, temas que ahora tiene que incorporar la reflexión científica. Frente al modelo mecanicista que imperó en la ciencia moderna, las autoras proponen un “modelo estético” para la ciencia contemporánea. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to present a reconstruction of Olivi's account of signification of common names and to highlight certain intrusion of pragmatics into this account. The paper deals with the question of how certain facts, other than original imposition, may be relevant to determine the semantical content of an utterance, and not with the question of how we perform actions by means of utterances. The intrusion of pragmatics into Olivi's semantics we intend to point out may seem (...) minimal today, but was of a certain importance at his time. Even if the conventional codes still play a role in his explanation of how words acquire a semantical content, both the intention of the speaker and the communication context in which this intention is being effectuated are essential features of the actual signification of names. (shrink)
Como lo señala su título, el artículo de Ana María Ayala ofrece una excelente exposición de la forma en la que Spinoza entiende la virtud y la felicidad en confrontación con la doctrina cartesiana, de modo que no me voy a detener en ello. Serán los lectores quienes podrán aprovechar de su lectura. Lo que llamó mi atención, desde que tuve ocasión de conocer el título, fue la calificación de “comunitario” que se le otorga al pensa- miento del judío holandés; (...) porque mis lecturas me habían llevado a entenderlo como una propuesta muy personal para alcanzar la verdadera felicidad y libertad mediante el uso adecuado del pensamiento. (shrink)
We can say that Picasso’s images speak to us, and, as writing, speak to us from that space in which any text – far from being reduced to a single sense – “disseminates” its “truths”. Using the figure and the story of the Minotaur, Picasso devoted himself to one of the great themes of his pictorial work. The word “labyrinth” connotes, to the European mind, Greece, Knossos, Dedalus, Ariadne and the Minotaur. However, the Greek formula already represents a mythic and (...) poetic outcome thoroughly developed from an imagery forged in the remotest eras of our evolution. The relationship between the image, the spiral, and the word, labyrinth is also linked to the perception of a drilled earth, excavated, with numberless tortuous tunnels which, in our imagination, provoke concern because they lead to the world of the inferi, the unknown depths of the realms of the dead. Juan Larrea, a little-known essayist in the sphere of philosophical studies, although, from the outset of international renown for Picasso’s work, he gives what is perhaps the best interpretation of Guernica and consequently also sheds much light on the engravings immediately preceding the execution of this painting, the Minotauromachy among them. The artist is not a prophet. He is not foreseeing what the future holds for humanity, but he does possess a heightened sensitivity that drives him to minutely scrutinise the conditions of the time that he has had to live, and he has a transforming eye for the symbols that constitute the deepest threads in the fabric of his culture. (shrink)
Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to (...) explaining variance in ethical behaviors than do values at the societal-level. Implicitly, our findings question the soundness of using societal-level values measures. Implications for international business research are discussed. (shrink)
Nous proposons de montrer une rupture que la tradition interprétative médiévale du passage 16a3-8 du De interpretations a subie dans la seconde moitié du XIIIe siècle. On met ainsi en évidence que, dans cette même période, s'est façonnée une nouvelle théorie de la signification, qu'on retrouve notamment dans l'œuvre de théologiens franciscains ou proches des idées franciscaines, opposée sur des points fondamentaux à celle qui a été transmise par Boèce dans son deuxième commentaire du De interpretations. The aim of this (...) article is to describe a rupture that occurred in the second half of the 13th century concerning the interpretation of the passage 16a3-8 of the De interpretatione. We also discuss a new theory of signification which arose during the same period, a theory found in the works of Franciscan theologians or of theologians close to the Franciscan tradition. This theory is fundamentally opposed to the one transmitted by Boethius in his second commentary on the De interpretatione. (shrink)
Purpose A survey of the attitudes of students in eight countries towards the revelations of mass surveillance by the US’ NSA and the UK’s GCHQ has been described in an introductory paper and seven country-specific papers. This paper aims to present a comparison of the results from these countries and draws conclusions about the similarities and differences noted. Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire was deployed in Germany, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, The People’s Republic of China, Spain, Sweden and Taiwan. The original survey (...) was in English, translated into German, Japanese and Chinese for relevant countries. The survey consists of a combination of Likert scale, Yes/no and free-text responses. The results are quantitatively analysed using appropriate statistical tools and the qualitative answers are interpreted. Findings There are significant differences between respondents in the countries surveyed with respect to their general privacy attitudes and their willingness to follow Snowden’s lead, even where they believe his actions served the public good. Research limitations/implications Owing to resource limitations, only university students were surveyed. In some countries, the relatively small number of respondents limits the ability to make meaningful statistical comparisons between respondents from those countries and from elsewhere on some issues. Practical implications Snowden’s actions are generally seen as laudable and having had positive results, among the respondents surveyed. Such results should give pause to governments seeking to expand mass surveillance by government entities. Originality/value There have been few surveys regarding attitudes to Snowden’s revelations, despite the significant press attention and political actions that have flowed from it. The context of attitudes to both the actions he revealed and the act of revelation itself is useful in constructing political and philosophical arguments about the balance between surveillance activity for state security and the privacy of individual citizens. (shrink)
Nowadays, most loan transactions are contracted by using the exponential discounting as the underlying standard economic model to value this type of financial operations. In a framework of absence of fees to be paid by the borrower, the interest rate of the exponential discount function is, moreover, the true interest rate of the operation. Nevertheless, there exist a set of circumstances which make this identity false. Among others, these characteristics are: the use of linear discount as the underlying discount function, (...) splitting time when using a nominal interest rate, and the existence of fees in a loan at 0% interest rate. All these cases will be analyzed in this paper in the context of the so-called quick loans. (shrink)
As its title is meant to suggest, this paper is a reply to Sir Tim Lankesters article International Aid: Experience, Prospects and the Moral Case, published in the World Economics last year 1 . Therefore, I would like to begin by expressing my gratitude for the authors responsiveness to my interest and queries in the area of development economics. The main point of Sir Lankesters article was, I believe, to strengthen the case for international aid by showing first, that it (...) was not just a theoretical matter 2 and second, that its efficiency was not a self-evident fait accompli, but a still-to-achieve objective, entirely contingent upon human and institutional factors such as the will, interests, and past experience of donors, as well as the system of governance and existing policies from the recipient countries. Moreover, the human factor is actually two-fold, in the sense that one can focus either on the external part engaged in the aid mission the donor , or on the internal one the recipient. Sir Tim Lankester looks into what motivates the former, whereas I intend to unpack the life-experience of the latter, for I strongly believe that what ultimately decides the success or failure of development projects has more to do with understanding their life situation, than with the actual quantum of aid. Although the two cases grounded on the above-mentioned claims may seem completely separated in Tim Lankesters article for he allocates distinct sections to them, I have reasons to believe that they are not only inter-connected, but also deeply inter-dependent, which is crucial for the kind of existentialist scenario that I intend to outline here. In order to prove this, I am going to combine two sets of argumentative tools: one will be logical, the other empirical. The former will help us address the issues at stake in Tim Lankesters moral case, and find ways of strengthening it; the latter will help reminding the real goal of this attempt which is to improve the prospects of aid missions in real-life scenarios, rather than in theory. The first, rather theoretical section will consist of an extended analysis of the moral case that Sir Lankester started to build. The focus will be not only on the supposedly fruitful aspects of social justice theories, but also on their potential risks; both heroes and villains will emerge from the analysis, and new leads will be discovered. The main criterion for testing whatever findings will remain the pragmatic one: questioning their implications on the life-experiences of the poor. The other approach that I have mentioned will consist of providing a description of life in a particular community, which I have known and learnt from. In this case, the empirical obviously means more than just the use of examples which can be invented, or refined: it actually involves relying on a set of personal experiences and convictions, thereby testifying in rather than just advocating the case for aid and development projects, under discussion here. Again, the purpose will be not so much to prove that my claim has the sort of objective validity that a theoretician would normally seek to achieve, as to enforce it by whatever relevant testimonies be them contextual, perhaps even biased; in this case, the biased aspect consists of using an example derived from lifeexperiences in a particular developing country: my own. And it is exactly what I regard as the strength of it; indeed, I would not be writing this, had I not learnt that lesson. (shrink)
Este trabalho vinculou-se numa abordagem hermenêutica, analisou os discursos sobre a Ciência da Motricidade Humana, com atenção ao seu método de pesquisa. A Motricidade tem seus pressupostos assentes na fenomenologia, no pensamento complexo e no materialismo histórico dialético. Efetua diálogos com diversas correntes do pensamento científico sugerindo para as pesquisas que decorrem da sua teoria o método integrativo. O método integrativo converge com a idéia de transgressão metodológica, sendo um espaço de aproveitamento de todas as vertentes metodológicas, mas pode revelarincoerência (...) de um dado pressuposto teórico.Palavras-chave: Motricidade Humana; Método Integrativo; Transgressão This work was engaged to a hermeneutic approach, analyzed the speeches contained in the texts on the Human Motricity Science, with attention to their research method. The Motricity has its assumptions based on phenomenology, in complex thinking and the historical and dialectical materialism. Perform dialogues with various currents of scientific thought to research suggesting that stem from its integrative theory method. The integrative method converges with the idea of methodological transgression, with an area of exploitation of all methodological approaches, but can prove inconsistency of a given theoretical assumption. (shrink)
We introduce the papers in this special issue by providing an overarching perspective on the variety in kinds of commons and the ethical issues stemming from their diversity. Despite a long history of local commons management, recent decades have witnessed a surge of scholarly interest in the concept of “the commons,” including a growing management literature. This swell was impelled especially by Garrett Hardin’s paper of 1968, and the body of work generated by Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues. However, the (...) term itself has come to be used in a variety of ways. To contextualize its ethical dimensions, we map a number of commons-related concepts such as common-pool resources, common property regime, excludability and subtractability, common-pool resource types and commons or “commoning” as a source of production. Following a brief summary of papers in this special issue, the essay concludes with an identification of implications for research, practice and policy. (shrink)
Stress has been being pointed as the evil of the current world and can affect as much adults as children. The disorders associated with stress are varied, and people who suffer from it frequently present physical and psychological problems, influencing their behavior and social environment. The care..
A Psicologia Comunitária pode ser defi nida como uma área da Psicologia Social da Libertação (Góis, 2005), voltada para a compreensão da atividade comunitária como atividade social significativa e consciente e para a compreensão dos seus reflexos nas dimensões objetivas e subjetivas. O presente arti..
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