Year:

  1.  3
    Quantifying Disablers in Reasoning with Universal and Existential Rules.Lupita Estefania Gazzo Castañeda & Markus Knauff - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (3):344-365.
    People accept conclusions of valid conditional inferences less, the more disablers exist. We investigated whether rules that through their phrasing exclude disablers evoke higher acceptance ratings than rules that do not exclude disablers. In three experiments we re-phrased content-rich conditionals from the literature as either universal or existential rules and embedded these rules in Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens inferences. In Experiments 2 and 3, we also used abstract rules. The acceptance of conclusions increased when the rule was phrased with (...)
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  2.  2
    Ego Depletion Improves Insight.Marci S. DeCaro & Charles A. Van Stockum - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (3):315-343.
    Initial acts of self-control can reduce effort and performance on subsequent tasks – a phenomenon known as ego depletion. Ego depletion is thought to undermine the capacity or willingness to engage executive control, an important determinant of success for many tasks. We examined whether ego depletion improves performance on a task that favours less executive control: insight problem solving. In two experiments, participants completed an ego-depletion manipulation or a non-depleting control condition followed by an insight problem-solving task. Participants in the (...)
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  3.  3
    A Process Model of the Understanding of Uncertain Conditionals.Gernot D. Kleiter, Andrew J. B. Fugard & Niki Pfeifer - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (3):386-422.
    ABSTRACTTo build a process model of the understanding of conditionals we extract a common core of three semantics of if-then sentences: the conditional event interpretation in the coherencebased probability logic, the discourse processingtheory of Hans Kamp, and the game-theoretical approach of Jaakko Hintikka. The empirical part reports three experiments in which each participant assessed the probability of 52 if-then sentencesin a truth table task. Each experiment included a second task: An n-back task relating the interpretation of conditionals to working memory, (...)
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  4.  3
    A Necessity Illusion for Modal Inferences From Conditionals.Moyun Wang, Pengfei Yin & Liyuan Zheng - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (3):366-385.
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  5.  1
    Executive Function in Learning Mathematics by Comparison: Incorporating Everyday Classrooms Into the Science of Learning.Kreshnik Nasi Begolli, Lindsey Engle Richland, Susanne M. Jaeggi, Emily McLaughlin Lyons, Ellen C. Klostermann & Bryan J. Matlen - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (2):280-313.
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  6.  3
    Dissociation Between Magnitude Comparison and Relation Identification Across Different Formats for Rational Numbers.Maureen E. Gray, Melissa DeWolf, Miriam Bassok & Keith J. Holyoak - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (2):179-197.
    The present study examined whether a dissociation among formats for rational numbers can be obtained in tasks that require comparing a number to a non-symbolic quantity. In Experiment 1, college students saw a discrete or else continuous image followed by a rational number, and had to decide which was numerically larger. In Experiment 2, participants saw the same displays but had to make a judgment about the type of ratio represented by the number. The magnitude task was performed more quickly (...)
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  7.  5
    Feedback Influences Children's Reasoning About Math Equivalence: A Meta-Analytic Review.Emily R. Fyfe & Sarah A. Brown - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (2):157-178.
    Decades of research have focused on children's reasoning about math equivalence problems for both practical and theoretical insights. Not only are math equivalence problems foundational in arithmetic and algebra, they also represent a class of problems on which children's thinking is resistant to change. Feedback is one instructional tool that can serve as a key trigger of cognitive change. In this paper, we review all experimental studies on the effects of feedback on children's understanding of math equivalence. Meta-analytic results indicate (...)
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  8.  13
    The Link Between Deductive Reasoning and Mathematics.Kinga Morsanyi, Teresa McCormack & Eileen O'Mahony - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (2):234-257.
    Recent studies have shown that deductive reasoning skills are related to mathematical abilities. Nevertheless, so far the links between mathematical abilities and these two forms of deductive inference have not been investigated in a single study. It is also unclear whether these inference forms are related to both basic maths skills and mathematical reasoning, and whether these relationships still hold if the effects of fluid intelligence are controlled. We conducted a study with 87 adult participants. The results showed that transitive (...)
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  9.  3
    Editorial: The Role of Reasoning in Mathematical Thinking.Kinga Morsanyi, Jérôme Prado & Lindsey E. Richland - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (2):129-137.
    Research into mathematics often focuses on basic numerical and spatial intuitions, and one key property of numbers: their magnitude. The fact that mathematics is a system of complex relationships that invokes reasoning usually receives less attention. The purpose of this special issue is to highlight the intricate connections between reasoning and mathematics, and to use insights from the reasoning literature to obtain a more complete understanding of the processes that underlie mathematical cognition. The topics that are discussed range from the (...)
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  10.  5
    Are There Gender Differences in Cognitive Reflection? Invariance and Differences Related to Mathematics.Caterina Primi, Maria Anna Donati, Francesca Chiesi & Kinga Morsanyi - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (2):258-279.
    Cognitive reflection is recognized as an important skill, which is necessary for making advantageous decisions. Even though gender differences in the Cognitive Reflection test appear to be robust across multiple studies, little research has examined the source of the gender gap in performance. In Study 1, we tested the invariance of the scale across genders. In Study 2, we investigated the role of math anxiety, mathematical reasoning, and gender in CRT performance. The results attested the measurement equivalence of the Cognitive (...)
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  11.  7
    Heuristics and Biases in Mental Arithmetic: Revisiting and Reversing Operational Momentum.Samuel Shaki, Michal Pinhas & Martin H. Fischer - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (2):138-156.
    Mental arithmetic is characterised by a tendency to overestimate addition and to underestimate subtraction results: the operational momentum effect. Here, motivated by contentious explanations of this effect, we developed and tested an arithmetic heuristics and biases model that predicts reverse OM due to cognitive anchoring effects. Participants produced bi-directional lines with lengths corresponding to the results of arithmetic problems. In two experiments, we found regular OM with zero problems but reverse OM with non-zero problems. In a third experiment, we tested (...)
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  12.  4
    Spatial Numerical Associations in Preschoolers.Catherine Thevenot, Michel Fayol & Pierre Barrouillet - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (2):221-233.
    Three-to-five-year-old French children were asked to add or remove objects to or from linear displays. The hypothesis of a universal tendency to represent increasing number magnitudes from left to right led to predict a majority of manipulations at the right end of the rows, whatever children's hand laterality. Conversely, if numbers are not inherently associated with space, children were expected to favour laterality-consistent manipulations. The results showed a strong tendency to operate on the right end of the rows in right-handers, (...)
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  13.  4
    Semantic Alignment Across Whole-Number Arithmetic and Rational Numbers: Evidence From a Russian Perspective.Yulia A. Tyumeneva, Galina Larina, Ekaterina Alexandrova, Melissa DeWolf, Miriam Bassok & Keith J. Holyoak - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (2):198-220.
    Solutions to word problems are moderated by the semantic alignment of real-world relations with mathematical operations. Categorical relations between entities are aligned with addition, whereas certain functional relations between entities are aligned with division. Similarly, discreteness vs. continuity of quantities is aligned with different formats for rational numbers. These alignments have been found both in textbooks and in the performance of college students in the USA and in South Korea. The current study examined evidence for alignments in Russia. Textbook analyses (...)
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  14.  6
    Self-Reported Reasons for Moral Decisions.Tom Farsides, Paul Sparks & Donna Jessop - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (1):1-20.
    Many investigations of moral decision-making employ hypothetical scenarios in which each participant has to choose between two options. One option is usually deemed “utilitarian” and the other either “non-utilitarian” or “deontological”. Very little has been done to establish the validity of such measures. It is unclear what they measure, let alone how well they do so. In this exploratory study, participants were asked about the reasons for their decisions in six hypothetical scenarios. Various concerns contributed to each decision. Action decisions (...)
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  15.  6
    How Many Laypeople Holding a Popular Opinion Are Needed to Counter an Expert Opinion?Jos Hornikx, Adam J. L. Harris & Jordy Boekema - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (1):117-128.
    ABSTRACTIn everyday situations, people regularly receive information from large groups of people and from single experts. Although lay opinions and expert opinions have been studied extensively in isolation, the present study examined the relationship between the two by asking how many laypeople are needed to counter an expert opinion. A Bayesian formalisation allowed the prescription of this quantity. Participants were subsequently asked to assess how many laypeople are needed in different situations. The results demonstrate that people are sensitive to the (...)
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  16.  8
    Do Reasoning Limitations Undermine Discourse?Deanna Kuhn & Anahid Modrek - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (1):97-116.
    Why does discourse so often seem shallow, with people arguing past one another more than with one another? Might contributing causes be individual and logical rather than only dialogical? We consider here whether there exist errors in reasoning that could be particularly damaging in their effects on argumentive discourse. In particular, we examine implications for discourse of two such errors – explanation as a replacement for evidence and neglecting the likelihood of multiple causes contributing to an outcome. In Studies 1 (...)
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  17.  4
    Inferences From Disclosures About the Truth and Falsity of Expert Testimony.Sergio Moreno-Ríos & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (1):41-78.
    Participants acting as mock jurors made inferences about whether a person was a suspect in a murder based on an expert's testimony about the presence of objects at the crime scene and the disclosure that the testimony was true or false. Experiment 1 showed that participants made more correct inferences, and made inferences more quickly, when the truth or falsity of the expert's testimony was disclosed immediately after the testimony rather than when the disclosure was delayed. Experiment 2 showed no (...)
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  18.  11
    Actively Open-Minded Thinking: Development of a Shortened Scale and Disentangling Attitudes Towards Knowledge and People.Annika M. Svedholm-Häkkinen & Marjaana Lindeman - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (1):21-40.
    Actively open-minded thinking is often used as a proxy for reflective thinking in research on reasoning and related fields. It is associated with less biased reasoning in many types of tasks. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties and criterion validity. We developed a shortened, 17-item version of the AOT for quicker administration. AOT17 is highly correlated with the original 41-item scale and has highly similar relationships to other thinking dispositions, social competence and supernatural beliefs. Our analyses revealed that (...)
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  19.  3
    Endowment Effect Despite the Odds.Lukasz Walasek, Erica C. Yu & David A. Lagnado - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (1):79-96.
    Can ownership status influence probability judgements under condition of uncertainty? In three experiments, we presented our participants with a recording of a real horse race. We endowed half of our sample with a wager on a single horse to win the race, and the other half with money to spend to acquire the same wager. Across three large studies, we found the endowment effect – owners demanded significantly more for the wager than buyers were willing to pay to acquire it. (...)
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