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  1. The Meta-Problem and the Transfer of Knowledge Between Theories of Consciousness: A Software Engineer’s Take.Marcel Kvassay - manuscript
    This contribution examines two radically different explanations of our phenomenal intuitions, one reductive and one strongly non-reductive, and identifies two germane ideas that could benefit many other theories of consciousness. Firstly, the ability of sophisticated agent architectures with a purely physical implementation to support certain functional forms of qualia or proto-qualia appears to entail the possibility of machine consciousness with qualia, not only for reductive theories but also for the nonreductive ones that regard consciousness as ubiquitous in Nature. Secondly, analysis (...)
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  2. Unconscious Mental Imagery.Bence Nanay - forthcoming - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.
    Historically, mental imagery has been defined as an experiential state - as something necessarily conscious. But most behavioural or neuroimaging experiments on mental imagery - including the most famous ones - don’t actually take the conscious experience of the subject into consideration. Further, recent research highlights that there are very few behavioural or neural differences between conscious and unconscious mental imagery. I argue that treating mental imagery as not necessarily conscious (as potentially unconscious) would bring much needed explanatory unification to (...)
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  3. Unconscious Perception and Central Coordinating Agency.Joshua Shepherd & Myrto Mylopoulos - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-25.
    One necessary condition on any adequate account of perception is clarity regarding whether unconscious perception exists. The issue is complicated, and the debate is growing in both philosophy and science. In this paper we consider the case for unconscious perception, offering three primary achievements. First, we offer a discussion of the underspecified notion of central coordinating agency, a notion that is critical for arguments that purportedly perceptual states are not attributable to the individual, and thus not genuinely perceptual. We develop (...)
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  4. Default Hypotheses in the Study of Perception: A Reply to Phillips.Jacob Berger & Myrto Mylopoulos - 2021 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (3-4):206-219.
    Some theorists have recently raised doubts about much of the experimental evidence purporting to demonstrate the existence of unconscious perception. In our (2019) in this journal, we argued some of these considerations are not decisive. Phillips (forthcoming a) replies thoughtfully to our paper, concluding that he is unconvinced by our arguments. Phillips maintains that the view that perception is invariably conscious remains, as he puts it, the “default” hypothesis both within the folk understanding and experimental study of perception. There is (...)
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  5. Is Blindsight Possible Under Signal Detection Theory? Comment on Phillips (2021).Matthias Michel & Hakwan Lau - 2021 - Psychological Review 128 (3):585-591.
    Phillips argues that blindsight is due to response criterion artefacts under degraded conscious vision. His view provides alternative explanations for some studies, but may not work well when one considers several key findings in conjunction. Empirically, not all criterion effects are decidedly non-perceptual. Awareness is not completely abolished for some stimuli, in some patients. But in other cases, it was clearly impaired relative to the corresponding visual sensitivity. This relative dissociation is what makes blindsight so important and interesting.
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  6. Object Files and Unconscious Perception: A Reply to Quilty-Dunn.Ian Phillips - 2020 - Analysis 80 (2):293-301.
    A wealth of cases – most notably blindsight and priming under inattention or suppression – have convinced philosophers and scientists alike that perception occurs outside awareness. In recent work, I dispute this consensus, arguing that any putative case of unconscious perception faces a dilemma. The dilemma divides over how absence of awareness is established. If subjective reports are used, we face the problem of the criterion: the concern that such reports underestimate conscious experience. If objective measures are used, we face (...)
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  7. Unconscious Semantic Priming From Pictures Under Backward Masking and Continuous Flash Suppression.Timo Stein, Vanessa Utz & Filip van Opstal - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 78:102864.
  8. La costruzione del sé biologico a confronto con quella del Sé junghiano.Ferruccio Vigna - 2020 - L’Ombra 14.
    This paper adopts a jungian standpoint to discuss neurobiological and psychological constructs such as neuronal groups, default network, Ego and Self. By considering several epistemological issues and adopting the emergentist perspective, this work argues that the jungian theory can enter into constructive dialogue with neuroscientific evidence.
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  9. Do Semantic Priming and Retrieval of Stimulus-Response Associations Depend on Conscious Perception?Maayan Avneon & Dominique Lamy - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 69:36-51.
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  10. On Scepticism about Unconscious Perception.J. Berger & M. Mylopoulos - 2019 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 26 (11-12):8-32.
    While there seems to be much evidence that perceptual states can occur without being conscious, some theorists recently express scepticism about unconscious perception. We explore here two kinds of such scepticism: Megan Peters and Hakwan Lau's experimental work regarding the well-known problem of the criterion -- which seems to show that many purported instances of unconscious perception go unreported but are weakly conscious -- and Ian Phillips' theoretical consideration, which he calls the 'problem of attribution' -- the worry that many (...)
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  11. Gorillas in the Missed : Reevaluating the Evidence for Attention Being Necessary for Consciousness.Benjamin Kozuch - 2019 - Mind and Language 34 (3):299-316.
  12. The Rationality of Perception, by Susanna Siegel: New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, Pp. Xxv + 221, £45. [REVIEW]Bence Nanay - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 97 (1):202-204.
    This is a review of Susanna Siegel's The Rationality of Perception.
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  13. Unconscious Perception and Phenomenal Coherence.Jake Quilty-Dunn - 2019 - Analysis 79 (3):461-469.
    It is an orthodoxy in cognitive science that perception can occur unconsciously. Recently, Hakwan Lau, Megan Peters and Ian Phillips have argued that this orthodoxy may be mistaken. They argue that many purported cases of unconscious perception fail to rule out low degrees of conscious awareness while others fail to establish genuine perception. This paper presents a case of unconscious perception that avoids these problems. It also advances a general principle of ‘phenomenal coherence’ that can insulate some forms of evidence (...)
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  14. Naïve Realism About Unconscious Perception.Paweł Zięba - 2019 - Synthese 196 (5):2045-2073.
    Recently, it has been objected that naïve realism is inconsistent with an empirically well-supported claim that mental states of the same fundamental kind as ordinary conscious seeing can occur unconsciously (SFK). The main aim of this paper is to establish the following conditional claim: if SFK turns out to be true, the naïve realist can and should accommodate it into her theory. Regarding the antecedent of this conditional, I suggest that empirical evidence renders SFK plausible but not obvious. For it (...)
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  15. Unconscious Perception Reconsidered.Ian Phillips - 2018 - Analytic Philosophy 59 (4):471-514.
    Most contemporary theorists regard the traditional thesis that perception is essentially conscious as just another armchair edict to be abandoned in the wake of empirical discovery. Here I reconsider this dramatic departure from tradition. My aim is not to recapture our prelapsarian confidence that perception is inevitably conscious (though much I say might be recruited to that cause). Instead, I want to problematize the now ubiquitous belief in unconscious perception. The paper divides into two parts. Part One is more purely (...)
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  16. Review of Human Nature Sandis and Cain Eds. (2012).Michael Starks - 2017 - Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization -- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 3rd Ed 686p(2017).
    Like most writing on human behavior, these articles lack a coherent framework and so I hesitate to recommend this book to anyone, as the experienced ought to have about the same perspective I do, and the naïve will mostly be wasting their time. Since I find most of these essays obviously off the mark or just very dull, I can't generate much enthusiasm for commenting on them, so after providing what I consider a reasonable precis of a framework (see my (...)
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  17. Unconscious Perception and Perceptual Knowledge.Paweł J. Zięba - 2017 - In Christoph Limbeck-Lilienau & Friedrich Stadler (eds.), The Philosophy of Perception and Observation. Contributions of the 40th International Wittgenstein Symposium August 6-12, 2017 Kirchberg am Wechsel. Kirchberg am Wechsel: Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society. pp. 301-303.
    It has been objected recently that naïve realism is inconsistent with an empirically well-supported hypothesis that unconscious perception is possible. Because epistemological disjunctivism is plausible only in conjunction with naïve realism (for a reason I provide), the objection reaches it too. In response, I show that the unconscious perception hypothesis can be changed from a problem into an advantage of epistemological disjunctivism. I do this by suggesting that: (i) naïve realism is consistent with the hypothesis; (ii) the contrast between epistemological (...)
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  18. Lost in Dissociation: The Main Paradigms in Unconscious Cognition.Luis M. Augusto - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 42:293-310.
    Contemporary studies in unconscious cognition are essentially founded on dissociation, i.e., on how it dissociates with respect to conscious mental processes and representations. This is claimed to be in so many and diverse ways that one is often lost in dissociation. In order to reduce this state of confusion we here carry out two major tasks: based on the central distinction between cognitive processes and representations, we identify and isolate the main dissociation paradigms; we then critically analyze their key tenets (...)
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  19. Relationalism and Unconscious Perception.Jacob Berger & Bence Nanay - 2016 - Analysis 76 (4):426-433.
    Relationalism holds that perceptual experiences are relations between subjects and perceived objects. But much evidence suggests that perceptual states can be unconscious. We argue here that unconscious perception raises difficulties for relationalism. Relationalists would seem to have three options. First, they may deny that there is unconscious perception or question whether we have sufficient evidence to posit it. Second, they may allow for unconscious perception but deny that the relationalist analysis applies to it. Third, they may offer a relationalist explanation (...)
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  20. The Anna Karenina Principle and Skepticism About Unconscious Perception.Ned Block - 2016 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 93 (2):452-459.
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  21. Temporal Mental Qualities and Selective Attention.Michał Klincewicz - 2016 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 7 (2):11-24.
    This article presents an argument for the view that we can perceive temporal features without awareness. Evidence for this claim comes from recent empirical work on selective visual attention. An interpretation of selective attention as a mechanism that processes high-level perceptual features is offered and defended against one particular objection. In conclusion, time perception likely has an unconscious dimension and temporal mental qualities can be instantiated without ever being conscious.
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  22. Unconscious Vision Spots the Animal but Not the Dog: Masked Priming of Natural Scenes.Mika Koivisto & Eveliina Rientamo - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 41:10-23.
  23. The Power of Subliminal and Supraliminal Eye Contact on Social Decision Making: An Individual-Difference Perspective.Yiqi Luo, Shen Zhang, Ran Tao & Haiyan Geng - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 40:131-140.
  24. Consciousness and Criterion: On Block's Case for Unconscious Seeing.Ian Phillips - 2016 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 93 (2):419-451.
    Block () highlights two experimental studies of neglect patients which, he contends, provide ‘dramatic evidence’ for unconscious seeing. In Block's hands this is the highly non-trivial thesis that seeing of the same fundamental kind as ordinary conscious seeing can occur outside of phenomenal consciousness. Block's case for it provides an excellent opportunity to consider a large body of research on clinical syndromes widely held to evidence unconscious perception. I begin by considering in detail the two studies of neglect to which (...)
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  25. Subliminal or Not? Comparing Null-Hypothesis and Bayesian Methods for Testing Subliminal Priming.Anders Sand & Mats E. Nilsson - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 44:29-40.
  26. Conscious Vision in Action.Robert Briscoe & John Schwenkler - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (7):1435-1467.
    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis , according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a “zombie” processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious . In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to “recognizing objects, selecting (...)
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  27. Exploring the Boundary Conditions of Unconscious Numerical Priming Effects with Continuous Flash Suppression.G. Hesselmann, N. Darcy, P. Sterzer & A. Knops - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 31:60-72.
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  28. Perceiving a Story Outside of Conscious Awareness: When We Infer Narrative Attributes From Subliminal Sequential Stimuli.Naoaki Kawakami & Fujio Yoshida - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:53-66.
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  29. Advancing the Overflow Debate.Bradley Richards - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (7-8):124-144.
    Introspective subjective reports cannot provide direct evidence that phenomenal experience overflows cognitive access. This problem for the overflow view is underappreciated in several ways: first, it places the onus on the overflow theorist to explain how sub-jective reports can be used to provide evidence for overflow. Second, it implies that there must be a true non-overflow account of subjective reports of overflow, even if there is overflow. Thus, attempting to dis-prove all anti- overflow explanations of subjective reports is futile. Third, (...)
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  30. Unconscious Influences on Decision Making in Blindsight.Berit Brogaard, Kristian Marlow & Kevin Rice - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (1):22-23.
  31. Dismissing Subliminal Perception Because of its Famous Problems is Classic “Baby with the Bathwater”.Matthew Finkbeiner & Max Coltheart - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (1):27-27.
  32. Stimulus–Response Bindings in Priming.Richard N. Henson, Doris Eckstein, Florian Waszak, Christian Frings & Aidan J. Horner - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (7):376-384.
  33. Unconscious Cues Bias First Saccades in a Free-Saccade Task.Yu-Feng Huang, Edlyn Gui Fang Tan, Chun Siong Soon & Po-Jang Hsieh - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 29:48-55.
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  34. Subliminal Primes for Global or Local Processing Influence Judgments of Vehicular Traffic.Stefanie Hüttermann, Otmar Bock & Daniel Memmert - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 29:230-234.
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  35. Affective and Cognitive Reactions to Subliminal Flicker From Fluorescent Lighting.Igor Knez - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 26:97-104.
    This study renews the classical concept of subliminal perception by investigating the impact of subliminal flicker from fluorescent lighting on affect and cognitive performance. It was predicted that low compared to high frequency lighting would evoke larger changes in affective states and also impair cognitive performance. Subjects reported high rather than low frequency lighting to be more pleasant, which, in turn, enhanced their problem solving performance. This suggests that sensory processing can take place outside of conscious awareness resulting in conscious (...)
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  36. Subliminal Gestalt Grouping: Evidence of Perceptual Grouping by Proximity and Similarity in Absence of Conscious Perception.Pedro R. Montoro, Dolores Luna & Juan J. Ortells - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 25:1-8.
    Previous studies making use of indirect processing measures have shown that perceptual grouping can occur outside the focus of attention. However, no previous study has examined the possibility of subliminal processing of perceptual grouping. The present work steps forward in the study of perceptual organization, reporting direct evidence of subliminal processing of Gestalt patterns. In two masked priming experiments, Gestalt patterns grouped by proximity or similarity that induced either a horizontal or vertical global orientation of the stimuli were presented as (...)
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  37. Extremely Rigorous Subliminal Paradigms Demonstrate Unconscious Influences on Simple Decisions.Michael Snodgrass, Howard Shevrin & James A. Abelson - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (1):39-40.
  38. Subliminal Action Priming Modulates the Perceived Intensity of Sensory Action Consequences.Max-Philipp Stenner, Markus Bauer, Nura Sidarus, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Patrick Haggard & Raymond J. Dolan - 2014 - Cognition 130 (2):227-235.
  39. Symposium on W. Wu, "Against Division".Wayne Wu, David M. Kaplan, Pete Mandik & Thomas Schenk - 2014 - Mind and Language Symposia at the Brains Blog.
  40. Semantic Priming Revealed by Mouse Movement Trajectories.Kunchen Xiao & Takashi Yamauchi - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 27:42-52.
  41. Repeating a Strongly Masked Stimulus Increases Priming and Awareness.Anne Atas, Astrid Vermeiren & Axel Cleeremans - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1422-1430.
  42. Unconscious and Out of Control: Subliminal Priming is Insensitive to Observer Expectations.Erin K. Cressman, Melanie Y. Lam, Ian M. Franks, James T. Enns & Romeo Chua - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):716-728.
    We asked whether the influence of an invisible prime on movement is dependent on conscious movement expectations. Participants reached to a central target, which triggered a directional prime–mask arrow sequence. Participants were instructed that the visible arrows would most often signal a movement modification in a specific direction. Kinematic analyses revealed that responses to the visible mask were influenced by participants’ intentional bias, as movements were fastest when the more probable mask was displayed. In addition, responses were influenced by the (...)
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  43. Highly Correlated Stimuli Do Not Necessarily Facilitate the Measurement of Unconscious Perception: Exclusion Failure is Hard to Find in Forced-Choice Tasks.Gary D. Fisk & Steven J. Haase - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1393-1402.
  44. On the Source and Scope of Priming Effects of Masked Stimuli on Endogenous Shifts of Spatial Attention.Simon Palmer & Uwe Mattler - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):528-544.
    Unconscious stimuli can influence participants’ motor behavior as well as more complex mental processes. Previous cue-priming experiments demonstrated that masked cues can modulate endogenous shifts of spatial attention as measured by choice reaction time tasks. Here, we applied a signal detection task with masked luminance targets to determine the source and the scope of effects of masked stimuli. Target-detection performance was modulated by prime-cue congruency, indicating that prime-cue congruency modulates signal enhancement at early levels of target processing. These effects, however, (...)
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  45. Masked Stimuli Modulate Endogenous Shifts of Spatial Attention.Simon Palmer & Uwe Mattler - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):486-503.
    Unconscious stimuli can influence participants’ motor behavior but also more complex mental processes. Recent research has gradually extended the limits of effects of unconscious stimuli. One field of research where such limits have been proposed is spatial cueing, where exogenous automatic shifts of attention have been distinguished from endogenous controlled processes which govern voluntary shifts of attention. Previous evidence suggests unconscious effects on mechanisms of exogenous shifts of attention. Here, we applied a cue-priming paradigm to a spatial cueing task with (...)
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  46. Subliminal Unconscious Conflict Alpha Power Inhibits Supraliminal Conscious Symptom Experience.Howard Shevrin, Michael Snodgrass, Linda A. W. Brakel, Ramesh Kushwaha, Natalia L. Kalaida & Ariane Bazan - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
    Our approach is based on a tri-partite method of integrating psychodynamic hypotheses, cognitive subliminal processes, and psychophysiological alpha power measures. We present ten social phobic subjects with three individually selected groups of words representing unconscious conflict, conscious symptom experience, and Osgood Semantic negative valence words used as a control word group. The unconscious conflict and conscious symptom words, presented subliminally and supraliminally, act as primes preceding the conscious symptom and control words presented as supraliminal targets. With alpha power as a (...)
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  47. Unconscious Task Set Priming with Phonological and Semantic Tasks.Sébastien Weibel, Anne Giersch, Stanislas Dehaene & Caroline Huron - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):517-527.
    Whether unconscious stimuli can modulate the preparation of a cognitive task is still controversial. Using a backward masking paradigm, we investigated whether the modulation could be observed even if the prime was made unconscious in 100% of the trials. In two behavioral experiments, subjects were instructed to initiate a phonological or semantic task on an upcoming word, following an explicit instruction and an unconscious prime. When the SOA between prime and instruction was sufficiently long , primes congruent with the task (...)
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  48. Individual Differences in Metacontrast Masking Regarding Sensitivity and Response Bias.Thorsten Albrecht & Uwe Mattler - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1222-1231.
    In metacontrast masking target visibility is modulated by the time until a masking stimulus appears. The effect of this temporal delay differs across participants in such a way that individual human observers’ performance shows distinguishable types of masking functions which remain largely unchanged for months. Here we examined whether individual differences in masking functions depend on different response criteria in addition to differences in discrimination sensitivity. To this end we reanalyzed previously published data and conducted a new experiment for further (...)
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  49. Reading a Standing Wave: Figure-Ground-Alternation Masking of Primes in Evaluative Priming.Christina Bermeitinger, Michael Kuhlmann & Dirk Wentura - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1109-1121.
    We propose a new masking technique for masking word stimuli. Drawing on the phenomena of metacontrast and paracontrast, we alternately presented two prime displays of the same word with the background color in one display matching the font color in the other display and vice versa. The sequence of twenty alterations was sandwich-masked by structure masks. Using this masking technique, we conducted evaluative priming experiments with positive and negative target and prime words. Significant priming effects were found – for primes (...)
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  50. Conscious, but Not Unconscious, Logo Priming of Brands and Related Words.Gigliola Brintazzoli, Eric Soetens, Natacha Deroost & Eva Van den Bussche - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):824-834.
    This study assessed whether real-life stimulus material can elicit conscious and unconscious priming. A typical masked priming paradigm was used, with brand logo primes. We used a rigorous method to assess participants’ awareness of the subliminal information. Our results show that shortly presented and masked brand logos have the power to prime their brand names and, remarkably, words associated to the brand . However, this only occurred when the logos could be categorized clearly above the consciousness threshold. Once the primes (...)
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