14 found
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  1.  64
    Beneficence, Interests, and Wellbeing in Medicine: What It Means to Provide Benefit to Patients.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (3):53-62.
    Beneficence is a foundational ethical principle in medicine. To provide benefit to a patient is to promote and protect the patient’s wellbeing, to promote the patient’s interests. But there are different conceptions of wellbeing, emphasizing different values. These conceptions of wellbeing are contrary to one another and give rise to dissimilar ideas of what it means to benefit a patient. This makes the concept of beneficence ambiguous: is a benefit related to the patient’s goals and wishes, or is it a (...)
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  2.  76
    The Harm Principle Cannot Replace the Best Interest Standard: Problems With Using the Harm Principle for Medical Decision Making for Children.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (8):9-19.
    For many years the prevailing paradigm for medical decision making for children has been the best interest standard. Recently, some authors have proposed that Mill’s “harm principle” should be used to mediate or to replace the best interest standard. This article critically examines the harm principle movement and identifies serious defects within the project of using Mill’s harm principle for medical decision making for children. While the harm principle proponents successfully highlight some difficulties in present-day use of the best interest (...)
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  3.  44
    The best interest standard and children: clarifying a concept and responding to its critics.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (2):117-124.
    This work clarifies the role of the best interest standard (BIS) as ethical principle in the medical care of children. It relates the BIS to the ethical framework of medical practice. The BIS is shown to be a general principle in medical ethics, providing grounding to prima facie obligations. The foundational BIS of Kopelman and Buchanan and Brock are reviewed and shown to be in agreement with the BIS here defended. Critics describe the BIS as being too demanding, narrow, opaque, (...)
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  4. Vaccine Refusal and Trust: The Trouble With Coercion and Education and Suggestions for a Cure.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):555-559.
    There can be little doubt about the ethical imperative to ensure adequate vaccination uptake against certain infectious diseases. In the face of vaccine refusal, health authorities and providers instinctively appeal to coercive approaches or increased education as methods to ensure adequate vaccine uptake. Recently, some have argued that public fear around Ebola should be used as an opportunity for such approaches, should an Ebola vaccine become available. In this article, the author describes the difficulties associated with coercion and education when (...)
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  5.  42
    Measles Vaccination is Best for Children: The Argument for Relying on Herd Immunity Fails.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (3):375-384.
    This article examines an argument which may negatively influence measles vaccination uptake. According to the argument, an individual child in a highly vaccinated society may be better off by being non-vaccinated; the child does not risk vaccine adverse effects and is protected against measles through herd immunity. Firstly, the conclusion of the argument is challenged by showing that herd immunity’s protection is unreliable and inferior to vaccination. Secondly, the logic of the argument is challenged by showing that the argument is (...)
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  6.  20
    Defensive practice is indefensible: how defensive medicine runs counter to the ethical and professional obligations of clinicians.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (3):413-420.
    Defensive medicine has become pervasive. Defensive medicine is often thought of as a systems issue, the inevitable result of an adversarial malpractice environment, with consequent focus on system-responses and tort reform. But defensive medicine also has ethical and professionalism implications that should be considered beyond the need for tort reform. This article examines defensive medicine from an ethics and professionalism perspective, showing how defensive medicine is deeply problematic. First, a definition of defensive medicine is offered that describes the essence of (...)
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  7.  20
    Measles Vaccination is Best for Children: The Argument for Relying on Herd Immunity Fails.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (3):375-384.
    This article examines an argument which may negatively influence measles vaccination uptake. According to the argument, an individual child in a highly vaccinated society may be better off by being non-vaccinated; the child does not risk vaccine adverse effects and is protected against measles through herd immunity. Firstly, the conclusion of the argument is challenged by showing that herd immunity’s protection is unreliable and inferior to vaccination. Secondly, the logic of the argument is challenged by showing that the argument is (...)
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  8.  7
    A Clinician’s Obligation to be Vaccinated: Four Arguments that Establish a Duty for Healthcare Professionals to be Vaccinated Against COVID-19.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (3):451-465.
    This paper defends four lines of argument that establish an ethical obligation for clinicians to be vaccinated against COVID-19. They are: (1) The obligation to protect patients against COVID-19 spread; (2) The obligation to maintain professional competence and remain available for patients; (3) Clinicians’ role and place in society in relation to COVID-19; (4) The obligation to encourage societal vaccination uptake. These arguments stand up well against potential objections and provide a compelling case to consider acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination a (...)
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  9.  15
    The Two Components of Beneficence and Wellbeing in Medicine: A Restatement and Defense of the Argument.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (5):4-11.
    The interests of a patient are not only related to objective ideas about health, but are also determined by the patient’s own view of the good. To act in the best interests of a patient requires co...
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  10.  28
    Children, the Duty to Vaccinate, and the Limits of Solidarity.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (4):53-55.
    Carson and Flood (2017) present an interesting argument regarding a duty to vaccinate as a social obligation. Their argument is based on Catholic social teaching, and particularly on the moral prec...
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  11.  17
    Ritual Male Infant Circumcision: The Consequences and the Principles Say Yes.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (2):56-58.
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  12.  29
    Organ Donor Registration Reconsidered: How Current Practices Strain Autonomy.Johan Christiaan Bester & Jed Adam Gross - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (11):33-35.
  13.  17
    Rumors of the Best Interest Standard’s Demise Have Been Greatly Exaggerated, and the Harm Principle Remains Tenuous: Responding to My Commentators.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (8):W1-W5.
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  14.  10
    When Limiting Liberty, Tread Carefully: Autonomous Free Choices Should Not Be Overruled Because of the Beliefs and Values of the Decider.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (10):70-72.
    Pickering, Newton-Howes, and Young argue that a person should be considered incapable of making a specific decision if that decision is judged by onlookers to be seriously harmful to the dec...
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