Results for 'Landon Rabern'

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  1. Dangerous Reference Graphs and Semantic Paradoxes.Landon Rabern, Brian Rabern & Matthew Macauley - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (5):727-765.
    The semantic paradoxes are often associated with self-reference or referential circularity. Yablo (Analysis 53(4):251–252, 1993), however, has shown that there are infinitary versions of the paradoxes that do not involve this form of circularity. It remains an open question what relations of reference between collections of sentences afford the structure necessary for paradoxicality. In this essay, we lay the groundwork for a general investigation into the nature of reference structures that support the semantic paradoxes and the semantic hypodoxes. We develop (...)
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  2. A Simple Solution to the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever.Brian Rabern & Landon Rabern - 2008 - Analysis 68 (2):105-112.
    We present the simplest solution ever to 'the hardest logic puzzle ever'. We then modify the puzzle to make it even harder and give a simple solution to the modified puzzle. The final sections investigate exploding god-heads and a two-question solution to the original puzzle.
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  3.  48
    Future Contingents and the Logic of Temporal Omniscience.Patrick Todd & Brian Rabern - manuscript
    At least since Aristotle’s famous ‘sea-battle’ passages in On Interpretation 9, some substantial minority of philosophers has been attracted to the doctrine of the open future—the doctrine that future contingent statements are never true. Such views, however, seem inconsistent with what John MacFarlane has called the determinacy intuition—the intuition, roughly, that if something has happened, then (looking backwards) it was the case that it would happen. This tension forms, in large part, what might be called the problem of future contingents. (...)
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  4. The Antinomy of the Variable: A Tarskian Resolution.Bryan Pickel & Brian Rabern - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy 113 (3):137-170.
    Kit Fine has reawakened a puzzle about variables with a long history in analytic philosophy, labeling it “the antinomy of the variable”. Fine suggests that the antinomy demands a reconceptualization of the role of variables in mathematics, natural language semantics, and first-order logic. The difficulty arises because: (i) the variables ‘x’ and ‘y’ cannot be synonymous, since they make different contributions when they jointly occur within a sentence, but (ii) there is a strong temptation to say that distinct variables ‘x’ (...)
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  5.  29
    Monsters and the Theoretical Role of Context.Brian Rabern & Derek Ball - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Kaplan (1989) famously claimed that monsters--operators that shift the context--do not exist in English and "could not be added to it". Several recent theorists have pointed out a range of data that seem to refute Kaplan's claim, but others (most explicitly Stalnaker 2014) have offered a principled argument that monsters are impossible. This paper interprets and resolves the dispute. Contra appearances, this is no dry, technical matter: it cuts to the heart of a deep disagreement about the fundamental structure of (...)
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  6. Does Semantic Relationism Solve Frege’s Puzzle?Bryan Pickel & Brian Rabern - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 46 (1):97-118.
    In a series of recent works, Kit Fine, 605–631, 2003, 2007) has sketched a novel solution to Frege’s puzzle. Radically departing from previous solutions, Fine argues that Frege’s puzzle forces us to reject compositionality. In this paper we first provide an explicit formalization of the relational semantics for first-order logic suggested, but only briefly sketched, by Fine. We then show why the relational semantics alone is technically inadequate, forcing Fine to enrich the syntax with a coordination schema. Given this enrichment, (...)
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  7.  24
    A Bridge From Semantic Value to Content.Brian Rabern - forthcoming - Philosophical Topics.
    A common view relating compositional semantics and the objects of assertion holds the following: Sentences φ and ψ expresses the same proposition (in a context) iff φ and ψ have the same modal profile (in context). Following Dummett (1973), Evans (1979), and Lewis (1980), Stanley (1997) argues that this view is fundamentally mistaken (and thus blocks Kripke’s modal objection to descriptivism). According to Dummett, we must distinguish the semantic contribution a sentence makes to more complex expressions in which it occurs (...)
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  8. Well Founding Grounding Grounding.Gabriel Oak Rabin & Brian Rabern - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (4):349-379.
    Those who wish to claim that all facts about grounding are themselves grounded (“the meta-grounding thesis”) must defend against the charge that such a claim leads to infinite regress and violates the well-foundedness of ground. In this paper, we defend. First, we explore three distinct but related notions of “well-founded”, which are often conflated, and three corresponding notions of infinite regress. We explore the entailment relations between these notions. We conclude that the meta-grounding thesis need not lead to tension with (...)
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  9. Monsters in Kaplan's Logic of Demonstratives.Brian Rabern - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 164 (2):393-404.
    Kaplan (1989a) insists that natural languages do not contain displacing devices that operate on character—such displacing devices are called monsters. This thesis has recently faced various empirical challenges (e.g., Schlenker 2003; Anand and Nevins 2004). In this note, the thesis is challenged on grounds of a more theoretical nature. It is argued that the standard compositional semantics of variable binding employs monstrous operations. As a dramatic first example, Kaplan’s formal language, the Logic of Demonstratives, is shown to contain monsters. For (...)
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  10. Against the Identification of Assertoric Content with Compositional Value.Brian Rabern - 2012 - Synthese 189 (1):75-96.
    This essay investigates whether or not we should think that the things we say are identical to the things our sentences mean. It is argued that these theoretical notions should be distinguished, since assertoric content does not respect the compositionality principle. As a paradigmatic example, Kaplan's formal language LD is shown to exemplify a failure of compositionality. It is demonstrated that by respecting the theoretical distinction between the objects of assertion and compositional values certain conflicts between compositionality and contextualism are (...)
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  11. Descriptions Which Have Grown Capital Letters.Brian Rabern - 2015 - Mind and Language 30 (3):292-319.
    Almost entirely ignored in the linguistic theorising on names and descriptions is a hybrid form of expression which, like definite descriptions, begin with 'the' but which, like proper names, are capitalised and seem to lack descriptive content. These are expressions such as the following, 'the Holy Roman Empire', 'the Mississippi River', or 'the Space Needle'. Such capitalised descriptions are ubiquitous in natural language, but to which linguistic categories do they belong? Are they simply proper names? Or are they definite descriptions (...)
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  12. Against the Russellian Open Future.Anders J. Schoubye & Brian Rabern - forthcoming - Mind.
    Todd (forthcoming) proposes an analysis of future-directed sentences, in particular sentences of the form 'will(φ)', that is based on the classic Russellian analysis of definite descriptions. Todd's analysis is supposed to vindicate the claim that the future is metaphysically open while retaining a simple Ockhamist semantics of future contingents and the principles of classical logic, i.e. bivalence and the law of excluded middle. Consequently, an open futurist can straightforwardly retain classical logic without appeal to supervaluations, determinacy operators, or any further (...)
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  13.  42
    Index, Context, and the Content of Knowledge.Brian Rabern - 2017 - In Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Epistemic Contextualism. Routledge. pp. 465-479.
    The verb 'knows' is often taken to be context-sensitive in an interesting way. What 'knows' means seems to be sensitive to the epistemic features of the context, e.g. the epistemic standard in play, the set of relevant alternatives, etc. There are standard model-theoretic semantic frameworks which deal with both intensional operators and context-sensitive expressions. In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of the various moving parts of these frameworks, the roles of context and index, the need for double indexing, (...)
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  14. Two-Dimensional Semantics and the Nesting Problem.David J. Chalmers & Brian Rabern - 2014 - Analysis 74 (2):210-224.
    Graeme Forbes (2011) raises some problems for two-dimensional semantic theories. The problems concern nested environments: linguistic environments where sentences are nested under both modal and epistemic operators. Closely related problems involving nested environments have been raised by Scott Soames (2005) and Josh Dever (2007). Soames goes so far as to say that nested environments pose the “chief technical problem” for strong two-dimensionalism. We call the problem of handling nested environments within two-dimensional semantics “the nesting problem”. We show that the two-dimensional (...)
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  15. Propositions and Multiple Indexing.Brian Rabern - 2012 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):116-124.
    It is argued that propositions cannot be the compositional semantic values of sentences (in context) simply due to issues stemming from the compositional semantics of modal operators (or modal quantifiers). In particular, the fact that the arguments for double indexing generalize to multiple indexing exposes a fundamental tension in the default philosophical conception of semantic theory. This provides further motivation for making a distinction between two sentential semantic contents—what (Dummett 1973) called “ingredient sense” and “assertoric content”.
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  16.  77
    The History of the Use of ⟦.⟧-Notation in Natural Language Semantics.Brian Rabern - 2016 - Semantics and Pragmatics 9 (12).
    In contemporary natural languages semantics one will often see the use of special brackets to enclose a linguistic expression, e.g. ⟦carrot⟧. These brackets---so-called denotation brackets or semantic evaluation brackets---stand for a function that maps a linguistic expression to its "denotation" or semantic value (perhaps relative to a model or other parameters). Even though this notation has been used in one form or another since the early development of natural language semantics in the 1960s and 1970s, Montague himself didn't make use (...)
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  17. Monsters and Communication: The Semantics of Contextual Shifting and Sensitivity.Brian Rabern - 2012 - Dissertation, The Australian National University
    This thesis argues for two main points concerning the philosophy of natural language semantics. Firstly, that the objects of assertion are distinct from the entities appealed to in the compositional rules of natural language semantics. Secondly, natural languages contain context-shifting operators known as "monsters". In fact, it will be shown that these theses are simply two sides of the same coin.
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  18.  12
    A History of Indian Philosophy. [REVIEW]Kenneth Perry Landon - 1941 - Journal of Philosophy 38 (1):22-25.
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  19.  8
    Motivational Arousal and Task Complexity.Peter Suedfeld & P. Bruce Landon - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (2p1):329.
  20.  7
    Effects of Contextual Similarity on Unlearning in the A-B, D, E, F and B, D, E, F Paradigms.Richard K. Landon & James H. Crouse - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (1p1):186.
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  21.  12
    A Discussion of Overstreet's "the Word Becomes Flesh".C. C. Landon - 1945 - Journal of Philosophy 42 (24):664-666.
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  22.  2
    Stimulus, Task, and Environmental Characteristics as Factors in the Cognitive Processing of English Sentences.Nancy Kalish, P. Bruce Landon, Darylynn S. Rank & Peter Suedfeld - 1983 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 21 (1):1-3.
  23.  2
    Complexity as Multidimensional Perception: The Effects of Sensory Deprivation on Concept Identification.P. Bruce Landon & Peter Suedfeld - 1977 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 10 (2):137-138.
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  24. The Impact of Global Budgets on Pharmaceutical Spending and Utilization.Christopher C. Afendulis, A. Mark Fendrick, Zirui Song, Bruce E. Landon, Dana Gelb Safran, Robert E. Mechanic & Michael E. Chernew - 2014 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 51:004695801455871.
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  25. The Relationship Between Neurophysiology and Psychoanalysis in the Light of Dream Research.Johannes Lehtonen & Antony Landon - 1980 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 23 (3):415-423.
  26.  46
    No Heartbreak at Hilbert's Hotel: A Reply to Landon Hedrick.Andrew Loke - 2013 - Religious Studies 50 (1):1-4.
    In his article, , Landon Hedrick argues that the (HHA) proposed by William Lane Craig is ineffective against proponents of presentism, who include Craig himself. I show that there is no heartbreak if the Hotel and persons are constructed and generated in a certain way: there exists a and a , they have been building hotel rooms and generating customers at regular time intervals as long as time exists, and the hotel rooms and customers have continued existing after they (...)
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  27.  2
    No Heartbreak at Hilbert's Hotel: A Reply to Landon Hedrick.Andrew Loke - 2014 - Religious Studies 50 (1):47-50.
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  28.  4
    Book Review:The Logic of Democracy. Thomas Landon Thorson. [REVIEW]Donald Meiklejohn - 1962 - Ethics 73 (1):69-.
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  29. Heartbreak at Hilbert's Hotel.Landon Hedrick - 2014 - Religious Studies 50 (1):27-46.
    William Lane Craig's defence of the kalam cosmological argument rests heavily on two philosophical arguments against a past-eternal universe. In this article I take issue with one of these arguments, what I call the – namely, that the metaphysical absurdity of an actually infinite number of things existing precludes the possibility of a beginningless past. After explaining this argument, I proceed to raise some initial doubts. After setting those aside, I show that the argument is ineffective against proponents of presentism. (...)
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  30.  72
    An Infinitely Descending Chain of Ground Without a Lower Bound.Jon Erling Litland - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (5):1361-1369.
    Using only uncontentious principles from the logic of ground I construct an infinitely descending chain of ground without a lower bound. I then compare the construction to the constructions due to Dixon and Rabin and Rabern.
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  31. How to Solve the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever in Two Questions.Gabriel Uzquiano - 2010 - Analysis 70 (1):39-44.
    Rabern and Rabern (2008) have noted the need to modify `the hardest logic puzzle ever’ as presented in Boolos 1996 in order to avoid trivialization. Their paper ends with a two-question solution to the original puzzle, which does not carry over to the amended puzzle. The purpose of this note is to offer a two-question solution to the latter puzzle, which is, after all, the one with a claim to being the hardest logic puzzle ever.
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  32.  58
    Health Research Ethics Committees in South Africa 12 Years Into Democracy.Keymanthri Moodley & Landon Myer - 2007 - BMC Medical Ethics 8 (1):1-8.
    Background Despite the growth of biomedical research in South Africa, there are few insights into the operation of Research Ethics Committees (RECs) in this setting. We investigated the composition, operations and training needs of health RECs in South Africa against the backdrop of national and international guidelines. Methods The 12 major health RECs in South Africa were surveyed using semi-structured questionnaires that investigated the composition and functions of each REC as well as the operational issues facing committees. Results Health RECs (...)
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  33.  31
    Propositional Apriority and the Nesting Problem.Jens Kipper - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (5):1091-1104.
    According to the modal account of propositional apriority, a proposition is a priori if it is possible to know it with a priori justification. Assuming that modal truths are necessarily true and that there are contingent a priori truths, this account has the undesirable consequence that a proposition can be a priori in a world in which it is false. Epistemic two-dimensionalism faces the same problem, since on its standard interpretation, it also entails that a priori propositions are necessarily a (...)
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  34.  32
    The A Priori‐Operator and the Nesting Problem.Eric Johannesson & Sara Packalén - 2016 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 5 (3):169-176.
    Many expressions intuitively have different epistemic and modal profiles. For example, co-referring proper names are substitutable salva veritate in modal contexts but not in belief-contexts. Two-dimensional semantics, according to which terms have both a so-called primary and a secondary intension, is a framework that promises to accommodate and explain these diverging intuitions. The framework can be applied to indexicals, proper names or predicates. Graeme Forbes argues that the two-dimensional semantics of David Chalmers fails to account for so-called nested contexts. These (...)
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  35. Why the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever Cannot Be Solved in Less Than Three Questions.Gregory Wheeler & Pedro Barahona - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):493-503.
    Rabern and Rabern (Analysis 68:105–112 2 ) and Uzquiano (Analysis 70:39–44 4 ) have each presented increasingly harder versions of ‘the hardest logic puzzle ever’ (Boolos The Harvard Review of Philosophy 6:62–65 1 ), and each has provided a two-question solution to his predecessor’s puzzle. But Uzquiano’s puzzle is different from the original and different from Rabern and Rabern’s in at least one important respect: it cannot be solved in less than three questions. In this paper (...)
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  36.  14
    Discourse or Moral Action? A Critique of Postmodernism.Landon E. Beyer & Daniel P. Listen - 1992 - Educational Theory 42 (4):371-393.
  37. A Strategy for Improving and Integrating Biomedical Ontologies.Cornelius Rosse, Anand Kumar, Jose L. V. Mejino, Daniel L. Cook, Landon T. Detwiler & Barry Smith - 2005 - In Proceedings of the Annual Symposium of the American Medical Informatics Association. AMIA.
    The integration of biomedical terminologies is indispensable to the process of information integration. When terminologies are linked merely through the alignment of their leaf terms, however, differences in context and ontological structure are ignored. Making use of the SNAP and SPAN ontologies, we show how three reference domain ontologies can be integrated at a higher level, through what we shall call the OBR framework (for: Ontology of Biomedical Reality). OBR is designed to facilitate inference across the boundaries of domain ontologies (...)
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  38.  39
    On the Behavior of True and False.Stefan Wintein - 2012 - Minds and Machines 22 (1):1-24.
    Uzquiano (Analysis 70:39–44, 2010 ) showed that the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever ( HLPE ) [in its amended form due to Rabern and Rabern (Analysis 68:105–112, 2008 )] has a solution in only two questions. Uzquiano concludes his paper by noting that his solution strategy naturally suggests a harder variation of the puzzle which, as he remarks, he does not know how to solve in two questions. Wheeler and Barahona (J Philos Logic, to appear, 2011 ) formulated a (...)
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  39.  3
    Critical Inquiry and Moral Action in Education.Landon E. Beyer & George H. Wood - 1986 - Educational Theory 36 (1):1-14.
  40.  46
    What Fools We Were.Landon Schurtz - 2010 - The Philosophers' Magazine 49 (49):93-97.
    Don didn’t grasp what would eventually come to be one of the most successful ad campaigns ever because he didn’t recognise the person presenting the evidence as being appropriately trustworthy. He failed to know because Dr Guttman’s say-so was not enough to provide justification for a belief. But why would he think that? To get to the bottom of this, we need the help of an analytical approach known as standpoint theory.
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  41.  3
    The Business of Complaining Ethically.Landon W. Schurtz - 2015 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 22 (2):35-44.
    Beginning from an analysis of what factors disqualify a person from complaining about a given moral breach, I show that the prima facie presumption that a complaint is justified in the face of non-moral offense in the context of a business transaction must be balanced against the potential consequences to the object of the complaint, especially given the particular realities of popular employment practices. In particular, I will identify three cases in which complamts are justified, presuming unjust employment arrangements, as (...)
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  42.  22
    Aesthetic Experience for Teacher Preparation and Social Change.Landon E. Beyer - 1985 - Educational Theory 35 (4):385-397.
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  43.  28
    Natural Rights Theories: Their Origin and Development.Thomas Landon Thorson - 1983 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 21 (1):101-102.
  44.  25
    Albert Camus and the Rights of Man.Thomas Landon Thorson - 1964 - Ethics 74 (4):281-291.
  45.  4
    Schools, Aesthetic Meanings, and Social Change.Landon E. Beyer - 1977 - Educational Theory 27 (4):274-282.
  46.  4
    Beyond the Formal and the Psychological: The Arts and Social Possibility.Landon E. Beyer - 1995 - In Wendy Kohli (ed.), Critical Conversations in Philosophy of Education. Routledge. pp. 258--277.
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  47.  18
    ''Even If You 'Re Positive, You Still Have Rights Because You Are a Person': Human Rights and the Reproductive Choice of Hiv-Positive Persons.Leslie London, Phyllis J. Orner & Landon Myer - 2008 - Developing World Bioethics 8 (1):11-22.
    Global debates in approaches to HIV/AIDS control have recently moved away from a uniformly strong human rights-based focus. Public health utilitarianism has become increasingly important in shaping national and international policies. However, potentially contradictory imperatives may require reconciliation of individual reproductive and other human rights with public health objectives. Current reproductive health guidelines remain largely nonprescriptive on the advisability of pregnancy amongst HIV-positive couples, mainly relying on effective counselling to enable autonomous decision-making by clients. Yet, health care provider values and (...)
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  48.  11
    What Makes a Knight?Stefan Wintein - 2010 - In T. Icard & R. Muskens (eds.), Interfaces: Explorations in Logic, Language and Computation. Springer Berlin. pp. 25--37.
    In Smullyan’s well known logic puzzles, the notion of a knight, which is a creature that always speaks the truth, plays an important role. Rabern and Rabern (2008) made the following observation with respect to knights. They noted that when a knight is asked (1), he gets into serious trouble.
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  49.  3
    Dative Questions: A Study in the Relation of Acceptability to Grammaticality of an English Sentence Type.D. Terence Langendoen, Nancy Kalish-Landon & John Dore - 1973 - Cognition 2 (4):451-478.
  50.  2
    On the Education of Generalists.Landon Summers - 1994 - Inquiry 14 (1):65-75.
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