Adaptation, Exaptation, By-Products and Spandrels in Evolutionary Explanations of Morality

Biological Theory 5 (3):223-227 (2010)
Abstract
Adaptationist accounts of morality attempt to explain the evolution of morality in terms of the selective advantage that judging in moral terms secured for our ancestors (e.g. Ruse 1998; Joyce 2006; Street 2006). So-called by-product explanations of morality have been presented as an alternative to adaptationist accounts (e.g. Prinz 2009; Ayala 2010; cf. Darwin 2004/1871). In assessing the relationship between adaptationist and by-product accounts, care must be taken to distinguish several related but importantly different notions: innateness, adaptation, exaptation, spandrel, and by-product.
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References found in this work BETA
R. Joyce (2000). Darwinian Ethics and Error. Biology and Philosophy 15 (5):713-732.
Jesse Prinz (2008). Acquired Moral Truths. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (1):219-227.
Jesse J. Prinz (2007). Can Moral Obligations Be Empirically Discovered? Midwest Studies in Philosophy 31 (1):271–291.
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