The enlightenment: Conscience and authority in judgment [Book Review]
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (2):264-281 (2009)
There were two prevailing sentiments in Europe after the Reformation: One opposing papal authority and one advocating individual freedom. This paper analyzes these two sentiments and finds that the concept of conscience is crucial in understanding them. The issue of conscience is about judging truth and good, and in initiating the Reformation, Martin Luther heavily appealed to his conscience while countering Catholic attacks. With the wide dispersal of the Reformation, Luther’s notion of conscience was well received among his supporters throughout Europe. Descartes later transformed Luther’s conscience into an epistemological being (the cogito ), and argued that its existence was the only valid thing that survived his thorough skepticism — and as such is the foundation of human knowledge. Rousseau continued this line of thinking, which we call subjectivism, and re-employed the term conscience as a replacement for cogito , holding that conscience is the final authority in judging good and bad; that, as the starting point of human existence, it cannot be withheld from any human being; and that it therefore constitutes an inalienable human right. This paper argues that the Enlightenment was a subjectivist movement propelled by this conscience- cogito -conscience conceptualization, and that it sought to enlighten this inalienable conscience.
|Keywords||conscience enlightenment Luther Descartes Rousseau 良心 启蒙 路德 笛卡尔 卢梭|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
René Descartes (1951). Meditations. New York, Liberal Arts Press.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (2007/1988). On the Social Contract. In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell Pub. Ltd..
Thomas C. Vinci (1998). Cartesian Truth. Oxford University Press.
Wenyu Xie (2002). The Concept of Freedom: The Platonic-Augustinian-Lutheran-Kierkegaardian Tradition. University Press of America.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Edward Andrew & Peter Lindsay (2008). Are the Judgments of Conscience Unreasonable? Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 11 (2):235-254.
Archibald Chisholm (1934). Conscience; its Nature and Authority. London, Nisbet & Co. Ltd..
David Bosco (1986). Conscience As Court And Worm: Calvin And The Three Elements Of Conscience. Journal of Religious Ethics 14 (2):333-355.
Peter Godman (2009). Paradoxes of Conscience in the High Middle Ages: Abelard, Heloise, and the Archpoet. Cambridge University Press.
Donovan Miyasaki (2010). Nietzsche Contra Freud on Bad Conscience. Nietzsche-Studien 39 (1):434-454.
James Calvin Davis (2005). William Ames's Calvinist Ambiguity Over Freedom of Conscience. Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (2):333 - 355.
Daniel P. Sulmasy (2008). What is Conscience and Why is Respect for It so Important? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (3):135-149.
Mark C. Murphy (1997). The Conscience Principle. Journal of Philosophical Research 22:387-407.
Xie Wenyu (2009). The Enlightenment: Conscience and Authority in Judgment. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (2):264 - 281.
Added to index2009-05-23
Total downloads30 ( #68,862 of 1,690,003 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #183,829 of 1,690,003 )
How can I increase my downloads?