Year:

  1.  3
    The Firewall Transformation for Black Holes and Some of Its Implications.Hooft Gerard ’T. - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (12):1503-1542.
    A promising strategy for better understanding space and time at the Planck scale, is outlined and further pursued. It is explained in detail, how black hole unitarity demands the existence of transformations that can remove firewalls. This must then be combined with a continuity condition on the horizon, with antipodal identification as an inevitable consequence. The antipodal identification comes with a \ inversion. We claim to have arrived at ‘new physics’, but rather than string theory, our ‘new physics’ concerns new (...)
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  2.  1
    On Nieuwenhuizen’s Treatment of Contextuality in Bell’s Theorem.Lambare Justo Pastor - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (12):1591-1596.
    A discussion of Nieuwenhuizen’s description for the hidden variables of the detectors in the derivation of Bell’s theorem is presented. This description prevents Bell’s inequalities from being effected. However it will be argued, on mathematical and physical bases, that the flaws attributed by Nieuwenhuizen to Bell’s probability distribution function are unjustified.
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  3.  2
    The Pauli Objection.Juan Leon & Lorenzo Maccone - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (12):1597-1608.
    Schrödinger’s equation says that the Hamiltonian is the generator of time translations. This seems to imply that any reasonable definition of time operator must be conjugate to the Hamiltonian. Then both time and energy must have the same spectrum since conjugate operators are unitarily equivalent. Clearly this is not always true: normal Hamiltonians have lower bounded spectrum and often only have discrete eigenvalues, whereas we typically desire that time can take any real value. Pauli concluded that constructing a general a (...)
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  4.  4
    Multi-Time Wave Functions Versus Multiple Timelike Dimensions.Lienert Matthias, Petrat Sören & Tumulka Roderich - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (12):1582-1590.
    Multi-time wave functions are wave functions for multi-particle quantum systems that involve several time variables. In this paper we contrast them with solutions of wave equations on a space–time with multiple timelike dimensions, i.e., on a pseudo-Riemannian manifold whose metric has signature such as \ or \, instead of \. Despite the superficial similarity, the two behave very differently: whereas wave equations in multiple timelike dimensions are typically mathematically ill-posed and presumably unphysical, relevant Schrödinger equations for multi-time wave functions possess (...)
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  5.  4
    Do Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems of Arbitrary Finite Size Exist?Claudio Mazzola & Peter W. Evans - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (12):1543-1558.
    The principle of common cause asserts that positive correlations between causally unrelated events ought to be explained through the action of some shared causal factors. Reichenbachian common cause systems are probabilistic structures aimed at accounting for cases where correlations of the aforesaid sort cannot be explained through the action of a single common cause. The existence of Reichenbachian common cause systems of arbitrary finite size for each pair of non-causally correlated events was allegedly demonstrated by Hofer-Szabó and Rédei in 2006. (...)
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  6.  2
    Proof of the Spin Statistics Connection 2: Relativistic Theory.Enrico Santamato & Francesco De Martini - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (12):1609-1625.
    The traditional standard theory of quantum mechanics is unable to solve the spin–statistics problem, i.e. to justify the utterly important “Pauli Exclusion Principle” but by the adoption of the complex standard relativistic quantum field theory. In a recent paper :858–873, 2015) we presented a proof of the spin–statistics problem in the nonrelativistic approximation on the basis of the “Conformal Quantum Geometrodynamics”. In the present paper, by the same theory the proof of the spin–statistics theorem is extended to the relativistic domain (...)
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  7.  3
    A Time–Space Symmetry Based Cylindrical Model for Quantum Mechanical Interpretations.Van Thuan Vo - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (12):1559-1581.
    Following a bi-cylindrical model of geometrical dynamics, our study shows that a 6D-gravitational equation leads to geodesic description in an extended symmetrical time–space, which fits Hubble-like expansion on a microscopic scale. As a duality, the geodesic solution is mathematically equivalent to the basic Klein–Gordon–Fock equations of free massive elementary particles, in particular, the squared Dirac equations of leptons. The quantum indeterminism is proved to have originated from space–time curvatures. Interpretation of some important issues of quantum mechanical reality is carried out (...)
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  8.  8
    Interpretations of Quantum Theory in the Light of Modern Cosmology.Castagnino Mario, Fortin Sebastian, Laura Roberto & Sudarsky Daniel - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (11):1387-1422.
    The difficult issues related to the interpretation of quantum mechanics and, in particular, the “measurement problem” are revisited using as motivation the process of generation of structure from quantum fluctuations in inflationary cosmology. The unessential mathematical complexity of the particular problem is bypassed, facilitating the discussion of the conceptual issues, by considering, within the paradigm set up by the cosmological problem, another problem where symmetry serves as a focal point: a simplified version of Mott’s problem.
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  9.  2
    Yes, More Decoherence: A Reply to Critics.Elise M. Crull - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (11):1428-1463.
    Recently I published an article in this journal entitled “Less interpretation and more decoherence in quantum gravity and inflationary cosmology” :1019–1045, 2015). This article generated responses from three pairs of authors: Vassallo and Esfeld :1533–1536, 2015), Okon and Sudarsky :852–879, 2016) and Fortin and Lombardi. In what follows, I reply to the criticisms raised by these authors.
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  10.  2
    The Invisibility of Diffeomorphisms.De Haro Sebastian - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (11):1464-1497.
    I examine the relationship between \\)-dimensional Poincaré metrics and d-dimensional conformal manifolds, from both mathematical and physical perspectives. The results have a bearing on several conceptual issues relating to asymptotic symmetries in general relativity and in gauge–gravity duality, as follows: I draw from the remarkable work by Fefferman and Graham on conformal geometry, in order to prove two propositions and a theorem that characterise which classes of diffeomorphisms qualify as gravity-invisible. I define natural notions of gravity-invisibility that apply to the (...)
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  11.  2
    Interpretation and Decoherence: A Contribution to the Debate Vassallo & Esfeld Versus Crull.Sebastian Fortin & Olimpia Lombardi - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (11):1423-1427.
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  12.  5
    Lawrence P. Horwitz: Relativistic Quantum Mechanics.Donald Reed - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (11):1498-1502.
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  13.  7
    Compressibility, Laws of Nature, Initial Conditions and Complexity.Chibbaro Sergio & Vulpiani Angelo - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (10):1368-1386.
    We critically analyse the point of view for which laws of nature are just a mean to compress data. Discussing some basic notions of dynamical systems and information theory, we show that the idea that the analysis of large amount of data by means of an algorithm of compression is equivalent to the knowledge one can have from scientific laws, is rather naive. In particular we discuss the subtle conceptual topic of the initial conditions of phenomena which are generally incompressible. (...)
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  14.  3
    What Weak Measurements and Weak Values Really Mean: Reply to Kastner.Eliahu Cohen - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (10):1261-1266.
    Despite their important applications in metrology and in spite of numerous experimental demonstrations, weak measurements are still confusing for part of the community. This sometimes leads to unjustified criticism. Recent papers have experimentally clarified the meaning and practical significance of weak measurements, yet in Kastner, Kastner seems to take us many years backwards in the the debate, casting doubt on the very term “weak value” and the meaning of weak measurements. Kastner appears to ignore both the basics and frontiers of (...)
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  15.  10
    Can We Falsify the Consciousness-Causes-Collapse Hypothesis in Quantum Mechanics?J. Acacio de Barros & Gary Oas - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (10):1294-1308.
    In this paper we examine some proposals to disprove the hypothesis that the interaction between mind and matter causes the collapse of the wave function, showing that such proposals are fundamentally flawed. We then describe a general experimental setup retaining the key features of the ones examined, and show that even a more general case is inadequate to disprove the mind-matter collapse hypothesis. Finally, we use our setup provided to argue that, under some reasonable assumptions about consciousness, such hypothesis is (...)
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  16.  12
    Quantum Mechanics is Incomplete but It is Consistent with Locality.H. S. Perlman - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (10):1309-1316.
    Quantum mechanics is seen to be incomplete not because it cannot explain the correlations that characterize entanglement without invoking either non-locality or realism, both of which, despite special relativity or no-go theorems, are at least conceivable. Quantum mechanics is incomplete, in a perhaps broader than hidden variable sense, because it fails to address within its theoretical structure the question of how even a single particle, by being in a given quantum state, causes the frequency distribution of measurement values specified by (...)
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  17.  8
    The Madelung Picture as a Foundation of Geometric Quantum Theory.Reddiger Maik - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (10):1317-1367.
    Despite its age, quantum theory still suffers from serious conceptual difficulties. To create clarity, mathematical physicists have been attempting to formulate quantum theory geometrically and to find a rigorous method of quantization, but this has not resolved the problem. In this article we argue that a quantum theory recursing to quantization algorithms is necessarily incomplete. To provide an alternative approach, we show that the Schrödinger equation is a consequence of three partial differential equations governing the time evolution of a given (...)
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  18.  1
    Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity.L. Todd Scott & C. Menicucci Nicolas - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (10):1267-1293.
    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, “do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?” We describe a thought experiment in which ‘acoustic observers’ possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the (...)
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  19.  4
    Response to Comment on ‘Non-Representative Quantum Mechanical Weak Values’ by Ben-Israel and Vaidman.B. E. Y. Svensson - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (9):1258-1260.
    Ben-Israel and Vaidman have raised objections to my arguments that there are cases where a quantum mechanical weak value can be said not to represent the system to which it pertains. They are correct in pointing out that some of my conclusions were too general. However, for weak values of projection operators my conclusions still stand.
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  20.  4
    Semi-Classical Locality for the Non-Relativistic Path Integral in Configuration Space.Henrique Gomes - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (9):1155-1184.
    In an accompanying paper Gomes, we have put forward an interpretation of quantum mechanics based on a non-relativistic, Lagrangian 3+1 formalism of a closed Universe M, existing on timeless configuration space \ of some field over M. However, not much was said there about the role of locality, which was not assumed. This paper is an attempt to fill that gap. Locality in full can only emerge dynamically, and is not postulated. This new understanding of locality is based solely on (...)
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  21.  4
    The Second Law of Thermodynamics at the Microscopic Scale.Thibaut Josset - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (9):1185-1190.
    In quantum statistical mechanics, equilibrium states have been shown to be the typical states for a system that is entangled with its environment, suggesting a possible identification between thermodynamic and von Neumann entropies. In this paper, we investigate how the relaxation toward equilibrium is made possible through interactions that do not lead to significant exchange of energy, and argue for the validity of the second law of thermodynamics at the microscopic scale.
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  22.  5
    PT Symmetry, Conformal Symmetry, and the Metrication of Electromagnetism.Philip D. Mannheim - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (9):1229-1257.
    We present some interesting connections between PT symmetry and conformal symmetry. We use them to develop a metricated theory of electromagnetism in which the electromagnetic field is present in the geometric connection. However, unlike Weyl who first advanced this possibility, we do not take the connection to be real but to instead be PT symmetric, with it being \ rather than \ itself that then appears in the connection. With this modification the standard minimal coupling of electromagnetism to fermions is (...)
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  23.  2
    Hubble Law: Measure and Interpretation.Paturel Georges, Teerikorpi Pekka & Baryshev Yurij - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (9):1208-1228.
    We have had the chance to live through a fascinating revolution in measuring the fundamental empirical cosmological Hubble law. The key progress is analysed: improvement of observational means ; understanding of the biases that affect both distant and local determinations of the Hubble constant; new theoretical and observational results. These circumstances encourage us to take a critical look at some facts and ideas related to the cosmological red-shift. This is important because we are probably on the eve of a new (...)
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  24.  3
    A Diagrammatic Derivation of the Hermitian Adjoint.John H. Selby & Bob Coecke - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (9):1191-1207.
    We show that the physical principle, “the adjoint associates to each state a ‘test’ for that state”, fully characterises the Hermitian adjoint for pure quantum theory, therefore providing the adjoint with operational meaning beyond its standard mathematical definition. Moreover, we demonstrate that for general process theories, which all admit a diagrammatic representation, this physical principle induces a diagrammatic reflection operation.
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  25.  4
    SICs and Algebraic Number Theory.Marcus Appleby, Steven Flammia, Gary McConnell & Jon Yard - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (8):1042-1059.
    We give an overview of some remarkable connections between symmetric informationally complete measurements and algebraic number theory, in particular, a connection with Hilbert’s 12th problem. The paper is meant to be intelligible to a physicist who has no prior knowledge of either Galois theory or algebraic number theory.
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  26.  5
    The Number Behind the Simplest SIC–POVM.Ingemar Bengtsson - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (8):1031-1041.
    The simple concept of a SIC poses a very deep problem in algebraic number theory, as soon as the dimension of Hilbert space exceeds three. A detailed description of the simplest possible example is given.
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  27.  3
    Quantum Walks, Weyl Equation and the Lorentz Group.Bisio Alessandro, D’Ariano Giacomo Mauro & Perinotti Paolo - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (8):1065-1076.
    Quantum cellular automata and quantum walks provide a framework for the foundations of quantum field theory, since the equations of motion of free relativistic quantum fields can be derived as the small wave-vector limit of quantum automata and walks starting from very general principles. The intrinsic discreteness of this framework is reconciled with the continuous Lorentz symmetry by reformulating the notion of inertial reference frame in terms of the constants of motion of the quantum walk dynamics. In particular, among the (...)
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  28.  2
    Negativity Bounds for Weyl–Heisenberg Quasiprobability Representations.John B. DeBrota & Christopher A. Fuchs - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (8):1009-1030.
    The appearance of negative terms in quasiprobability representations of quantum theory is known to be inevitable, and, due to its equivalence with the onset of contextuality, of central interest in quantum computation and information. Until recently, however, nothing has been known about how much negativity is necessary in a quasiprobability representation. Zhu :120404, 2016) proved that the upper and lower bounds with respect to one type of negativity measure are saturated by quasiprobability representations which are in one-to-one correspondence with the (...)
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  29.  9
    The Present Situation in Quantum Theory and its Merging with General Relativity.Andrei Khrennikov - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (8):1077-1099.
    We discuss the problems of quantum theory complicating its merging with general relativity. QT is treated as a general theory of micro-phenomena—a bunch of models. Quantum mechanics and quantum field theory are the most widely known. The basic problems of QM and QFT are considered in interrelation. For QM, we stress its nonrelativistic character and the presence of spooky action at a distance. For QFT, we highlight the old problem of infinities. And this is the main point of the paper: (...)
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  30.  6
    Aims and Scope of the Special Issue, “Quantum Foundations: Informational Perspective”.Andrei Khrennikov & Blake C. Stacey - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (8):1003-1008.
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  31.  2
    Bell’s Nonlocality in a General Nonsignaling Case: Quantitatively and Conceptually.R. Loubenets Elena - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (8):1100-1114.
    Quantum violation of Bell inequalities is now used in many quantum information applications and it is important to analyze it both quantitatively and conceptually. In the present paper, we analyze violation of multipartite Bell inequalities via the local probability model—the LqHV model, incorporating the LHV model only as a particular case and correctly reproducing the probabilistic description of every quantum correlation scenario, more generally, every nonsignaling scenario. The LqHV probability framework allows us to construct nonsignaling analogs of Bell inequalities and (...)
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  32.  4
    On the Character of Quantum Law: Complementarity, Entanglement, and Information.Arkady Plotnitsky - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (8):1115-1154.
    This article considers the relationships between the character of physical law in quantum theory and Bohr’s concept of complementarity, under the assumption of the unrepresentable and possibly inconceivable nature of quantum objects and processes, an assumption that may be seen as the most radical departure from realism currently available. Complementarity, the article argues, is a reflection of the fact that, as against classical physics or relativity, the behavior of quantum objects of the same type, say, all electrons, is not governed (...)
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  33.  2
    Sporadic SICs and the Normed Division Algebras.Blake C. Stacey - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (8):1060-1064.
    Symmetric informationally complete quantum measurements, or SICs, are mathematically intriguing structures, which in practice have turned out to exhibit even more symmetry than their definition requires. Recently, Zhu classified all the SICs whose symmetry groups act doubly transitively. I show that lattices of integers in the complex numbers, the quaternions and the octonions yield the key parts of these symmetry groups.
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  34.  2
    Class of Exact Solutions for a Cosmological Model of Unified Gravitational and Quintessence Fields.A. Asenjo Felipe & A. Hojman Sergio - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (7):887-896.
    A new approach to tackle Einstein equations for an isotropic and homogeneous Friedmann–Robertson–Walker Universe in the presence of a quintessence scalar field is devised. It provides a way to get a simple exact solution to these equations. This solution determines the quintessence potential uniquely and it differs from solutions which have been used to study inflation previously. It relays on a unification of geometry and dark matter implemented through the definition of a functional relation between the scale factor of the (...)
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  35.  2
    A Gleason-Type Theorem for Any Dimension Based on a Gambling Formulation of Quantum Mechanics.Alessio Benavoli, Alessandro Facchini & Marco Zaffalon - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (7):991-1002.
    Based on a gambling formulation of quantum mechanics, we derive a Gleason-type theorem that holds for any dimension n of a quantum system, and in particular for \. The theorem states that the only logically consistent probability assignments are exactly the ones that are definable as the trace of the product of a projector and a density matrix operator. In addition, we detail the reason why dispersion-free probabilities are actually not valid, or rational, probabilities for quantum mechanics, and hence should (...)
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  36.  6
    Spacetime Fluctuations and a Stochastic Schrödinger–Newton Equation.Bera Sayantani, Giri Priyanka & P. Singh Tejinder - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (7):897-910.
    We propose a stochastic modification of the Schrödinger–Newton equation which takes into account the effect of extrinsic spacetime fluctuations. We use this equation to demonstrate gravitationally induced decoherence of two gaussian wave-packets, and obtain a decoherence criterion similar to those obtained in the earlier literature in the context of effects of gravity on the Schrödinger equation.
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  37.  4
    Equivalent Quantum Equations in a System Inspired by Bouncing Droplets Experiments.Christian Borghesi - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (7):933-958.
    In this paper we study a classical and theoretical system which consists of an elastic medium carrying transverse waves and one point-like high elastic medium density, called concretion. We compute the equation of motion for the concretion as well as the wave equation of this system. Afterwards we always consider the case where the concretion is not the wave source any longer. Then the concretion obeys a general and covariant guidance formula, which leads in low-velocity approximation to an equivalent de (...)
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  38.  10
    Quantum Mechanics as a Statistical Description of Classical Electrodynamics.Knoll Yehonatan - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (7):959-990.
    It is shown that quantum mechanics is a plausible statistical description of an ontology described by classical electrodynamics. The reason that no contradiction arises with various no-go theorems regarding the compatibility of QM with a classical ontology, can be traced to the fact that classical electrodynamics of interacting particles has never been given a consistent definition. Once this is done, our conjecture follows rather naturally, including a purely classical explanation of photon related phenomena. Our analysis entirely rests on the block-universe (...)
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  39.  1
    Minimal Distance to Approximating Noncontextual System as a Measure of Contextuality.Janne V. Kujala - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (7):911-932.
    Let random vectors \ represent joint measurements of certain subsets \ of properties\ in different contexts\. Such a system is traditionally called noncontextual if there exists a jointly distributed set \ of random variables such that \ has the same distribution as \ for all \ A trivial necessary condition for noncontextuality and a precondition for many measures of contextuality is that the system is consistently connected, i.e., all \ measuring the same property \ have the same distribution. The contextuality-by-default (...)
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  40.  4
    Interfering Quantum Trajectories Without Which-Way Information.Mathew Kiran & V. John Moncy - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (7):873-886.
    Quantum trajectory-based descriptions of interference between two coherent stationary waves in a double-slit experiment are presented, as given by the de Broglie–Bohm and modified de Broglie–Bohm formulations of quantum mechanics. In the dBB trajectory representation, interference between two spreading wave packets can be shown also as resulting from motion of particles. But a trajectory explanation for interference between stationary states is so far not available in this scheme. We show that both the dBB and MdBB trajectories are capable of producing (...)
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  41.  7
    Masanes and Oppenheim on the Third Law of Thermodynamics.Jos Uffink - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (7):871-872.
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  42.  5
    Inflation and Late Time Acceleration Designed by Stueckelberg Massive Photon.Özgür Akarsu, Metin Arık & Nihan Katırcı - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (6):769-796.
    We present a mini review of the Stueckelberg mechanism, which was proposed to make the abelian gauge theories massive as an alternative to Higgs mechanism, within the framework of Minkowski as well as curved spacetimes. The higher the scale the tighter the bounds on the photon mass, which might be gained via the Stueckelberg mechanism, may be signalling that even an extremely small mass of the photon which cannot be measured directly could have far reaching effects in cosmology. We present (...)
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  43.  8
    The Diffuse Light of the Universe.Jean-Marc Bonnet-Bidaud - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (6):851-869.
    In 1965, the discovery of a new type of uniform radiation, located between radiowaves and infrared light, was accidental. Known today as Cosmic Microwave background, this diffuse radiation is commonly interpreted as a fossil light released in an early hot and dense universe and constitutes today the main ’pilar’ of the big bang cosmology. Considerable efforts have been devoted to derive fundamental cosmological parameters from the characteristics of this radiation that led to a surprising universe that is shaped by at (...)
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  44.  1
    Bouncing Cosmologies: Progress and Problems.Robert Brandenberger & Patrick Peter - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (6):797-850.
    We review the status of bouncing cosmologies as alternatives to cosmological inflation for providing a description of the very early universe, and a source for the cosmological perturbations which are observed today. We focus on the motivation for considering bouncing cosmologies, the origin of fluctuations in these models, and the challenges which various implementations face.
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  45.  8
    Aims and Scopes of the Special Issue: Foundations of Astrophysics and Cosmology.Capozziello Salvatore, Prokopec Tomislav & D. A. M. Spallicci Alessandro - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (6):709-710.
  46.  5
    Tests and Problems of the Standard Model in Cosmology.Martín López-Corredoira - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (6):711-768.
    The main foundations of the standard \CDM model of cosmology are that: the redshifts of the galaxies are due to the expansion of the Universe plus peculiar motions; the cosmic microwave background radiation and its anisotropies derive from the high energy primordial Universe when matter and radiation became decoupled; the abundance pattern of the light elements is explained in terms of primordial nucleosynthesis; and the formation and evolution of galaxies can be explained only in terms of gravitation within a inflation (...)
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  47.  9
    Time Reversal Symmetry and Collapse Models.D. J. Bedingham & O. J. E. Maroney - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (5):670-696.
    Dynamical collapse models embody the idea of a physical collapse of the wave function in a mathematically well-defined way. They involve modifications to the standard rules of quantum theory in order to describe collapse as a physical process. This appears to introduce a time reversal asymmetry into the dynamics since the state at any given time depends on collapses in the past but not in the future. Here we challenge this conclusion by demonstrating that, subject to specified model constraints, collapse (...)
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  48.  8
    Making Sense of Bell’s Theorem and Quantum Nonlocality.Boughn Stephen - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (5):640-657.
    Bell’s theorem has fascinated physicists and philosophers since his 1964 paper, which was written in response to the 1935 paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Bell’s theorem and its many extensions have led to the claim that quantum mechanics and by inference nature herself are nonlocal in the sense that a measurement on a system by an observer at one location has an immediate effect on a distant entangled system. Einstein was repulsed by such “spooky action at a distance” and (...)
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  49.  5
    Demystifying Weak Measurements.R. E. Kastner - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (5):697-707.
    A large literature has grown up around the proposed use of ‘weak measurements’ to allegedly provide information about hidden ontological features of quantum systems. This paper attempts to clarify the fact that ‘weak measurements’ involve strong measurements on one member of an entangled system. The only thing ‘weak’ about such measurements is that the correlation established via the entanglement does not correspond to eigenstates of the ‘weakly measured observable’ for the remaining component system subject to the weak measurement. All observed (...)
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  50.  7
    The Milky Way’s Supermassive Black Hole: How Good a Case Is It?Andreas Eckart, Andreas Hüttemann, Claus Kiefer, Silke Britzen, Michal Zajaček, Claus Lämmerzahl, Manfred Stöckler, Monica Valencia-S., Vladimir Karas & Macarena García-Marín - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (5):553-624.
    The compact and, with \ M\, very massive object located at the center of the Milky Way is currently the very best candidate for a supermassive black hole in our immediate vicinity. The strongest evidence for this is provided by measurements of stellar orbits, variable X-ray emission, and strongly variable polarized near-infrared emission from the location of the radio source Sagittarius A* in the middle of the central stellar cluster. Simultaneous near-infrared and X-ray observations of SgrA* have revealed insights into (...)
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  51.  2
    Quantum Inflation of Classical Shapes.Koslowski Tim - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (5):625-639.
    I consider a quantum system that possesses key features of quantum shape dynamics and show that the evolution of wave-packets will become increasingly classical at late times and tend to evolve more and more like an expanding classical system. At early times however, semiclassical effects become large and lead to an exponential mismatch of the apparent scale as compared to the expected classical evolution of the scale degree of freedom. This quantum inflation of an emergent and effectively classical system, occurs (...)
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  52.  3
    Single-World Theory of the Extended Wigner’s Friend Experiment.Sudbery Anthony - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (5):658-669.
    Frauchiger and Renner have recently claimed to prove that “Single-world interpretations of quantum theory cannot be self-consistent”. This is contradicted by a construction due to Bell, inspired by Bohmian mechanics, which shows that any quantum system can be modelled in such a way that there is only one “world” at any time, but the predictions of quantum theory are reproduced. This Bell–Bohmian theory is applied to the experiment proposed by Frauchiger and Renner, and their argument is critically examined. It is (...)
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  53.  2
    Irreversibility in the Derivation of the Boltzmann Equation.Vincent Ardourel - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (4):471-489.
    Uffink and Valente claim that there is no time-asymmetric ingredient that, added to the Hamiltonian equations of motion, allows to obtain the Boltzmann equation within the Lanford’s derivation. This paper is a discussion and a reply to that analysis. More specifically, I focus on two mathematical tools used in this derivation, viz. the Boltzmann–Grad limit and the incoming configurations. Although none of them are time-asymmetric ingredients, by themselves, I claim that the use of incoming configurations, as taken within the B–G (...)
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  54.  3
    Comment on “Non-Representative Quantum Mechanical Weak Values”.Ben-Israel Alon & Vaidman Lev - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (4):467-470.
    Svensson argued that the concept of the weak value of an observable of a pre- and post-selected quantum system cannot be applied when the expectation value of the observable in the initial state vanishes. Svensson’s argument is analyzed and shown to be inconsistent using several examples.
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  55.  10
    Time Symmetric Quantum Mechanics and Causal Classical Physics?W. Bopp Fritz - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (4):490-504.
    A two boundary quantum mechanics without time ordered causal structure is advocated as consistent theory. The apparent causal structure of usual “near future” macroscopic phenomena is attributed to a cosmological asymmetry and to rules governing the transition between microscopic to macroscopic observations. Our interest is a heuristic understanding of the resulting macroscopic physics.
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  56.  4
    Simultaneity on the Rotating Disk.Don Koks - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (4):505-531.
    The disk that rotates in an inertial frame in special relativity has long been analysed by assuming a Lorentz contraction of its peripheral elements in that frame, which has produced widely varying views in the literature. We show that this assumption is unnecessary for a disk that corresponds to the simplest form of rotation in special relativity. After constructing such a disk and showing that observers at rest on it do not constitute a true rotating frame, we choose a “master” (...)
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  57.  5
    Theory of Stochastic Schrödinger Equation in Complex Vector Space.Muralidhar Kundeti - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (4):532-552.
    A generalized Schrödinger equation containing correction terms to classical kinetic energy, has been derived in the complex vector space by considering an extended particle structure in stochastic electrodynamics with spin. The correction terms are obtained by considering the internal complex structure of the particle which is a consequence of stochastic average of particle oscillations in the zeropoint field. Hence, the generalised Schrödinger equation may be called stochastic Schrödinger equation. It is found that the second order correction terms are similar to (...)
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  58.  7
    Simulations of Closed Timelike Curves.A. Brun Todd & M. Wilde Mark - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (3):375-391.
    Proposed models of closed timelike curves have been shown to enable powerful information-processing protocols. We examine the simulation of models of CTCs both by other models of CTCs and by physical systems without access to CTCs. We prove that the recently proposed transition probability CTCs are physically equivalent to postselection CTCs, in the sense that one model can simulate the other with reasonable overhead. As a consequence, their information-processing capabilities are equivalent. We also describe a method for quantum computers to (...)
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  59.  6
    On the Mössbauer Effect and the Rigid Recoil Question.Mark Davidson - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (3):327-354.
    The rigid recoil of a crystal is the accepted mechanism for the Mössbauer effect. It’s at odds with the special theory of relativity which does not allow perfectly rigid bodies. The standard model of particle physics which includes QED should not allow any signals to be transmitted faster than the speed of light. If perturbation theory can be used, then the X-ray emitted in a Mössbauer decay must come from a single nuclear decay vertex at which the 4-momentum is exactly (...)
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  60.  5
    Quantum Weak Values and Logic: An Uneasy Couple.E. Y. Svensson Bengt - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (3):430-452.
    Quantum mechanical weak values of projection operators have been used to answer which-way questions, e.g. to trace which arms in a multiple Mach–Zehnder setup a particle may have traversed from a given initial to a prescribed final state. I show that this procedure might lead to logical inconsistencies in the sense that different methods used to answer composite questions, like “Has the particle traversed the way X or the way Y?”, may result in different answers depending on which methods are (...)
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  61.  6
    Particles, Cutoffs and Inequivalent Representations.Egg Matthias, Lam Vincent & Oldofredi Andrea - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (3):453-466.
    We critically review the recent debate between Doreen Fraser and David Wallace on the interpretation of quantum field theory, with the aim of identifying where the core of the disagreement lies. We show that, despite appearances, their conflict does not concern the existence of particles or the occurrence of unitarily inequivalent representations. Instead, the dispute ultimately turns on the very definition of what a quantum field theory is. We further illustrate the fundamental differences between the two approaches by comparing them (...)
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  62.  3
    Action Quantization, Energy Quantization, and Time Parametrization.Edward R. Floyd - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (3):392-429.
    The additional information within a Hamilton–Jacobi representation of quantum mechanics is extra, in general, to the Schrödinger representation. This additional information specifies the microstate of \ that is incorporated into the quantum reduced action, W. Non-physical solutions of the quantum stationary Hamilton–Jacobi equation for energies that are not Hamiltonian eigenvalues are examined to establish Lipschitz continuity of the quantum reduced action and conjugate momentum. Milne quantization renders the eigenvalue J. Eigenvalues J and E mutually imply each other. Jacobi’s theorem generates (...)
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  63.  8
    On the CHSH Form of Bell’s Inequalities.Lambare Justo Pastor - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (3):321-326.
    A common mistake present in the derivation of the usually known as the CHSH form of Bell’s inequalities is pointed out. References and comments to the correct approach are given. This error does not alter the final result and only affects the logical consistency of the derivation, but since it seems to be a widespread misconception regarding the roll and interpretation of the of use of hidden variables in Bell’s theorem it is considered to be of general interest.
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  64.  2
    Avoiding Haag’s Theorem with Parameterized Quantum Field Theory.Ed Seidewitz - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (3):355-374.
    Under the normal assumptions of quantum field theory, Haag’s theorem states that any field unitarily equivalent to a free field must itself be a free field. Unfortunately, the derivation of the Dyson series perturbation expansion relies on the use of the interaction picture, in which the interacting field is unitarily equivalent to the free field but must still account for interactions. Thus, the traditional perturbative derivation of the scattering matrix in quantum field theory is mathematically ill defined. Nevertheless, perturbative quantum (...)
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  65.  5
    Reciprocal Ontological Models Show Indeterminism Comparable to Quantum Theory.Somshubhro Bandyopadhyay, Manik Banik, Some Sankar Bhattacharya, Sibasish Ghosh, Guruprasad Kar, Amit Mukherjee & Arup Roy - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):265-273.
    We show that within the class of ontological models due to Harrigan and Spekkens, those satisfying preparation-measurement reciprocity must allow indeterminism comparable to that in quantum theory. Our result implies that one can design quantum random number generator, for which it is impossible, even in principle, to construct a reciprocal deterministic model.
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  66.  8
    Electrodynamics and Spacetime Geometry: Foundations.Francisco Cabral & Francisco S. N. Lobo - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):208-228.
    We explore the intimate connection between spacetime geometry and electrodynamics. This link is already implicit in the constitutive relations between the field strengths and excitations, which are an essential part of the axiomatic structure of electromagnetism, clearly formulated via integration theory and differential forms. We review the foundations of classical electromagnetism based on charge and magnetic flux conservation, the Lorentz force and the constitutive relations. These relations introduce the conformal part of the metric and allow the study of electrodynamics for (...)
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  67.  5
    On Noncontextual, Non-Kolmogorovian Hidden Variable Theories.H. Feintzeig Benjamin & C. Fletcher Samuel - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):294-315.
    One implication of Bell’s theorem is that there cannot in general be hidden variable models for quantum mechanics that both are noncontextual and retain the structure of a classical probability space. Thus, some hidden variable programs aim to retain noncontextuality at the cost of using a generalization of the Kolmogorov probability axioms. We generalize a theorem of Feintzeig : 905–927, 2015) to show that such programs are committed to the existence of a finite null cover for some quantum mechanical experiments, (...)
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  68.  6
    Weak Value, Quasiprobability and Bohmian Mechanics.Kazuki Fukuda, Jaeha Lee & Izumi Tsutsui - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):236-255.
    We clarify the significance of quasiprobability in quantum mechanics that is relevant in describing physical quantities associated with a transition process. Our basic quantity is Aharonov’s weak value, from which the QP can be defined up to a certain ambiguity parameterized by a complex number. Unlike the conventional probability, the QP allows us to treat two noncommuting observables consistently, and this is utilized to embed the QP in Bohmian mechanics such that its equivalence to quantum mechanics becomes more transparent. We (...)
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  69.  3
    Uncertainty Relation and Inseparability Criterion.Ashutosh K. Goswami & Prasanta K. Panigrahi - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):229-235.
    We investigate the Peres–Horodecki positive partial transpose criterion in the context of conserved quantities and derive a condition of inseparability for a composite bipartite system depending only on the dimensions of its subsystems, which leads to a bi-linear entanglement witness for the two qubit system. A separability inequality using generalized Schrodinger–Robertson uncertainty relation taking suitable operators, has been derived, which proves to be stronger than the bi-linear entanglement witness operator. In the case of mixed density matrices, it identically distinguishes the (...)
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  70.  20
    Quantum States as Objective Informational Bridges.Richard Healey - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):161-173.
    A quantum state represents neither properties of a physical system nor anyone’s knowledge of its properties. The important question is not what quantum states represent but how they are used—as informational bridges. Knowing about some physical situations, an agent may assign a quantum state to form expectations about other possible physical situations. Quantum states are objective: only expectations based on correct state assignments are generally reliable. If a quantum state represents anything, it is the objective probabilistic relations between its backing (...)
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  71.  3
    Quantum Teleportation and Grover’s Algorithm Without the Wavefunction.Niestegge Gerd - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):274-293.
    In the same way as the quantum no-cloning theorem and quantum key distribution in two preceding papers, entanglement-assisted quantum teleportation and Grover’s search algorithm are generalized by transferring them to an abstract setting, including usual quantum mechanics as a special case. This again shows that a much more general and abstract access to these quantum mechanical features is possible than commonly thought. A non-classical extension of conditional probability and, particularly, a very special type of state-independent conditional probability are used instead (...)
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  72.  2
    The Contextuality Loophole is Fatal for the Derivation of Bell Inequalities: Reply to a Comment by I. Schmelzer.Theodorus M. Nieuwenhuizen & Marian Kupczynski - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):316-319.
    Ilya Schmelzer wrote recently: Nieuwenhuizen argued that there exists some “contextuality loophole” in Bell’s theorem. This claim in unjustified. It is made clear that this arose from attaching a meaning to the title and the content of the paper different from the one intended by Nieuwenhuizen. “Contextual loophole” means only that if the supplementary parameters describing measuring instruments are correctly introduced, Bell and Bell-type inequalities may not be proven. It is also stressed that a hidden variable model suffers from a (...)
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  73.  7
    Special Relativity, the Source of Electron Deep Orbits.J. L. Paillet & A. Meulenberg - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):256-264.
    In this paper, we explicitly point out the reasons why Special Relativity must be considered as the source of electron deep orbits, and dominates their behavior. We show that the cause is the quadratic form of the relativistic expression of energy, and this clearly appears when we explicitly develop the relativistic Schrödinger equation and compare it with the non-relativistic one.
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  74.  6
    Lagrangian Description for Particle Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics: Entangled Many-Particle Case.Roderick I. Sutherland - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):174-207.
    A Lagrangian formulation is constructed for particle interpretations of quantum mechanics, a well-known example of such an interpretation being the Bohm model. The advantages of such a description are that the equations for particle motion, field evolution and conservation laws can all be deduced from a single Lagrangian density expression. The formalism presented is Lorentz invariant. This paper follows on from a previous one which was limited to the single-particle case. The present paper treats the more general case of many (...)
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  75.  2
    The Angular Momentum Dilemma and Born–Jordan Quantization.Maurice A. De Gosson - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (1):61-70.
    The rigorous equivalence of the Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures requires that one uses Born–Jordan quantization in place of Weyl quantization. We confirm this by showing that the much discussed “ angular momentum dilemma” disappears if one uses Born–Jordan quantization. We argue that the latter is the only physically correct quantization procedure. We also briefly discuss a possible redefinition of phase space quantum mechanics, where the usual Wigner distribution has to be replaced with a new quasi-distribution associated with Born–Jordan quantization, and (...)
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  76.  6
    The Frame of Fixed Stars in Relational Mechanics.Rafael Ferraro - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (1):71-88.
    Relational mechanics is a gauge theory of classical mechanics whose laws do not govern the motion of individual particles but the evolution of the distances between particles. Its formulation gives a satisfactory answer to Leibniz’s and Mach’s criticisms of Newton’s mechanics: relational mechanics does not rely on the idea of an absolute space. When describing the behavior of small subsystems with respect to the so called “fixed stars”, relational mechanics basically agrees with Newtonian mechanics. However, those subsystems having huge angular (...)
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  77.  2
    Neutrino Oscillations with Nil Mass.Edward R. Floyd - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (1):42-60.
    An alternative neutrino oscillation process is presented as a counterexample for which the neutrino may have nil mass consistent with the standard model. The process is developed in a quantum trajectories representation of quantum mechanics, which has a Hamilton–Jacobi foundation. This process has no need for mass differences between mass eigenstates. Flavor oscillations and \ oscillations are examined.
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  78.  5
    Curved Space-Times by Crystallization of Liquid Fiber Bundles.Frédéric Hélein & Dimitri Vey - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (1):1-41.
    Motivated by the search for a Hamiltonian formulation of Einstein equations of gravity which depends in a minimal way on choices of coordinates, nor on a choice of gauge, we develop a multisymplectic formulation on the total space of the principal bundle of orthonormal frames on the 4-dimensional space-time. This leads quite naturally to a new theory which takes place on 10-dimensional manifolds. The fields are pairs of \,\varpi )\), where \\) is a 1-form with coefficients in the Lie algebra (...)
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  79.  4
    Pitowsky’s Kolmogorovian Models and Super-Determinism.Jakob Kellner - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (1):132-148.
    In an attempt to demonstrate that local hidden variables are mathematically possible, Pitowsky constructed “spin- functions” and later “Kolmogorovian models”, which employs a nonstandard notion of probability. We describe Pitowsky’s analysis and argue that his notion of hidden variables is in fact just super-determinism. Pitowsky’s first construction uses the Continuum Hypothesis. Farah and Magidor took this as an indication that at some stage physics might give arguments for or against adopting specific new axioms of set theory. We would rather argue (...)
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  80.  5
    Higher-Order Interference in Extensions of Quantum Theory.Ciarán M. Lee & John H. Selby - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (1):89-112.
    Quantum interference, manifest in the two slit experiment, lies at the heart of several quantum computational speed-ups and provides a striking example of a quantum phenomenon with no classical counterpart. An intriguing feature of quantum interference arises in a variant of the standard two slit experiment, in which there are three, rather than two, slits. The interference pattern in this set-up can be written in terms of the two and one slit patterns obtained by blocking one, or more, of the (...)
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  81.  10
    Black Holes, Information Loss and the Measurement Problem.Elias Okon & Daniel Sudarsky - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (1):120-131.
    The information loss paradox is often presented as an unavoidable consequence of well-established physics. However, in order for a genuine paradox to ensue, not-trivial assumptions about, e.g., quantum effects on spacetime, are necessary. In this work we will be explicit about these additional, speculative assumptions required. We will also sketch a map of the available routes to tackle the issue, highlighting the, often overlooked, commitments demanded of each alternative. Finally, we will display the strong link between black holes, the issue (...)
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  82.  4
    About a “Nonlocal” Local Model Considered by L. Vervoort, and the Necessity to Distinguish Locality From Einstein Locality.I. Schmelzer - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (1):113-116.
    L. Vervoort claims to have found a model which “can violate the Bell inequality and reproduce the quantum statistics, even if it is based on local dynamics only”. This claim is false. The proposed model contains global elements. The physics behind the model is local, but would not allow the explanation of violations of Bell inequalities for space-like separated events, if superluminal causal influences are forbidden. To use it for this purpose, one has to introduce a preferred frame where information (...)
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  83.  4
    About a “Contextuality Loophole” in Bell’s Theorem Claimed to Exist by Nieuwenhuizen.I. Schmelzer - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (1):117-119.
    Nieuwenhuizen argued that there exists some “contextuality loophole” in Bell’s theorem. This claim is unjustified. In Bell’s theorem non-contextuality is not presupposed but derived from Einstein causality using the EPR argument.
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  84.  11
    Towards a Constructive Foundation of Quantum Mechanics.Walter Smilga - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (1):149-159.
    I describe a constructive foundation for quantum mechanics, based on the discreteness of the degrees of freedom of quantum objects and on the Principle of Relativity. Taking Einstein’s historical construction of Special Relativity as a model, the construction is carried out in close contact with a simple quantum mechanical Gedanken experiment. This leads to the standard axioms of quantum mechanics. The quantum mechanical description is identified as a mathematical tool that allows describing objects, whose degree of freedom in space–time has (...)
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