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  1. A Conjecture on the Neutrality of Matter.Leonardo Campanelli - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (3).
    Elaborating on an old conjecture by Blackett, we formulate a new conjecture about the neutrality of matter according to which any physical system possesses an active electric charge proportional to its mass. We discuss limits on the conjecture coming from existing laboratory experiments on the neutrality of matter and from the observation of the global surface electric field of the Earth. In a cosmological setting, we show that a cosmic rotation of the Universe is inevitable if our conjecture is true (...)
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  2. A Little Bit of Classical Magic to Achieve (Super-)Quantum Speedup.Paweł Kurzyński & Dagomir Kaszlikowski - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (3).
    We introduce nebit, a classical bit with a signed probability distribution. We study its properties and basic transformations that can be applied to it. Then, we introduce a simple dynamical model – a classical random walk supplemented with nebits. We show that such a model exhibits some counterintuitive non-classical properties and that it can achieve or even exceed the speedup of Grover’s quantum search algorithm. The proposed classical dynamics never reveals negativity of nebits and thus we do not need any (...)
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  3. Is the Past Determined?Herve Zwirn - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (3).
    In a recent paper, I argued against backward in time effects used by several authors to explain delayed choice experiments. I gave an explanation showing that there is no physical influence propagating from the present to the past and modifying the state of the system at a time previous to the measurement. However, though the solution is straightforward in the case of delayed choice experiments involving only one particle, it is subtler in the case of experiments involving two entangled particles (...)
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  4.  4
    Understanding the Frauchiger–Renner Argument.Jeffrey Bub - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-9.
    In 2018, Daniela Frauchiger and Renato Renner published an article in Nature Communications entitled ‘Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself.’ The argument has been attacked as flawed from a variety of interpretational perspectives. I clarify the significance of the result as a sequence of actions and inferences by agents modeled as quantum systems evolving unitarily at all times. At no point does the argument appeal to a ‘collapse’ of the quantum state following a measurement.
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  5.  12
    Space-Time in Quantum Theory.H. Capellmann - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-34.
    Quantum Theory, similar to Relativity Theory, requires a new concept of space-time, imposed by a universal constant. While velocity of light c not being infinite calls for a redefinition of space-time on large and cosmological scales, quantization of action in terms of a finite, i.e. non vanishing, universal constant h requires a redefinition of space-time on very small scales. Most importantly, the classical notion of “time”, as one common continuous time variable and nature evolving continuously “in time”, has to be (...)
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  6.  1
    The View From a Wigner Bubble.Eric G. Cavalcanti - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-31.
    In a recent no-go theorem [Bong et al., Nature Physics ], we proved that the predictions of unitary quantum mechanics for an extended Wigner’s friend scenario are incompatible with any theory satisfying three metaphysical assumptions, the conjunction of which we call “Local Friendliness”: Absoluteness of Observed Events, Locality and No-Superdeterminism. In this paper I discuss the implications of this theorem for QBism, as seen from the point of view of experimental metaphysics. I argue that the key distinction between QBism and (...)
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  7.  6
    Correction to: How Quantum is Quantum Counterfactual Communication?Jonte R. Hance, James Ladyman & John Rarity - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-3.
    A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10701-021-00450-z.
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  8. Non-Contextual and Local Hidden-Variable Model for the Peres–Mermin and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger Systems.Carsten Held - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-17.
    A hidden-variable model for quantum–mechanical spin, as represented by the Pauli spin operators, is proposed for systems illustrating the well-known no-hidden-variables arguments by Peres and Mermin and by Greenberger et al.. Both arguments rely on an assumption of non-contextuality; the latter argument can also be phrased as a non-locality argument, using a locality assumption. The model suggested here is compatible with both assumptions. This is possible because the scalar values of spin observables are replaced by vectors that are components of (...)
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  9.  4
    How Real Are Quantum States in Ψ\Documentclass[12pt]{Minimal} \Usepackage{Amsmath} \Usepackage{Wasysym} \Usepackage{Amsfonts} \Usepackage{Amssymb} \Usepackage{Amsbsy} \Usepackage{Mathrsfs} \Usepackage{Upgreek} \Setlength{\Oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \Begin{Document}$$\Psi$$\End{Document}-Ontic Models? [REVIEW]R. Hermens - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-26.
    There is a longstanding debate on the metaphysical relation between quantum states and the systems they describe. A series of relatively recent ψ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\psi$$\end{document}-ontology theorems have been taken to show that, provided one accepts certain assumptions, “quantum states are real”. In this paper I investigate the question of what that claim might be taken to mean in light of these theorems. It is argued that, even if one accepts the framework and assumptions (...)
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  10. Quantum Black Holes as Solvents.Paweł Horodecki, Michał Eckstein & Erik Aurell - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2).
    Almost all of the entropy in the universe is in the form of Bekenstein–Hawking entropy of super-massive black holes. This entropy, if it satisfies Boltzmann’s equation S=logN\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$S=\log \mathcal{N}$$\end{document}, hence represents almost all the accessible phase space of the Universe, somehow associated to objects which themselves fill out a very small fraction of ordinary three-dimensional space. Although time scales are very long, it is believed that black holes will eventually evaporate by emitting (...)
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  11.  1
    Singularities, Black Holes, and Cosmic Censorship: A Tribute to Roger Penrose. [REVIEW]Klaas Landsman - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-38.
    In the light of his recent Nobel Prize, this pedagogical paper draws attention to a fundamental tension that drove Penrose’s work on general relativity. His 1965 singularity theorem does not in fact imply the existence of black holes. Similarly, his versatile definition of a singular space–time does not match the generally accepted definition of a black hole. To overcome this, Penrose launched his cosmic censorship conjecture, whose evolution we discuss. In particular, we review both his own formulation and its later, (...)
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  12.  8
    On the Status of Newtonian Gravitational Radiation.Niels Linnemann & James Read - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-16.
    We discuss the status of gravitational radiation in Newtonian theories. In order to do so, we consider various options for interpreting the Poisson equation as encoding propagating solutions, reflect on the extent to which limit considerations from general relativity can shed light on the Poisson equation’s conceptual status, and discuss various senses in which the Poisson equation counts as a dynamical equation.
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  13. A Refined Propensity Account for GRW Theory.Lorenzo Lorenzetti - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-20.
    Spontaneous collapse theories of quantum mechanics turn the usual Schrödinger equation into a stochastic dynamical law. In particular, in this paper, I will focus on the GRW theory. Two philosophical issues that can be raised about GRW concern (i) the ontology of the theory, in particular the nature of the wave function and its role within the theory, and (ii) the interpretation of the objective probabilities involved in the dynamics of the theory. During the last years, it has been claimed (...)
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  14.  10
    On the Continuity of Geometrized Newtonian Gravitation and General Relativity.Saeed Masoumi - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-33.
    Pessimistic meta-induction is a powerful argument against scientific realism, so one of the major roles for advocates of scientific realism will be trying their best to give a sustained response to this argument. On the other hand, it is also alleged that structural realism is the most plausible form of scientific realism; therefore, the plausibility of scientific realism is threatened unless one is given the explicit form of a structural continuity and minimal structural preservation for all our current theories. This (...)
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  15.  2
    A Non-local Phase Field Model of Bohm’s Quantum Potential.Roberto Mauri - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-8.
    Assuming that the free energy of a gas depends non-locally on the logarithm of its mass density, the body force in the resulting equation of motion consists of the sum of density gradient terms. Truncating this series after the second term, Bohm’s quantum potential and the Madelung equation are identically obtained, showing explicitly that some of the hypotheses that led to the formulation of quantum mechanics admit a classical interpretation based on non-locality.
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  16.  8
    On Friederich’s New Fine-Tuning Argument.Thomas Metcalf - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-15.
    The most common objection to the Fine-Tuning Argument for the Multiverse is that the argument commits the Inverse Gambler’s Fallacy. Simon Friederich has recently composed an interesting version of this fine-tuning argument that avoids this fallacy and better-matches important scientific instances of anthropic reasoning. My thesis in this paper is that this new argument, while it may avoid the fallacy, contains a disputable premise concerning the prior probabilities of the hypotheses at issue. I consider various ways to modify the argument (...)
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  17. Wormholes Within the Framework of $$F(R, T)=R+Alpha R^2+Lambda T$$ F ( R, T ) = R + Α R 2 + Λ T Gravity. [REVIEW]Ambuj Kumar Mishra & Umesh Kumar Sharma - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-16.
    In this work, we explore modeling of wormholes in framework of f gravity with the functional form f=R+αR2+λT\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$f= R+\alpha R^2 +\lambda T$$\end{document}, where R and T are the Ricci scalar and trace of energy-momentum tensor respectively, α\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\alpha$$\end{document} and λ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\lambda$$\end{document} are arbitrary constants. Using the equation of state pr=ωρ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} (...)
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  18.  1
    Gauge-Underdetermination and Shades of Locality in the Aharonov–Bohm Effect.Ruward A. Mulder - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-26.
    I address the view that the classical electromagnetic potentials are shown by the Aharonov–Bohm effect to be physically real. I give a historico-philosophical presentation of this view and assess its prospects, more precisely than has so far been done in the literature. Taking the potential as physically real runs prima facie into ‘gauge-underdetermination’: different gauge choices represent different physical states of affairs and hence different theories. This fact is usually not acknowledged in the literature, neither by proponents nor by opponents (...)
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  19. World-Line Path Integral for the Propagator Expressed as an Ordinary Integral: Concept and Applications.T. Padmanabhan - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-23.
    The propagator G\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$G$$\end{document} encodes the entire dynamics of a massive, free scalar field propagating in an arbitrary curved spacetime. The usual procedures for computing the propagator—either as a time ordered correlator or from a partition function defined through a path integral—requires introduction of a field ϕ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\phi $$\end{document} and its action functional A[ϕ]\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$A[\phi ]$$\end{document}. An (...)
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  20. Investigating Total Collisions of the Newtonian N-Body Problem on Shape Space.Paula Reichert - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-29.
    We analyze the points of total collision of the Newtonian gravitational system on shape space. While the Newtonian equations of motion, formulated with respect to absolute space and time, are singular at the point of total collision due to the singularity of the Newton potential at that point, this need not be the case on shape space where absolute scale doesn’t exist. We investigate whether, adopting a relational description of the system, the shape degrees of freedom, which are merely angles (...)
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  21.  4
    Correction to: The Dead-Alive Physicist Experiment: A Case-Study Against the Hypothesis that Consciousness Causes the Wave-Function Collapse in the Quantum Mechanical Measurement Process.Carlo Roselli & Bruno Raffaele Stella - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-2.
    A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10701-021-00451-y.
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  22.  10
    The First Droplet in a Cloud Chamber Track.Jonathan F. Schonfeld - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-18.
    In a cloud chamber, the quantum measurement problem amounts to explaining the first droplet in a charged-particle track; subsequent droplets are explained by Mott’s 1929 wave-theoretic argument about collision-induced wavefunction collimation. I formulate a mechanism for how the first droplet in a cloud chamber track arises, making no reference to quantum measurement axioms. I look specifically at tracks of charged particles emitted in the simplest slow decays, because I can reason about rather than guess the form that wave packets take. (...)
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  23.  2
    Localizable Particles in the Classical Limit of Quantum Field Theory.Rory Soiffer, Jonah Librande & Benjamin H. Feintzeig - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-31.
    A number of arguments purport to show that quantum field theory cannot be given an interpretation in terms of localizable particles. We show, in light of such arguments, that the classical ħ→0\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\hbar \rightarrow 0$$\end{document} limit can aid our understanding of the particle content of quantum field theories. In particular, we demonstrate that for the massive Klein–Gordon field, the classical limits of number operators can be understood to encode local information about particles (...)
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  24. Appearance of Thermal Time.Shigenori Tanaka - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-12.
    In this paper a viewpoint that time is an informational and thermal entity is presented. We consider a model for a simple relaxation process for which a relationship among event, time and temperature is mathematically formulated. It is then explicitly illustrated that temperature and time are statistically inferred through measurement of events. The probability distribution of the events thus provides an intrinsic correlation between temperature and time, which can relevantly be expressed in terms of the Fisher information metric. The two-dimensional (...)
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  25.  5
    Gravitational Quantum Dynamics: A Geometrical Perspective.Ivano Tavernelli - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-24.
    We present a gravitational quantum dynamics theory that combines quantum field theory for particle dynamics in space-time with classical Einstein’s general relativity in a non-Riemannian Finsler space. This approach is based on the geometrization of quantum mechanics proposed in Tavernelli and combines quantum and gravitational effects into a global curvature of the Finsler space induced by the quantum potential associated to the matter quantum fields. In order to make this theory compatible with general relativity, the quantum effects are described in (...)
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  26.  3
    Correction to: Newtonian Fractional-Dimension Gravity and MOND.Gabriele U. Varieschi - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-1.
    Equation in the published paper is incorrect. The divergence of a vector field is obviously a scalar field, even when this operator is acting on a D-dimensional space.
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  27.  5
    Relational Analysis of the Frauchiger–Renner Paradox and Interaction-Free Detection of Records From the Past.Marijn Waaijer & Jan van Neerven - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-18.
    We present an analysis of the Frauchiger–Renner Gedankenexperiment from the point of view of the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics. Our analysis shows that the paradox obtained by Frauchiger and Renner disappears if one rejects promoting one agent’s certainty to another agent’s certainty when it cannot be validated by records from the past. A by-product of our analysis is an interaction-free detection scheme for the existence of such records.
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  28.  94
    Gauge Invariance for Classical Massless Particles with Spin.Jacob A. Barandes - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-14.
    Wigner’s quantum-mechanical classification of particle-types in terms of irreducible representations of the Poincaré group has a classical analogue, which we extend in this paper. We study the compactness properties of the resulting phase spaces at fixed energy, and show that in order for a classical massless particle to be physically sensible, its phase space must feature a classical-particle counterpart of electromagnetic gauge invariance. By examining the connection between massless and massive particles in the massless limit, we also derive a classical-particle (...)
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  29.  2
    A Contextual Planck Parameter and the Classical Limit in Quantum Cosmology.John D. Barrow & João Magueijo - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-11.
    We propose that whatever quantity controls the Heisenberg uncertainty relations it should be identified with an effective Planck parameter. With this definition it is not difficult to find examples where the Planck parameter depends on the region under study, varies in time, and even depends on which pair of observables one focuses on. In quantum cosmology the effective Planck parameter depends on the size of the comoving region under study, and so depends on that chosen region and on time. With (...)
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  30.  3
    An Intricate Quantum Statistical Effect and the Foundation of Quantum Mechanics.Fritz W. Bopp - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-21.
    An intricate quantum statistical effect guides us to a deterministic, non-causal quantum universe with a given fixed initial and final state density matrix. A concept is developed on how and where something like macroscopic physics can emerge. However, the concept does not allow philosophically crucial free will decisions. The quantum world and its conjugate evolve independently, and one can replace fixed final states on each side just with a common matching one. This change allows for external manipulations done in the (...)
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  31.  2
    A Non-Geometrodynamic Quantum Yang–Mills Theory of Gravity Based on the Homogeneous Lorentz Group.Ahmad Borzou - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-34.
    In this paper, we present a non-geometrodynamic quantum Yang–Mills theory of gravity based on the homogeneous Lorentz group within the general framework of the Poincare gauge theories. The obstacles of this treatment are that first, on the one hand, the gauge group that is available for this purpose is non-compact. On the other hand, Yang–Mills theories with non-compact groups are rarely healthy, and only a few instances exist in the literature. Second, it is not clear how the direct observations of (...)
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  32.  3
    Statistical Mechanics of Covariant Systems with Multi-Fingered Time.Goffredo Chirco & Thibaut Josset - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-11.
    In recent previous work, the authors proposed a new approach extending the framework of statistical mechanics to reparametrization-invariant systems with no additional gauges. In this paper, the approach is generalized to systems defined by more than one Hamiltonian constraint. We show how well-known features as the Ehrenfest–Tolman effect and the Jüttner distribution for the relativistic gas can be consistently recovered from a covariant approach in the multi-fingered framework. Eventually, the crucial role played by the interaction in the definition of a (...)
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  33.  5
    Einstein’s Principle of Equivalence and the Heuristic Significance of General Covariance.Joseph K. Cosgrove - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-23.
    The philosophy of physics literature contains conflicting claims on the heuristic significance of general covariance. Some authors maintain that Einstein's general relativity distinguishes itself from other theories in that it must be generally covariant, for example, while others argue that general covariance is a physically vacuous and trivial requirement applicable to virtually any theory. Moreover, when general covariance is invested with heuristic significance, that significance as a rule is assigned to so-called “active” general covariance, underwritten by the principle of background (...)
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  34.  7
    Essay Review of Tanya and Jeffrey Bub’s Totally Random: Why Nobody Understands Quantum Mechanics: A Serious Comic on Entanglement: Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press (2018), ISBN: 9780691176956, 272 Pp., £18.99 / $22.95. [REVIEW]Michael E. Cuffaro & Emerson P. Doyle - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-16.
    This is an extended essay review of Tanya and Jeffrey Bub’s Totally Random: Why Nobody Understands Quantum Mechanics: A serious comic on entanglement. We review the philosophical aspects of the book, provide suggestions for instructors on how to use the book in a class setting, and evaluate the authors’ artistic choices in the context of comics theory. Although Totally Random does not defend any particular interpretation of quantum mechanics, we find that, in its mode of presentation, Totally Random is a (...)
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  35.  4
    Quantum Behavior of a Classical Particle Subject to a Random Force.Can Gokler - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-19.
    We give a partial answer to the question whether the Schrödinger equation can be derived from the Newtonian mechanics of a particle in a potential subject to a random force. We show that the fluctuations around the classical motion of a one dimensional harmonic oscillator subject to a random force can be described by the Schrödinger equation for a period of time depending on the frequency and the energy of the oscillator. We achieve this by deriving the postulates of Nelson’s (...)
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  36.  9
    How Quantum is Quantum Counterfactual Communication?Jonte R. Hance, James Ladyman & John Rarity - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-17.
    Quantum Counterfactual Communication is the recently-proposed idea of using quantum physics to send messages between two parties, without any matter/energy transfer associated with the bits sent. While this has excited massive interest, both for potential ‘unhackable’ communication, and insight into the foundations of quantum mechanics, it has been asked whether this process is essentially quantum, or could be performed classically. We examine counterfactual communication, both classical and quantum, and show that the protocols proposed so far for sending signals that don’t (...)
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  37.  5
    Exchange Forces in Particle Physics.Gregg Jaeger - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-31.
    The operation of fundamental forces in quantum field theory is explicated here as the exchange of particles, consistently with the standard methodology of particle physics. The particles involved are seen to bear little relation to any classical particle but, rather, comprise unified collections of compresent, conserved quantities indicated by propagators. The exchange particles, which supervene upon quantum fields, are neither more fundamental than fields nor replace them as has often previously been assumed in models of exchange forces. It is argued (...)
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  38.  5
    Quantum postulate vs. quantum nonlocality: on the role of the Planck constant in Bell’s argument.Andrei Khrennikov - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-12.
    We present a quantum mechanical analysis of Bell’s approach to quantum foundations based on his hidden-variable model. We claim and try to justify that the Bell model contradicts to the Heinsenberg’s uncertainty and Bohr’s complementarity principles. The aim of this note is to point to the physical seed of the aforementioned principles. This is the Bohr’s quantum postulate: the existence of indivisible quantum of action given by the Planck constant h. By contradicting these basic principles of QM, Bell’s model implies (...)
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  39. Is Contextuality About the Identity of Random Variables?Kirsty Kitto & Mojtaba Aliakbarzadeh - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-13.
    Recent years have seen new general notions of contextuality emerge. Most of these employ context-independent symbols to represent random variables in different contexts. As an example, the operational theory of :52108, 2005) treats an observable being measured in two different contexts identically. Non-contextuality in this approach is the impossibility of drawing ontological distinctions between identical elements of the operational theory. However, a recent collection of work seeks to exploit context-dependent symbols of random variables to interpret contextuality :150401, 2015; Dzhafarov and (...)
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  40.  3
    Regularizing (Away) Vacuum Energy.Adam Koberinski - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-22.
    In this paper I formulate Minimal Requirements for Candidate Predictions in quantum field theories, inspired by viewing the standard model as an effective field theory. I then survey standard effective field theory regularization procedures, to see if the vacuum expectation value of energy density ) is a quantity that meets these requirements. The verdict is negative, leading to the conclusion that \ is not a physically significant quantity in the standard model. Rigorous extensions of flat space quantum field theory eliminate (...)
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  41.  3
    On the Possibility to Observe Relations Between Quantum Measurements and the Entropy of Phase Transitions in Zn 2 (BDC) 2.Svetlana G. Kozlova & Denis P. Pishchur - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-9.
    The work interprets experimental data for the heat capacity of Zn22 in the region of second-order phase transitions. The proposed understanding of the processes occurring during phase transitions may be helpful to reveal quantum Zeno effects in metal–organic frameworks with evolving structural subsystems and to establish relations between quantum measurements and the entropy of phase transitions.
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  42.  4
    Ricci Flow Approach to the Cosmological Constant Problem.M. J. Luo - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-31.
    In order to resolve the cosmological constant problem, the notion of reference frame is re-examined at the quantum level. By using a quantum non-linear sigma model, a theory of quantum spacetime reference frame is proposed. The underlying mathematical structure is a new geometry endowed with intrinsic second central moment or even higher moments of its coordinates, which generalizes the classical Riemannian geometry based on only first moment of its coordinates. The second central moment of the coordinates directly modifies the quadratic (...)
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  43.  8
    Relational Structures of Fundamental Theories.Pierre Martin-Dussaud - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-10.
    General relativity and quantum mechanics have both revealed the relativity of certain notions that were previously thought to be absolute. I clarify the precise sense in which these theories are relational, and I argue that the various aspects of relationality pertain to the same movement in the progress of physical theories.
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  44.  15
    Clarifying the New Problem for Quantum Mechanics: Reply to Vaidman.Alexander Meehan - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-6.
    I respond to Vaidman’s recent criticisms of my paper “A New Problem for Quantum Mechanics”.
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  45.  7
    On the Quantum Mechanical Measurement Process.H. W. L. Naus - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-13.
    The quantum mechanical measurement process is analyzed by means of an explicit generic model describing the interaction between object and measuring device. The solution of the Schrödinger equation for the whole system reflects the ‘collapse’ of the object wave function. A necessary condition is a sufficiently sharply peaked initial measurement device wave function, which is guaranteed in its classical limit. With this assumption, it is in particular proven that the off-diagonal elements of the object density matrix vanish. This study therefore (...)
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  46.  3
    Role of a Time Delay in the Gravitational Two-Body Problem.E. Oks - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-17.
    In the traditional frame of classical electrodynamics, a hydrogen atom would emit electromagnetic waves and thus constantly lose energy, resulting in the fall of the electron on the proton over a finite period of time. The corresponding results were derived under the assumption of the instantaneous interaction between the proton and the electron. In 2004, Raju published a paper where he removed the assumption of the instantaneous interaction and studied the role of a time delay in the classical hydrogen atom. (...)
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  47.  3
    The Bundle Theory Approach to Relational Quantum Mechanics.Andrea Oldofredi - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-22.
    The present essay provides a new metaphysical interpretation of Relational Quantum Mechanics in terms of mereological bundle theory. The essential idea is to claim that a physical system in RQM can be defined as a mereological fusion of properties whose values may vary for different observers. Abandoning the Aristotelian tradition centered on the notion of substance, I claim that RQM embraces an ontology of properties that finds its roots in the heritage of David Hume. To this regard, defining what kind (...)
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  48.  6
    Why Quantum Measurements Yield Single Values.H. S. Perlman - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-6.
    It is shown that the Born Rule probabilities, i.e. the squares of the moduli of the coefficients in a pure state superposition, refer to mutually exclusive events consequent on measurement. It is also shown that the eigenstates in a pure state superposition are not mutually exclusive events. If the Born Rule is to be retained as the fundamental interpretative postulate of quantum mechanics then it follows, firstly, that the probabilities necessarily refer not to the eigenstates but to the eigenvalues to (...)
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  49.  3
    On the Alleged Extra-Structures of Quantum Mechanics.Davide Romano - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-19.
    I argue that a particle ontology naturally emerges from the basic dynamical equations of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, when the quantum continuity equation is realistically interpreted. This was recognized by J.J. Sakurai in his famous textbook “Modern Quantum Mechanics”, and then dismissed on the basis of the Heisenberg position–momentum uncertainty principle. In this paper, I show that the reasons of this rejection are based on a misunderstanding of the physical import of the uncertainty principle. As a consequence, a particle ontology can (...)
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  50.  9
    The Dead-Alive Physicist Experiment: A Case-Study Against the Hypothesis that Consciousness Causes the Wave-Function Collapse in the Quantum Mechanical Measurement Process.Carlo Roselli & Bruno Raffaele Stella - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-11.
    The aim of this paper is to refute the hypothesis that the observer’s consciousness is necessary in the quantum mechanics measurement process. In order to achieve our target, we propose and investigate a variation of the Schrödinger’s cat thought experiment called “DAP”, short for “Dead-Alive Physicist”, in which a human being replaces the cat. This strategy enables us to logically disprove the consistency of the above hypothesis, and to oblige its supporters either to be trapped in solipsism or to rely (...)
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  51.  11
    Stable Facts, Relative Facts.Carlo Rovelli & Andrea Di Biagio - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-13.
    Facts happen at every interaction, but they are not absolute: they are relative to the systems involved in the interaction. Stable facts are those whose relativity can effectively be ignored. In this work, we describe how stable facts emerge in a world of relative facts and discuss their respective roles in connecting quantum theory and the world. The distinction between relative and stable facts resolves the difficulties pointed out by the no-go theorem of Frauchiger and Renner, and is consistent with (...)
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  52.  9
    Can Parallel Lives Provide a Solution to Hardy’s Paradox?İnanç Şahin - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-14.
    Parallel lives is a model which provides an interpretation of quantum theory that is both local and realistic. This model assumes that all quantum fields are composed of point beings called “lives”. Lives interact locally and have a memory of their previous interactions. The reduction of the state vector is not included in this model: lives can be divided into different worlds. This feature resembles many worlds interpretation. However in the parallel lives model, the division of lives into different worlds (...)
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  53.  3
    Local Description of the Aharonov–Bohm Effect with a Quantum Electromagnetic Field.Pablo L. Saldanha - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-11.
    In the seminal works from Santos and Gozalo and Marletto and Vedral, it is shown how the Aharonov–Bohm effect can be described as the result of an exchange of virtual photons between the solenoid and the quantum charged particle along its propagation through the interferometer, where both the particle and the solenoid interact locally with the quantum electromagnetic field. This interaction results in a local and gauge-independent phase generation for the particle propagation in each path of the interferometer. Here we (...)
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  54.  2
    Mirror Matter From a Unified Field Theory.Trevor P. Searight - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-9.
    A mirror world consisting of matter which interacts with ordinary matter via gravity and weakly via other forces has been considered, inter alia, as a model for dark matter. A discrete symmetry under the interchange of fields means that both sectors experience the same forces. Separately it has been shown that it is possible to unify gravitation and electromagnetism by using a degenerate metric in five dimensions; in this theory there are two possible representations of charge, and there is a (...)
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  55.  3
    Contribution of Pressure to the Energy–Momentum Density in a Moving Perfect Fluid: A Physical Perspective.Ashok K. Singal - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-20.
    In the energy–momentum density expressions for a relativistic perfect fluid with a bulk motion, one comes across a couple of pressure-dependent terms, which though well known, are to an extent, lacking in their conceptual basis and the ensuing physical interpretation. In the expression for the energy density, the rest mass density along with the kinetic energy density of the fluid constituents due to their random motion, which contributes to the pressure as well, are already included. However, in a fluid with (...)
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  56.  4
    Causal Processes in C*-Algebraic Setting.Chrysovalantis Stergiou - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-23.
    In this paper, we attempt to explicate Salmon’s idea of a causal process, as defined in terms of the mark method, in the context of C*-dynamical systems. We prove two propositions, one establishing mark manifestation infinitely many times along a given interval of the process, and, a second one, which establishes continuous manifestation of mark with the exception of a countable number of isolated points. Furthermore, we discuss how these results can be implemented in the context of the Haag–Araki theories (...)
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  57.  5
    Anisotropic Teleparallel Cosmology via Thermodynamics.U. Yeter, K. Sogut & M. Salti - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-21.
    In the most of existing cosmological investigations, the isotropic space–time models have been considered. In the present work, we focus on beyond this limitation and discuss the influence of anisotropy from thermodynamical perspective. The main goal of this study is to discuss the first and the generalized second laws of thermodynamics in an expanding anisotropic inhomogeneous model of the cosmos from the teleparallel gravity perspective, which is filled with the baryonic matter interacting with the dark energy and the cold dark (...)
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