Year:

  1.  1
    Causality in the Classical Limit for Quantum Electrodynamics.Gregory C. Dente - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (6):628-635.
    We use the path integral form of quantum electrodynamics to show that a causal classical limit to QED can be derived by functionally integrating over the photon coordinates, starting from an initial photon vacuum and ending in a final coherent radiation state driven by the anticipated classical charged particle trajectories. The resulting charged particle transition amplitude depends only on particle coordinates. When the \ limit is taken, only those particle paths that are not constrained by the final radiation state are (...)
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  2.  2
    Timeless Configuration Space and the Emergence of Classical Behavior.Henrique Gomes - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (6):668-715.
    The inherent difficulty in talking about quantum decoherence in the context of quantum cosmology is that decoherence requires subsystems, and cosmology is the study of the whole Universe. Consistent histories gave a possible answer to this conundrum, by phrasing decoherence as loss of interference between alternative histories of closed systems. When one can apply Boolean logic to a set of histories, it is deemed ‘consistent’. However, the vast majority of the sets of histories that are merely consistent are blatantly nonclassical (...)
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  3.  2
    A Stochastic Version of the Noether Theorem.Alfredo González Lezcano & Alejandro Cabo Montes de Oca - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (6):726-746.
    A stochastic version of the Noether theorem is derived for systems under the action of external random forces. The concept of moment generating functional is employed to describe the symmetry of the stochastic forces. The theorem is applied to two kinds of random covariant forces. One of them generated in an electrodynamic way and the other is defined in the rest frame of the particle as a function of the proper time. For both of them, it is shown the conservation (...)
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  4.  6
    Objectivity in Quantum Measurement.Sheng-Wen Li, C. Y. Cai, X. F. Liu & C. P. Sun - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (6):654-667.
    The objectivity is a basic requirement for the measurements in the classical world, namely, different observers must reach a consensus on their measurement results, so that they believe that the object exists “objectively” since whoever measures it obtains the same result. We find that this simple requirement of objectivity indeed imposes an important constraint upon quantum measurements, i.e., if two or more observers could reach a consensus on their quantum measurement results, their measurement basis must be orthogonal vector sets. This (...)
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  5.  5
    Paradox Regained? A Brief Comment on Maudlin on Black Hole Information Loss.J. B. Manchak & James Owen Weatherall - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (6):611-627.
    We discuss some recent work by Tim Maudlin concerning Black Hole Information Loss. We argue, contra Maudlin, that there is a paradox, in the straightforward sense that there are propositions that appear true, but which are incompatible with one another. We discuss the significance of the paradox and Maudlin’s response to it.
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  6.  13
    Shan Gao: The Meaning of the Wave Function. In Search of the Ontology of Quantum Mechanics.Carlo Rovelli - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (6):747-749.
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  7.  2
    Uncertainty Principle on 3-Dimensional Manifolds of Constant Curvature.Thomas Schürmann - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (6):716-725.
    We consider the Heisenberg uncertainty principle of position and momentum in 3-dimensional spaces of constant curvature K. The uncertainty of position is defined coordinate independent by the geodesic radius of spherical domains in which the particle is localized after a von Neumann–Lüders projection. By applying mathematical standard results from spectral analysis on manifolds, we obtain the largest lower bound of the momentum deviation in terms of the geodesic radius and K. For hyperbolic spaces, we also obtain a global lower bound (...)
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  8.  3
    Information Graph Flow: A Geometric Approximation of Quantum and Statistical Systems.Vitaly Vanchurin - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (6):636-653.
    Given a quantum system with a very large number of degrees of freedom and a preferred tensor product factorization of the Hilbert space we describe how it can be approximated with a very low-dimensional field theory with geometric degrees of freedom. The geometric approximation procedure consists of three steps. The first step is to construct weighted graphs with vertices representing subsystems and edges representing mutual information between subsystems. The second step is to deform the adjacency matrices of the information graphs (...)
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  9.  8
    The ‘Miracle’ of Applicability? The Curious Case of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator.Sorin Bangu & Robert H. C. Moir - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (5):507-525.
    The paper discusses to what extent the conceptual issues involved in solving the simple harmonic oscillator model fit Wigner’s famous point that the applicability of mathematics borders on the miraculous. We argue that although there is ultimately nothing mysterious here, as is to be expected, a careful demonstration that this is so involves unexpected difficulties. Consequently, through the lens of this simple case we derive some insight into what is responsible for the appearance of mystery in more sophisticated examples of (...)
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  10.  10
    Delimiting the Unconceived.Richard Dawid - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (5):492-506.
    It has been argued in Dawid that physicists at times generate substantial trust in an empirically unconfirmed theory based on observations that lie beyond the theory’s intended domain. A crucial role in the reconstruction of this argument of “non-empirical confirmation” is played by limitations to scientific underdetermination. The present paper discusses the question as to how generic the role of limitations to scientific underdetermination really is. It is argued that assessing such limitations is essential for generating trust in any theory’s (...)
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  11.  5
    On Gravitational Energy in Newtonian Theories.Neil Dewar & James Owen Weatherall - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (5):558-578.
    There are well-known problems associated with the idea of gravitational energy in general relativity. We offer a new perspective on those problems by comparison with Newtonian gravitation, and particularly geometrized Newtonian gravitation. We show that there is a natural candidate for the energy density of a Newtonian gravitational field. But we observe that this quantity is gauge dependent, and that it cannot be defined in the geometrized theory without introducing further structure. We then address a potential response by showing that (...)
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  12.  6
    The Matter-Gravity Entanglement Hypothesis.Bernard S. Kay - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (5):542-557.
    I outline some of my work and results on my matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis, according to which the entropy of a closed quantum gravitational system is equal to the system’s matter-gravity entanglement entropy. The main arguments presented are: that this hypothesis is capable of resolving what I call the second-law puzzle, i.e. the puzzle as to how the entropy increase of a closed system can be reconciled with the asssumption of unitary time-evolution; that the black hole information loss puzzle may be (...)
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  13.  3
    Against Laplacian Reduction of Newtonian Mass to Spatiotemporal Quantities.Niels C. M. Martens - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (5):591-609.
    Laplace wondered about the minimal choice of initial variables and parameters corresponding to a well-posed initial value problem. Discussions of Laplace’s problem in the literature have focused on choosing between spatiotemporal variables relative to absolute space or merely relative to other material bodies and between absolute masses or merely mass ratios. This paper extends these discussions of Laplace’s problem, in the context of Newtonian Gravity, by asking whether mass needs to be included in the initial state at all, or whether (...)
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  14.  3
    Had We But World Enough, and Time... But We Don’T!: Justifying the Thermodynamic and Infinite-Time Limits in Statistical Mechanics.Patricia Palacios - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (5):526-541.
    In this paper, I compare the use of the thermodynamic limit in the theory of phase transitions with the infinite-time limit in the explanation of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In the case of phase transitions, I will argue that the thermodynamic limit can be justified pragmatically since the limit behavior also arises before we get to the limit and for values of N that are physically significant. However, I will contend that the justification of the infinite-time limit is less straightforward. In (...)
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  15.  2
    Equivalent Theories and Changing Hamiltonian Observables in General Relativity.J. Brian Pitts - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (5):579-590.
    Change and local spatial variation are missing in Hamiltonian general relativity according to the most common definition of observables as having 0 Poisson bracket with all first-class constraints. But other definitions of observables have been proposed. In pursuit of Hamiltonian–Lagrangian equivalence, Pons, Salisbury and Sundermeyer use the Anderson–Bergmann–Castellani gauge generator G, a tuned sum of first-class constraints. Kuchař waived the 0 Poisson bracket condition for the Hamiltonian constraint to achieve changing observables. A systematic combination of the two reforms might use (...)
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  16.  37
    Physics Needs Philosophy. Philosophy Needs Physics.Carlo Rovelli - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (5):481-491.
    Contrary to claims about the irrelevance of philosophy for science, I argue that philosophy has had, and still has, far more influence on physics than is commonly assumed. I maintain that the current anti-philosophical ideology has had damaging effects on the fertility of science. I also suggest that recent important empirical results, such as the detection of the Higgs particle and gravitational waves, and the failure to detect supersymmetry where many expected to find it, question the validity of certain philosophical (...)
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  17.  3
    A General Theorem on Temporal Foliations of Causal Sets.Ali Bleybel & Abdallah Zaiour - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (4):456-478.
    Causal sets are a particular class of partially ordered sets, which are proposed as basic models of discrete space-time, specially in the field of quantum gravity. In this context, we show the existence of temporal foliations for any causal set, or more generally, for a causal space. Moreover, we show that automorphisms of a large class of infinite causal sets fall into two classes 1) Automorphisms of spacelike hypersurfaces in some given foliation, or 2) Translations in time. More generally, we (...)
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  18.  1
    Energy and Uncertainty in General Relativity.F. I. Cooperstock & M. J. Dupre - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (4):387-394.
    The issue of energy and its potential localizability in general relativity has challenged physicists for more than a century. Many non-invariant measures were proposed over the years but an invariant measure was never found. We discovered the invariant localized energy measure by expanding the domain of investigation from space to spacetime. We note from relativity that the finiteness of the velocity of propagation of interactions necessarily induces indefiniteness in measurements. This is because the elements of actual physical systems being measured (...)
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  19.  4
    Generalized Stefan–Boltzmann Law.Gilles Montambaux - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (4):395-410.
    We reconsider the thermodynamic derivation by L. Boltzmann of the Stefan law and we generalize it for various different physical systems whose chemical potential vanishes. Being only based on classical arguments, therefore independent of the quantum statistics, this derivation applies as well to the saturated Bose gas in various geometries as to “compensated” Fermi gas near a neutrality point, such as a gas of Weyl Fermions. It unifies in the same framework the thermodynamics of many different bosonic or fermionic non-interacting (...)
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  20.  4
    Losing Stuff Down a Black Hole.Elias Okon & Daniel Sudarsky - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (4):411-428.
    Over the years, the so-called black hole information loss paradox has generated an amazingly diverse set of proposals. However, 40 years after the introduction of Hawking’s radiation, there continues to be a debate regarding whether the effect does, in fact, lead to an actual problem. In this paper we try to clarify some aspect of the discussion by describing two possible perspectives regarding the landscape of the information loss issue. Moreover, we advance a fairly conservative point of view regarding the (...)
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  21.  6
    Can We Make Sense of Relational Quantum Mechanics?Quentin Ruyant - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (4):440-455.
    The relational interpretation of quantum mechanics proposes to solve the measurement problem and reconcile completeness and locality of quantum mechanics by postulating relativity to the observer for events and facts, instead of an absolute “view from nowhere”. The aim of this paper is to clarify this interpretation, and in particular, one of its central claims concerning the possibility for an observer to have knowledge about other observer’s events. I consider three possible readings of this claim, and develop the most promising (...)
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  22.  3
    Decoherence and Determinism in a One-Dimensional Cloud-Chamber Model.Jean-Marc Sparenberg & David Gaspard - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (4):429-439.
    The hypothesis that the particular linear tracks appearing in the measurement of a spherically-emitting radioactive source in a cloud chamber are determined by the positions of atoms or molecules inside the chamber is further explored in the framework of a recently established one-dimensional model. In this model, meshes of localized spins 1/2 play the role of the cloud-chamber atoms and the spherical wave is replaced by a linear superposition of two wave packets moving from the origin to the left and (...)
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  23.  4
    Completing the Physical Representation of Quantum Algorithms Provides a Quantitative Explanation of Their Computational Speedup.Giuseppe Castagnoli - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (3):333-354.
    The usual representation of quantum algorithms, limited to the process of solving the problem, is physically incomplete. We complete it in three steps: extending the representation to the process of setting the problem, relativizing the extended representation to the problem solver to whom the problem setting must be concealed, and symmetrizing the relativized representation for time reversal to represent the reversibility of the underlying physical process. The third steps projects the input state of the representation, where the problem solver is (...)
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  24.  10
    What is Quantum Mechanics? A Minimal Formulation.R. Friedberg & P. C. Hohenberg - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (3):295-332.
    This paper presents a minimal formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, by which is meant a formulation which describes the theory in a succinct, self-contained, clear, unambiguous and of course correct manner. The bulk of the presentation is the so-called “microscopic theory”, applicable to any closed system S of arbitrary size N, using concepts referring to S alone, without resort to external apparatus or external agents. An example of a similar minimal microscopic theory is the standard formulation of classical mechanics, which (...)
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  25.  3
    Generalized Ehrenfest Relations, Deformation Quantization, and the Geometry of Inter-Model Reduction.Joshua Rosaler - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (3):355-385.
    This study attempts to spell out more explicitly than has been done previously the connection between two types of formal correspondence that arise in the study of quantum–classical relations: one the one hand, deformation quantization and the associated continuity between quantum and classical algebras of observables in the limit \, and, on the other, a certain generalization of Ehrenfest’s Theorem and the result that expectation values of position and momentum evolve approximately classically for narrow wave packet states. While deformation quantization (...)
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  26.  1
    On the Boltzmann–Grad Limit for Smooth Hard-Sphere Systems.Massimo Tessarotto, Claudio Cremaschini, Michael Mond, Claudio Asci, Alessandro Soranzo & Gino Tironi - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (3):271-294.
    The problem is posed of the prescription of the so-called Boltzmann–Grad limit operator ) for the N-body system of smooth hard-spheres which undergo unary, binary as well as multiple elastic instantaneous collisions. It is proved, that, despite the non-commutative property of the operator \, the Boltzmann equation can nevertheless be uniquely determined. In particular, consistent with the claim of Uffink and Valente that there is “no time-asymmetric ingredient” in its derivation, the Boltzmann equation is shown to be time-reversal symmetric. The (...)
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  27.  12
    The Relativistic Geometry and Dynamics of Electrons.M. F. Atiyah & J. Malkoun - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (2):199-208.
    Atiyah and Sutcliffe made a number of conjectures about configurations of N distinct points in hyperbolic 3-space, arising from ideas of Berry and Robbins. In this paper we prove all these conjectures, purely geometrically, but we also provide a physical interpretation in terms of Electrons.
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  28.  7
    A Note on the Problem of Proper Time in Weyl Space–Time.R. Avalos, F. Dahia & C. Romero - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (2):253-270.
    We discuss the question of whether or not a general Weyl structure is a suitable mathematical model of space–time. This is an issue that has been in debate since Weyl formulated his unified field theory for the first time. We do not present the discussion from the point of view of a particular unification theory, but instead from a more general standpoint, in which the viability of such a structure as a model of space–time is investigated. Our starting point is (...)
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  29.  9
    How Not to Establish the Non-Renormalizability of Gravity.Juliusz Doboszewski & Niels Linnemann - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (2):237-252.
    General relativity cannot be formulated as a perturbatively renormalizable quantum field theory. An argument relying on the validity of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula aims at dismissing gravity as non-renormalizable per se, against hopes that d-dimensional GR could turn out to have a non-perturbatively renormalizable d–dimensional quantum field theoretic formulation. In this note we discuss various forms of highly problematic semi-classical extrapolations assumed by both sides of the debate concerning what we call The Entropy Argument, and show that a large class (...)
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  30.  6
    Symmetry, Reference Frames, and Relational Quantities in Quantum Mechanics.Leon Loveridge, Takayuki Miyadera & Paul Busch - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (2):135-198.
    We propose that observables in quantum theory are properly understood as representatives of symmetry-invariant quantities relating one system to another, the latter to be called a reference system. We provide a rigorous mathematical language to introduce and study quantum reference systems, showing that the orthodox “absolute” quantities are good representatives of observable relative quantities if the reference state is suitably localised. We use this relational formalism to critique the literature on the relationship between reference frames and superselection rules, settling a (...)
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  31.  5
    The Dynamics of Difference.Lee Smolin - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (2):121-134.
    A proposal is made for a fundamental theory, in which the history of the universe is constituted of diverse views of itself. Views are attributes of events, and the theory’s only be-ables; they comprise information about energy and momentum transferred to an event from its causal past. A dynamics is proposed for a universe constituted of views of events, which combines the energetic causal set dynamics with a potential energy based on a measure of the distinctiveness of the views, called (...)
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  32.  7
    Particle Trajectories for Quantum Field Theory.Jeroen C. Vink - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (2):209-236.
    The formulation of quantum mechanics developed by Bohm, which can generate well-defined trajectories for the underlying particles in the theory, can equally well be applied to relativistic quantum field theories to generate dynamics for the underlying fields. However, it does not produce trajectories for the particles associated with these fields. Bell has shown that an extension of Bohm’s approach can be used to provide dynamics for the fermionic occupation numbers in a relativistic quantum field theory. In the present paper, Bell’s (...)
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  33.  5
    Interaction-Free Effects Between Distant Atoms.Yakir Aharonov, Eliahu Cohen, Avshalom C. Elitzur & Lee Smolin - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (1):1-16.
    A Gedanken experiment is presented where an excited and a ground-state atom are positioned such that, within the former’s half-life time, they exchange a photon with 50% probability. A measurement of their energy state will therefore indicate in 50% of the cases that no photon was exchanged. Yet other measurements would reveal that, by the mere possibility of exchange, the two atoms have become entangled. Consequently, the “no exchange” result, apparently precluding entanglement, is non-locally established between the atoms by this (...)
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  34.  7
    Realistic Clocks for a Universe Without Time.K. L. H. Bryan & A. J. M. Medved - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (1):48-59.
    There are a number of problematic features within the current treatment of time in physical theories, including the “timelessness” of the Universe as encapsulated by the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. This paper considers one particular investigation into resolving this issue; a conditional probability interpretation that was first proposed by Page and Wooters. Those authors addressed the apparent timelessness by subdividing a faux Universe into two entangled parts, “the clock” and “the remainder of the Universe”, and then synchronizing the effective dynamics of the (...)
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  35.  2
    Non-Minimal Coupling of the Higgs Boson to Curvature in an Inflationary Universe.Xavier Calmet, Iberê Kuntz & Ian G. Moss - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (1):110-120.
    In the absence of new physics around \ GeV, the electroweak vacuum is at best metastable. This represents a major challenge for high scale inflationary models as, during the early rapid expansion of the universe, it seems difficult to understand how the Higgs vacuum would not decay to the true lower vacuum of the theory with catastrophic consequences if inflation took place at a scale above \ GeV. In this paper we show that the non-minimal coupling of the Higgs boson (...)
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  36.  6
    Self-Accelerated Universe Induced by Repulsive Effects as an Alternative to Dark Energy and Modified Gravities.Orlando Luongo & Hernando Quevedo - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (1):17-26.
    The existence of current–time universe’s acceleration is usually modeled by means of two main strategies. The first makes use of a dark energy barotropic fluid entering by hand the energy–momentum tensor of Einstein’s theory. The second lies on extending the Hilbert–Einstein action giving rise to the class of extended theories of gravity. In this work, we propose a third approach, derived as an intrinsic geometrical effect of space–time, which provides repulsive regions under certain circumstances. We demonstrate that the effects of (...)
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  37.  12
    Quantum Locality, Rings a Bell?: Bell’s Inequality Meets Local Reality and True Determinism.Natalia Sánchez-Kuntz & Eduardo Nahmad-Achar - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (1):27-47.
    By assuming a deterministic evolution of quantum systems and taking realism into account, we carefully build a hidden variable theory for Quantum Mechanics based on the notion of ontological states proposed by ’t Hooft. We view these ontological states as the ones embedded with realism and compare them to the quantum states that represent superpositions, viewing the latter as mere information of the system they describe. Such a deterministic model puts forward conditions for the applicability of Bell’s inequality: the usual (...)
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  38.  9
    A Local-Realistic Model of Quantum Mechanics Based on a Discrete Spacetime.Antonio Sciarretta - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (1):60-91.
    This paper presents a realistic, stochastic, and local model that reproduces nonrelativistic quantum mechanics results without using its mathematical formulation. The proposed model only uses integer-valued quantities and operations on probabilities, in particular assuming a discrete spacetime under the form of a Euclidean lattice. Individual particle trajectories are described as random walks. Transition probabilities are simple functions of a few quantities that are either randomly associated to the particles during their preparation, or stored in the lattice nodes they visit during (...)
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  39.  1
    Quantum Bit Commitment and the Reality of the Quantum State.R. Srikanth - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (1):92-109.
    Quantum bit commitment is insecure in the standard non-relativistic quantum cryptographic framework, essentially because Alice can exploit quantum steering to defer making her commitment. Two assumptions in this framework are that: Alice knows the ensembles of evidence E corresponding to either commitment; and system E is quantum rather than classical. Here, we show how relaxing assumption or can render her malicious steering operation indeterminable or inexistent, respectively. Finally, we present a secure protocol that relaxes both assumptions in a quantum teleportation (...)
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