|Abstract||Implicit learning – broadly construed as learning without awareness – is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon that deﬁes easy deﬁnition. Frensch (1998) listed as many as eleven deﬁnitions in an overview, a diversity that is undoubtedly symptomatic of the conceptual and methodological challenges that continue to pervade the ﬁeld forty years after the term ﬁrst appeared in the literature (Reber, 1967). According to Berry and Dienes (1993), learning is implicit when an individual acquires new information without intending to do so and in such a way that the resulting knowledge is difﬁcult to express. In this, implicit learning thus contrasts strongly with explicit learning (e.g., as when learning how to solve a problem or learning a concept), which is typically hypothesisdriven and fully conscious. Implicit learning is the process through which one becomes sensitive to certain regularities in the environment: (1) without trying to learn regularities, (2) without knowing that one is learning regularities, and (3) in such a way that the resulting knowledge is unconscious.|
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