David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):524-549 (2001)
Three experiments are reported that address the issue of awareness in evaluative learning in two different sensory modalities: visual and haptic. Attempts were made to manipulate the degree of awareness through a reduction technique (by use of a distractor task in Experiments 1 and 2 and by subliminally presenting affective stimuli in Experiment 3) and an induction technique (by unveiling the evaluative learning effect and requiring participants to try to discount the influence of the affective stimuli). The results indicate overall that evaluative learning was successful in the awareness-reduction groups but not in the awareness-induction groups. Moreover, an effect in the opposite direction to that normally observed in evaluative learning emerged in participants aware of the stimulus contingencies. In addition, individual differences in psychological reactance were found to be implicated in the strength and direction of the effect. It is argued that these results pose serious problems for the contention that awareness is necessary for evaluative learning.
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Chris J. Mitchell, Jan De Houwer & Peter F. Lovibond (2009). The Propositional Nature of Human Associative Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):183-198.
Eamon P. Fulcher & Marianne Hammerl (2005). Reactance in Affective‐Evaluative Learning: Outside of Conscious Control? Cognition and Emotion 19 (2):197-216.
Anne Gast & Klaus Rothermund (2011). What You See is What Will Change: Evaluative Conditioning Effects Depend on a Focus on Valence. Cognition and Emotion 25 (1):89-110.
Eva Walther, Benjamin Nagengast & Claudia Trasselli (2005). Evaluative Conditioning in Social Psychology: Facts and Speculations. Cognition and Emotion 19 (2):175-196.
Frank Baeyens, Andy P. Field & Jan De Houwer (2005). Associative Learning of Likes and Dislikes: Some Current Controversies and Possible Ways Forward. Cognition and Emotion 19 (2):161-174.
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