David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):524-549 (2001)
Three experiments are reported that address the issue of awareness in evaluative learning in two different sensory modalities: visual and haptic. Attempts were made to manipulate the degree of awareness through a reduction technique (by use of a distractor task in Experiments 1 and 2 and by subliminally presenting affective stimuli in Experiment 3) and an induction technique (by unveiling the evaluative learning effect and requiring participants to try to discount the influence of the affective stimuli). The results indicate overall that evaluative learning was successful in the awareness-reduction groups but not in the awareness-induction groups. Moreover, an effect in the opposite direction to that normally observed in evaluative learning emerged in participants aware of the stimulus contingencies. In addition, individual differences in psychological reactance were found to be implicated in the strength and direction of the effect. It is argued that these results pose serious problems for the contention that awareness is necessary for evaluative learning.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
David R. Shanks & Mark F. St John (1994). Characteristics of Dissociable Human Learning Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):367-395.
Larry L. Jacoby (1991). A Process Dissociation Framework: Separating Automatic From Intentional Uses of Memory. Journal of Memory and Language 30:513-41.
Robert F. Bornstein (1989). Exposure and Affect: Overview and Meta-Analysis of Research 1968-1987. Psychological Bulletin 106:265-89.
John F. Kihlstrom (1987). The Cognitive Unconscious. Science 237:1445-1452.
Philip M. Merikle, S. Joordens & J. A. Stolz (1995). Measuring the Relative Magnitude of Unconscious Influences. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (4):422-39.
Citations of this work BETA
Chris J. Mitchell, Jan De Houwer & Peter F. Lovibond (2009). The Propositional Nature of Human Associative Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):183-198.
Frank Baeyens, Andy P. Field & Jan De Houwer (2005). Associative Learning of Likes and Dislikes: Some Current Controversies and Possible Ways Forward. Cognition and Emotion 19 (2):161-174.
Bertram Gawronski & Derek G. V. Mitchell (2014). Simultaneous Conditioning of Valence and Arousal. Cognition and Emotion 28 (4):577-595.
Eva Walther, Benjamin Nagengast & Claudia Trasselli (2005). Evaluative Conditioning in Social Psychology: Facts and Speculations. Cognition and Emotion 19 (2):175-196.
Eamon P. Fulcher & Marianne Hammerl (2005). Reactance in Affective‐Evaluative Learning: Outside of Conscious Control? Cognition and Emotion 19 (2):197-216.
Similar books and articles
J. M. Brunstrom (2004). Does Dietary Learning Occur Outside Awareness? Consciousness and Cognition 13 (3):453-470.
A. P. Field (2001). When All is Still Concealed: Are We Closer to Understanding the Mechanisms Underlying Evaluative Conditioning? Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):559-566.
A. P. Field (2000). Evaluative Conditioning is Pavlovian Conditioning: Issues of Definition, Measurement, and the Theoretical Importance of Contingency Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (1):41-49.
A. Field (2000). I Like It, but I'm Not Sure Why: Can Evaluative Conditioning Occur Without Conscious Awareness? Consciousness and Cognition 9 (1):13-36.
Helena M. Purkis & Ottmar V. Lipp (2001). Does Affective Learning Exist in the Absence of Contingency Awareness? Learning and Motivation 32 (1):84-99.
Muriel Vandenberghe, Nicolas Schmidt, Patrick Fery & Axel Cleeremans (2006). Can Amnesic Patients Learn Without Awareness? New Evidence Comparing Deterministic and Probabilistic Sequence Learning. Neuropsychologia 44 (10):1629-1641.
S. Devriese, W. Winters, I. van Diest & O. van den Bergh (2004). Contingency Awareness in a Symptom Learning Paradigm: Necessary but Not Sufficient? Consciousness and Cognition 13 (3):439-452.
Sam Rakover (1993). Empirical Criteria for Task Susceptibility to Introspective Awareness and Awareness Effects. Philosophical Psychology 6 (4):451 – 467.
James R. Schmidt, Matthew J. C. Crump, Jim Cheesman & Derek Besner (2007). Contingency Learning Without Awareness: Evidence for Implicit Control. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):421-435.
Eamon P. Fulcher & Marianne Hammerl (2001). When All is Considered: Evaluative Learning Does Not Require Contingency Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):567-573.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads11 ( #292,384 of 1,790,294 )
Recent downloads (6 months)3 ( #267,458 of 1,790,294 )
How can I increase my downloads?