David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):501-527 (2008)
The James–Lange theory considers emotional feelings as perceptions of physiological body changes. This approach has recently resurfaced and modified in both neuroscientific and philosophical concepts of embodiment of emotional feelings. In addition to the body, the role of the environment in emotional feeling needs to be considered. I here claim that the environment has not merely an indirect and thus instrumental role on emotional feelings via the body and its sensorimotor and vegetative functions. Instead, the environment may have a direct and non-instrumental, i.e., constitutional role in emotional feelings; this implies that the environment itself in the gestalt of the person–environment relation is constitutive of emotional feeling rather than the bodily representation of the environment. Since the person–environment relation is crucial in this approach, I call it the relational concept of emotional feeling. After introducing the relational concept of emotional feeling, the present paper investigates the neurophilosophical question whether current neuroimaging data on human emotion processing and anatomical connectivity are empirically better compatible with the “relational” or the “embodied” concept of emotional feeling. These data lend support to the empirical assumption that neural activity in subcortical and cortical midline regions code the relationship between intero- and exteroceptive stimuli in a relational mode, i.e. their actual balance, rather than in a translational mode, i.e., by translating extero- into interoceptive stimulus changes. Such intero-exteroceptive relational mode of neural coding may have implications for the characterization of emotional feeling with regard to phenomenal consciousness and intentionality. I therefore conclude that the here advanced relational concept of emotional feeling may be considered neurophilosophically more plausible and better compatible with current neuroscientific data than the embodied concept as presupposed in the James–Lange theory and its modern neuroscientific and philosophical versions.
|Keywords||Emotion Feelings Neurophilosophy Embodiment|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Shaun Gallagher (2005). How the Body Shapes the Mind. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Alva Noë (2005). Action in Perception. The MIT Press.
Dan Zahavi (2005). Subjectivity and Selfhood: Investigating the First-Person Perspective. Cambridge MA: Bradford Book/MIT Press.
Peter Goldie (2000). The Emotions: A Philosophical Exploration. Oxford University Press.
Citations of this work BETA
Matthew Ratcliffe (2011). Depression, Guilt and Emotional Depth. Inquiry 53 (6):602-626.
Similar books and articles
James Harold (2010). Mixed Feelings: Conflicts in Emotional Responses to Film. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 34 (1):280-294.
Mark Wynn (2005). Emotional Experience and Religious Understanding: Integrating Perception, Conception and Feeling. Cambridge University Press.
Christine Tappolet (2002). Long-Term Emotions and Emotional Experiences in the Explanation of Actions. European Review of Philosophy 5:151-161.
Tim Bloser (2011). Emotional Feelings. Philosophical Papers 40 (2):179 - 205.
Georg Northoff & Alexander Heinzel (2009). Emotional Feeling and the Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations. Philosophical Psychology 22 (4):443-464.
Alexander Heinzel & Georg Northoff (2009). Emotional Feeling and the Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations. Philosophical Psychology 22 (4):443 – 464.
David Carr (2002). Feelings in Moral Conflict and the Hazards of Emotional Intelligence. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 5 (1):3-21.
Michael Lacewing (2005). Emotional Self-Awareness and Ethical Deliberation. Ratio 18 (1):65-81.
Peter Goldie (2002). Emotions, Feelings and Intentionality. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 1 (3):235-254.
Georg Northoff (2008). Is Appraisal 'Embodied' and 'Embedded'? A Neurophilosophical Investigation of Emotions. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (5):68-99.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads83 ( #54,719 of 1,938,851 )
Recent downloads (6 months)3 ( #219,396 of 1,938,851 )
How can I increase my downloads?