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  1. Georg Northoff (2014). Unlocking the Brain: Volume 1: Coding. Oup Usa.
    What makes our brain a brain? This is the central question posited in Unlocking the Brain. By providing a fascinating venture into different territories of neuroscience, psychiatry, and philosophy, the author takes a novel exploration of the brain's resting state in the context of the neural code, and its ability to yield consciousness.
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  2. Georg Northoff (2014). Unlocking the Brain: Volume 2: Consciousness. Oup Usa.
    What makes our brain a brain? This is the central question posited in Unlocking the Brain. By providing a fascinating venture into different territories of neuroscience, psychiatry, and philosophy, the author takes a novel exploration of the brain's resting state in the context of the neural code, and its ability to yield consciousness.
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  3. Heinz Boeker, André Richter, Holger Himmighoffen, Jutta Ernst, Laura Bohleber, Elena Hofmann, Johannes Vetter & Georg Northoff (2013). Essentials of Psychoanalytic Process and Change: How Can We Investigate the Neural Effects of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in Individualized Neuro-Imaging? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
    The paper focuses on the essentials of psychoanalytic process and change and the question of how the neural correlates and mechanisms of psychodynamic psychotherapy can be investigated. The psychoanalytic approach aims at enabling the patient to “remember, repeat and work through” concerning explicit memory. Moreover, the relationship between analyst and patient establishes a new affective configuration which enables a reconstruction of the implicit memory. If psychic change can be achieved it corresponds to neuronal transformation. Individualized neuro-imaging requires controlling and measuring (...)
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  4. Moritz de Greck, Annette F. Bölter, Lisa Lehmann, Cornelia Ulrich, Eva Stockum, Björn Enzi, Thilo Hoffmann, Claus Tempelmann, Manfred Beutel, Jörg Frommer & Georg Northoff (2013). Changes in Brain Activity of Somatoform Disorder Patients During Emotional Empathy After Multimodal Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
    Somatoform disorder patients show a variety of emotional disturbances including impaired emotion recognition and increased empathic distress. In a previous paper, our group showed that several brain regions involved in emotional processing, such as the parahippocampal gyrus and other regions, were less activated in pre-treatment somatoform disorder patients (compared to healthy controls) during an empathy task. Since the parahippocampal gyrus is involved in emotional memory, its decreased activation might reflect the repression of emotional memories (which - according to psychoanalytical concepts (...)
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  5. Takashi Nakao, Tomoya Matsumoto, Machiko Morita, Daisuke Shimizu, Shinpei Yoshimura, Georg Northoff, Shigeru Morinobu, Yasumasa Okamoto & Shigeto Yamawaki (2013). The Degree of Early Life Stress Predicts Decreased Medial Prefrontal Activations and the Shift From Internally to Externally Guided Decision Making: An Exploratory NIRS Study During Resting State and Self-Oriented Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
    Early life stress (ELS), an important risk factor for psychopathology in mental disorders, is associated neuronally with decreased functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in the resting state. Moreover, it is linked with greater deactivation in DMN during a working memory task. Although DMN shows large amplitudes of very-low-frequency oscillations (VLFO) and strong involvement during self-oriented tasks, these features’ relation to ELS remains unclear. Therefore, our preliminary study investigated the relationship between ELS and the degree of frontal activations (...)
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  6. Pengmin Qin, Niall Duncan & Georg Northoff (2013). Why and How is the Self Related to the Brain Midline Regions? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:909.
    Why and How is the Self-Related to the Brain Midline Regions?
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  7. Pengmin Qin, Simone Grimm, Niall W. Duncan, Giles Holland, Jia Shen Guo, Yan Fan, Anne Weigand, Juergen Baudewig, Malek Bajbouj & Georg Northoff (2013). Self-Specific Stimuli Interact Differently Than Non-Self-Specific Stimuli with Eyes-Open Versus Eyes-Closed Spontaneous Activity in Auditory Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
    Previous studies suggest that there may be a distinct relationship between spontaneous neural activity and subsequent or concurrent self-specific stimulus-induced activity. This study aims to test the impact of spontaneous activity as recorded in an eyes-open (EO) resting state as opposed to eyes-closed (EC) on self-specific versus non-self-specific auditory stimulus-induced activity in fMRI. In our first experiment we used self-specific stimuli comprised of the subject's own name and non-self-specific stimuli comprised of a friend's name and an unknown name, presented during (...)
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  8. Georg Northoff (2012). From Emotions to Consciousness – A Neuro-Phenomenal and Neuro-Relational Approach. Frontiers in Psychology 3.
    The James-Lange theory considers emotional feelings as perceptions of physiological body changes. This approach has recently resurfaced and modified in both neuroscientific and philosophical concepts of embodiment of emotional feelings. In addition to the body, the role of the environment in emotional feeling needs to be considered. I here claim that the environment has not merely an indirect and instrumental i.e. modulatory role on emotional feelings via the body and its sensorimotor and vegetative functions. Instead, the environment may have a (...)
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  9. Georg Northoff (2012). Immanuel Kant's Mind and the Brain's Resting State. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (7):356-359.
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  10. Georg Northoff (2012). Psychoanalysis and the Brain – Why Did Freud Abandon Neuroscience? Frontiers in Psychology 3.
    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, ‘Project of a Scientific Psychology’, in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic (...)
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  11. Georg Northoff (2011). Self and Brain: What is Self-Related Processing? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (5):186-187.
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  12. Georg Northoff, Pengmin Qin & Todd E. Feinberg (2011). Brain Imaging of the Self–Conceptual, Anatomical and Methodological Issues. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (1):52–63.
  13. Alexander Supady, Antonie Voelkel, Joachim Witzel, Udo Gubka & Georg Northoff (2011). How is Informed Consent Related to Emotions and Empathy? An Exploratory Neuroethical Investigation. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (5):311-317.
    Context Informed consent is crucial in daily clinical practice and research in medicine and psychiatry. A recent neuroethical investigation explored the psychological factors that are crucial in determining whether or not subjects give consent. While cognitive functions have been shown to play a central role, the impact of empathy and emotions on subjects' decisions in informed consent remains unclear. Objective To evaluate the impact of empathy and emotions on subjects' decision in informed consent in an exploratory study. Design Decisional capacity (...)
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  14. Alexander Heinzel & Georg Northoff (2009). Emotional Feeling and the Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations. Philosophical Psychology 22 (4):443 – 464.
    Emotional feeling can be defined as the affective constituent of emotions representing a subjective experience such as, for example, feeling love or hate. Several recent neuroimaging studies have focused on this affective component of emotions thereby aiming to characterise the underlying neural correlates. These studies indicate that the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex is crucially involved in the processing of emotional feeling. It is the aim of this paper to analyse the extent to which the present state of the art in neuroscience (...)
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  15. Alexander Heinzel & Georg Northoff (2009). Kripke's Modal Argument is Challenged by His Implausible Conception of Introspection. Kriterion 22:13-31.
  16. Georg Northoff (2009). What Are the Subjective Processes in Our Brain? Empirical and Ethical Implications of a Relational Concept of the Brain. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (9):27-28.
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  17. Georg Northoff & Alexander Heinzel (2009). Emotional Feeling and the Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations. Philosophical Psychology 22 (4):443-464.
    Emotional feeling can be defined as the affective constituent of emotions representing a subjective experience such as, for example, feeling love or hate. Several recent neuroimaging studies have focused on this affective component of emotions thereby aiming to characterise the underlying neural correlates. These studies indicate that the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex is crucially involved in the processing of emotional feeling. It is the aim of this paper to analyse the extent to which the present state of the art in neuroscience (...)
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  18. Jaak Panksepp & Georg Northoff (2009). The Trans-Species Core SELF: The Emergence of Active Cultural and Neuro-Ecological Agents Through Self-Related Processing Within Subcortical-Cortical Midline Networks. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):193–215.
  19. Georg Northoff (2008). Are Our Emotional Feelings Relational? A Neurophilosophical Investigation of the James–Lange Theory. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):501-527.
    The James–Lange theory considers emotional feelings as perceptions of physiological body changes. This approach has recently resurfaced and modified in both neuroscientific and philosophical concepts of embodiment of emotional feelings. In addition to the body, the role of the environment in emotional feeling needs to be considered. I here claim that the environment has not merely an indirect and thus instrumental role on emotional feelings via the body and its sensorimotor and vegetative functions. Instead, the environment may have a direct (...)
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  20. Georg Northoff (2008). Is Appraisal 'Embodied' and 'Embedded'? A Neurophilosophical Investigation of Emotions. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (5):68-99.
    Emotion theories in present philosophical discussion propose different models of relationship between feeling and appraisal. The multicomponent model considers appraisal as separate component and distinguishes it from feeling and physiological body changes thus presupposing what may be called 'disembodied' and 'disembedded' appraisal as representational. The recently emerged concept of enactment, in contrast, argues that appraisal is closely linked to feeling and physiological body changes presupposing what can be called 'embodied' and 'embedded' appraisal as relational. The aim of the paper is (...)
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  21. Georg Northoff (2008). What Kind of Neural Coding and Self Does Hurley's Shared Circuit Model Presuppose? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (1):33-34.
    Susan Hurley's impressive article about the shared circuit model (SCM) raises two important issues. First, I suggest that the SCM presupposes relational coding rather than translational coding as neural code. Second, the SCM being the basis for self implies that the self may be characterized as format, relational, and embodied and embedded, rather than by specific and isolated higher-order cognitive contents.
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  22. Georg Northoff & Jaak Panksepp (2008). The Trans-Species Concept of Self and the Subcortical–Cortical Midline System. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (7):259-264.
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  23. Georg Northoff (2007). Subcortical Regions and the Self. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):100-101.
    Merker argues that subcortical regions are sufficient for the constitution of consciousness as “immediate, unreflective experience” as distinguished from self-consciousness. My point here is that Merker neglects the differentiation between pre-reflective self-awareness and reflective self-consciousness. Pre-reflective self-awareness allows us to immediately and unreflectively experience our self, which functionally may be mediated by what I call self-related processing in subcortical regions. (Published Online May 1 2007).
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  24. Georg Northoff & Alexander Heinzel (2006). First-Person Neuroscience: A New Methodological Approach for Linking Mental and Neuronal States. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 1 (1):3.
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  25. Georg Northoff & K. Musholt (2006). How Can Searle Avoid Property Dualism? Epistemic-Ontological Inference and Autoepistemic Limitation. Philosophical Psychology 19 (5):589-605.
    Searle suggests biological naturalism as a solution to the mind-brain problem that escapes traditional terminology with its seductive pull towards either dualism or materialism. We reconstruct Searle's argument and demonstrate that it needs additional support to represent a position truly located between dualism and materialism. The aim of our paper is to provide such an additional argument. We introduce the concept of "autoepistemic limitation" that describes our principal inability to directly experience our own brain as a brain from (...)
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  26. Georg Northoff (2005). Emotional-Cognitive Integration, the Self, and Cortical Midline Structures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):211-212.
    Lewis discusses the dynamic mechanisms of emotional-cognitive integration. I argue that he neglects the self and its neural correlate. The self can be characterized as an emotional-cognitive unity, which may be accounted for by the interplay between anterior and posterior medial cortical regions. I propose that these regions form an anatomical, physiological, and psychological unity, the cortical midline structures (CMSs).
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  27. Georg Northoff (2005). Is Emotion Regulation Self-Regulation? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (9):408-409.
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  28. Georg Northoff (2004). Am I My Brain? Personal Identity and Brain Identity - a Combined Philosophical and Psychological Investigation in Brain Implants. Philosophia Naturalis 41 (2):257-282.
     
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  29. Georg Northoff (2004). Philosophy of the Brain: The Brain Problem. John Benjamins.
    This novel approach plunges the reader into the depths of our own brain.
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  30. Georg Northoff (2004). Why Do We Need a Philosophy of the Brain? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (11):484-485.
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  31. Georg Northoff (2004). What is Neurophilosophy? A Methodological Account. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 35 (1):91-127.
    The term ``neurophilosophy'' is often used either implicitly or explicitly for characterizing the investigation of philosophical theories in relation to neuroscientific hypotheses. The exact methodological principles and systematic rules for a linkage between philosophical theories and neuroscientific hypothesis, however, remain to be clarified. The present contribution focuses on these principles, as well as on the relation between ontology and epistemology and the characterization of hypothesis in neurophilosophy. Principles of transdisciplinary methodology include the `principle of asymmetry', the `principle of bi-directionality' and (...)
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  32. Georg Northoff (2003). Qualia and the Ventral Prefrontal Cortical Function 'Neurophenomenological' Hypothesis. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (8):14-48.
  33. Georg Northoff & Alexander Heinzel (2003). The Self in Philosophy, Neuroscience and Psychiatry: An Epistemic Approach. In Tilo Kircher & Anthony S. David (eds.), The Self in Neuroscience and Psychiatry. Cambridge University Press. 40.
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  34. Georg Northoff (2002). Neurophysiology, Neuropsychiatry and Neurophilosophy of Catatonia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):592-599.
    The excellent and highly interesting commentaries address the following concerns: (1) neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of catatonia; (2) cognitive-motor deficits in catatonia; (3) conceptual issues; (4) general methodology in neuropsychiatric research; and (5) neurophilosophical implications. The specific problems, issues, and aspects raised by the different commentators are grouped under these categories in Table R1 presented below. These five areas of concern are then discussed in the order listed in the five sections of the Response.
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  35. Georg Northoff (2002). What Catatonia Can Tell Us About “Top-Down Modulation”: A Neuropsychiatric Hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):555-577.
    Differential diagnosis of motor symptoms, for example, akinesia, may be difficult in clinical neuropsychiatry. Symptoms may be either of neurologic origin, for example, Parkinson's disease, or of psychiatric origin, for example, catatonia, leading to a so-called “conflict of paradigms.” Despite their different origins, symptoms may appear more or less clinically similar. Possibility of dissociation between origin and clinical appearance may reflect functional brain organisation in general, and cortical-cortical/subcortical relations in particular. It is therefore hypothesized that similarities and differences between Parkinson's (...)
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  36. Georg Northoff (2001). "Brain-Paradox" and "Embeddment": Do We Need a "Philosophy of the Brain"? Brain and Mind 195 (2):195-211.
    Present discussions in philosophy of mind focuson ontological and epistemic characteristics ofmind and on mind-brain relations. In contrast,ontological and epistemic characteristics ofthe brain have rarely been thematized. Rather,philosophy seems to rely upon an implicitdefinition of the brain as "neuronal object''and "object of recognition'': henceontologically and epistemically distinct fromthe mind, characterized as "mental subject'' and"subject of recognition''. This leads to the"brain-paradox''. This ontological and epistemicdissociation between brain and mind can beconsidered central for the problems of mind andmind-brain relations that have yet (...)
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  37. Georg Northoff (2001). Was ist Neurophilosophie? Programmatische Charakterisierung eines neuen Ansatzes. Philosophia Naturalis 38 (2):205-244.
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  38. Georg Northoff (2000). Are "Q-Memories" Empirically Realistic? A Neurophilosophical Approach. Philosophical Psychology 13 (2):191-211.
    "Quasi-memories," necessarily presupposing a distinction between an "experiencing" and a "remembering" person, are considered by Parfit and Shoemaker as necessary and/or sufficient criteria for personal identity. However, the concept of "q-memories" is rejected by Schechtman since, according to her, neither "content" and "experience" can be separated from each other in "q-memories" ("principal inseparability") nor can they be distinguished from delusions/confabulations ("principal indistinguishability"). The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate that, relying on a neurophilosophical approach, both arguments can be (...)
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  39. Georg Northoff (1999). Neuropsychiatry, Epistemology, and Ontology of the Brain: A Response to the Commentaries. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 6 (3):231-235.
  40. Georg Northoff (1999). Psychomotor Phenomena as Paradigmatic Examples of Functional Brain Organization and Mind-Brain Relationship: Do We Need a" Philosophy of the Brain"? Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 6 (3):199-215.
  41. Georg Northoff (1997). Analyomen 2, Volume III: Philosophy of Mind, Practical Philosophy, Miscellanea. Hawthorne: De Gruyter.
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  42. Georg Northoff (1997). Mental States in Phenomenological and Analytical Philosophy. In Analyomen 2, Volume III: Philosophy of Mind, Practical Philosophy, Miscellanea. Hawthorne: De Gruyter.
     
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  43. Georg Northoff (ed.) (1997). Neuropsychiatrie Und Neurophilosophie. Schöningh.
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  44. Georg Northoff (1995). Qualia Im Knotenpunkt Zwischen Leib Und Seele: „Argumentatives“ Dilemma in der Gegenwärtigen Diskussion Über Die Subjektivität Mentaler Zustände. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 26 (2):269 - 295.
    Qualia in the node-point between mind and body: Dilemma of present discussion about the subjectivity of mental states. The present discussion about qualia shows a bewildering variety of different positions. We show implicit assumptions about brain, subject, and qualia of this complex discussion. By means of three assumptions we divide the discussion about qualia into three different positions (proposition, opposition, intermediate solutions). These positions and their exemplaric authors are briefly presented along the lines of the three assumptions. The next step (...)
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