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Profile: Kristian Sandberg (University of Aarhus)
  1.  18
    Kristian Sandberg, Bert Timmermans, Morten Overgaard & Axel Cleeremans (2010). Measuring Consciousness: Is One Measure Better Than the Other? Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1069-1078.
    What is the best way of assessing the extent to which people are aware of a stimulus? Here, using a masked visual identification task, we compared three measures of subjective awareness: The Perceptual Awareness Scale , through which participants are asked to rate the clarity of their visual experience; confidence ratings , through which participants express their confidence in their identification decisions, and Post-decision wagering , in which participants place a monetary wager on their decisions. We conducted detailed explorations of (...)
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  2.  40
    Morten Overgaard, Bert Timmermans, Kristian Sandberg & Axel Cleeremans (2010). Optimizing Subjective Measures of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):682-684.
    Dienes and Seth (2010) conclude that confidence ratings and post-decision wagering are two comparable and recommendable measures of conscious experience. In a recently submitted paper, we have however found that both methods are problematic and seem less suited to measure consciousness than a direct introspective measure. Here, we discuss the methodology and conclusions put forward by Dienes and Seth, and why we think the two experiments end up with so different recommendations.
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    Kristian Sandberg, Bo Martin Bibby & Morten Overgaard (2013). Measuring and Testing Awareness of Emotional Face Expressions. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):806-809.
    Comparison of behavioural measures of consciousness has attracted much attention recently. In a recent article, Szczepanowski et al. conclude that confidence ratings predict accuracy better than both the perceptual awareness scale and post-decision wagering when using stimuli with emotional content . Although we find the study interesting, we disagree with the conclusion that CR is superior to PAS because of two methodological issues. First, the conclusion is not based on a formal test. We performed this test and found no evidence (...)
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    Kristian Sandberg, Bo Martin Bibby, Bert Timmermans, Axel Cleeremans & Morten Overgaard (2011). Measuring Consciousness: Task Accuracy and Awareness as Sigmoid Functions of Stimulus Duration. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1659-1675.
    When consciousness is examined using subjective ratings, the extent to which processing is conscious or unconscious is often estimated by calculating task performance at the subjective threshold or by calculating the correlation between accuracy and awareness. However, both these methods have certain limitations. In the present article, we propose describing task accuracy and awareness as functions of stimulus intensity as suggested by Koch and Preuschoff . The estimated lag between the curves describes how much stimulus intensity must increase for awareness (...)
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  5.  22
    Bert Timmermans, Kristian Sandberg, Axel Cleeremans & Morten Overgaard (2010). Partial Awareness Distinguishes Between Measuring Conscious Perception and Conscious Content: Reply to Dienes and Seth. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1081-1083.
    In their comment on Sandberg, Timmermans, Overgaard, and Cleeremans , Dienes and Seth argue that increased sensitivity of the Perceptual Awareness Scale is a consequence of the scale being less exclusive rather than more exhaustive. According to Dienes and Seth, this is because PAS may measure some conscious content, though not necessarily relevant conscious content, “If one saw a square but was only aware of seeing a flash of something, then one has not consciously seen a square.” In this reply, (...)
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