Philosophy of Medicine

ISSN: 2692-3963

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  1.  9
    Methods of Inference and Shaken Baby Syndrome.Nicholas Binney - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    Exploring the early development of an area of medical literature can inform contemporary medical debates. Different methods of inference include deduction, induction, abduction, and inference to the best explanation. I argue that early shaken baby research is best understood as using abduction to tentatively suggest that infants with unexplained intracranial and ocular bleeding have been assaulted. However, this tentative conclusion was quickly interpreted, by some at least, as a general rule that infants with these pathological signs were certainly cases of (...)
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  2.  19
    “Tortured Phrases” in Covid-19 Literature.Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    Medical practitioners and healthcare workers rely on information accuracy in academic journals. Some Covid-19 papers contain “tortured phrases”, nonstandard English expressions, or imprecise or erroneous terms, that give the impression of jargon but are not. Most post-publication attention paid to Covid-19 literature has focused on the accuracy of biomedical aspects, the validity of claims, or the robustness of data, but little has been published on linguistic specificity. This paper highlights the existence of “tortured phrases” in select Covid-19 literature, arguing that (...)
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  3.  13
    Philosophers of Medicine Should Write More Letters for Medical Journals.Timothy Daly - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
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  4.  35
    When, How, and Why Did “Pain” Become Subjective?Charles Djordjevic - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    The pain-assessment literature often claims that pain is subjective. However, the meaning and implications of this claim are left to the reader’s imagination. This paper attempts to make sense of the claim and its problems from the history and philosophy of science perspective. It examines the work of Henry Beecher, the first person to operationalize “pain” in terms of subjective measurements. First, I reconstruct Beecher’s operationalization of “pain.” Next, I argue this operationalization fails. Third, I salvage Beecher’s insights by repositioning (...)
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  5.  38
    Medical Disorder Is Not a Black Box Essentialist Concept.Harriet Fagerberg - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    Defining Mental Disorder: Jerome Wakefield and His Critics, edited by Denis Forest and Luc Faucher, is essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy of medicine whose work is informed by that of Jerome Wakefield, or the disease debate in general. If you are anything like me, this book will open the door to a new depth of understanding of the harmful dysfunction analysis (HDA) and its methodical underpinnings, and an enriched appreciation of what is at stake in defining medical (...)
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  6.  42
    What we argue about when we argue about disease.Harriet Fagerberg - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1):1-20.
    The disease debate in philosophy of medicine has traditionally been billed as a debate over the correct conceptual analysis of the term “disease.” This paper argues that although the debate’s participants overwhelmingly claim to be in the business of conceptual analysis, they do not tend to argue as if this is the case. In particular, they often show a puzzling disregard for key parameters such as precise terminology, linguistic community, and actual usage. This prima facie strange feature of the debate (...)
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  7.  11
    Allure of Simplicity.Thomas Grote - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    This paper develops an account of the opacity problem in medical machine learning (ML). Guided by pragmatist assumptions, I argue that opacity in ML models is problematic insofar as it potentially undermines the achievement of two key purposes: ensuring generalizability and optimizing clinician–machine decision-making. Three opacity amelioration strategies are examined, with explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) as the predominant approach, challenged by two revisionary strategies in the form of reliabilism and the interpretability by design. Comparing the three strategies, I argue that (...)
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  8.  30
    Epistemic Injustice Should Matter to Psychiatrists.Ian James Kidd, Lucienne Spencer & Eleanor Harris - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
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  9.  23
    From Evidence-Based Corona Medicine to Organismic Systems Corona Medicine.James A. Marcum & Felix Tretter - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    The Covid-19 pandemic has challenged both medicine and governments as they have strived to confront the pandemic and its consequences. One major challenge is that evidence-based medicine has struggled to provide timely and necessary evidence to guide medical practice and public policy formulation. We propose an extension of evidence-based corona medicine to an organismic systems corona medicine as a multilevel conceptual framework to develop a robust concept-oriented medical system. The proposed organismic systems corona medicine could help to prevent or mitigate (...)
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  10. Review of Jonathan Y. Tsou’s Philosophy of Psychiatry[REVIEW]Hane Htut Maung - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
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  11.  5
    DSM and Its Sociomedical Discontents.Simone Raudino & Francesco Raudino - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
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  12.  37
    Does Schizophrenia Exist?Georg Repnikov - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    This paper develops and defends a deflationary analysis of existence claims involving psychiatric disorders. According to this analysis, a given psychiatric disorder exists if, and only if, there are people who have the disorder. The implications of this analysis are spelled out for our views of nosological decision making, and for the relationship between claims about the existence of psychiatric disorders and claims about their reality. A pragmatic view of psychiatric nosology is defended and it is argued that worries about (...)
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  13.  12
    Why It (Also) Matters What Infectious Disease Epidemiologists Call “Disease”.David Stoellger - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    Infectious diseases figure prominently as (counter)examples in debates on how to conceptualize “disease.” But crucial epidemiological distinctions are often not heeded in the debate, and pathological and clinical perspectives focusing on individual patients are favored at the expense of perspectives from epidemiology focusing on populations. In clarifying epidemiological concepts, this paper highlights the distinct contributions infectious disease epidemiology can make to the conception of “disease,” and the fact that this is at least tacitly recognized by medical personnel and philosophers. Crucially, (...)
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  14.  12
    Polygene Risk Scores.James Woodward & Kenneth Kendler - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    This paper explores the interpretation and use of polygenic risk scores (PRSs). We argue that PRSs generally do not directly embody causal information. Nonetheless, they can assist us in tracking other causal relationships concerning genetic effects. Although their purely predictive/correlational use is important, it is this tracking feature that contributes to their potential usefulness in other applications, such as genetic dissection, and their use as controls, which allow us, indirectly, to "see" more clearly the role of environmental variables.
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  15.  19
    Equal Access to Parenthood and the Imperfect Duty to Benefit.J. Y. Lee & Ezio Di Nucci - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    Should involuntarily childless people have the same opportunities to access parenthood as those who are not involuntarily childless? In the context of assisted reproductive technologies, affirmative answers to this question are often cashed out in terms of positive rights, including rights to third-party reproduction. In this paper, we critically explore the scope and extent to which any such right would hold up morally. Ultimately, we argue for a departure away from positive parental rights. Instead, we argue that the state has (...)
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  16.  9
    On the Relationship between Asymptomatic Infections and Diseases.Martin Zach - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    Many microbes responsible for infectious diseases are known to run an asymptomatic course in a significant portion of the population. By highlighting the conceptual complexities of host-microbe interactions, this paper elucidates the fact that while many infections remain asymptomatic, this does not necessarily mean that such infections are of no concern for health. The paper builds on the so-called damage-response framework and considers several developments required to gain a more comprehensive perspective on infections and their relationship to diseases. Irrespective of (...)
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