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Nosology raises philosophical questions about what bases are and should be used for classifying diseases, often focusing on the use of biomedical (etiological/pathogenetic) versus symptomatic bases, and the nature of the ‘boundaries’ between conditions. Much of the existing literature focuses on mental disorder. Literature in applied ethics and related medical humanities examines how nosological systems have been shaped by social and historical factors; shape the practice of medicine at both clinical and policy levels; and raises a range of ethical issues such as access to treatment, labelling, and research practices.

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  1. Reactive Natural Kinds and Varieties of Dependence.Harriet Fagerberg -
    This paper asks when a natural disease kind is truly 'reactive' and when it is merely associated with a corresponding social kind. I begin with a permissive account of real kinds and their structure, distinguishing natural kinds, indifferent kinds and reactive kinds as varieties of real kind characterised by super-explanatory properties. I then to situate disease kinds within this framework, arguing that many disease kinds prima facie are both natural and reactive. I proceed to distinguish ‘simple dependence’, ‘secondary dependence’ and (...)
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  2. A Systematic Review of Empirical Evidence on Art Therapy With Traumatized Refugee Children and Youth.Nadia Annous, Anies Al-Hroub & Farah El Zein - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    The current global refugee crisis revealed that refugee children, youth, and adults are uniquely vulnerable to traumatic events. Yet, there are only a few studies available that report robust systematic data on art therapy interventions with mental health in recent refugee populations. The purpose of the study is to synthesize and evaluate the available research evidence on the use of art therapy in reducing post-traumatic stress disorder levels in refugees, and the quality of empirical evidence for each of the reviewed (...)
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  3. Classification of Anomalies in Gastrointestinal Tract Using Deep Learning.Ibtesam M. Dheir & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (3):15-28.
    Automatic detection of diseases and anatomical landmarks in medical images by the use of computers is important and considered a challenging process that could help medical diagnosis and reduce the cost and time of investigational procedures and refine health care systems all over the world. Recently, gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease diagnosis through endoscopic image classification is an active research area in the biomedical field. Several GI tract disease classification methods based on image processing and machine learning techniques have been proposed (...)
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  4. Nosological Diagnosis, Theories of Categorization, and Argumentations by Analogy.Francesco Gagliardi - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):311-330.
    The nosological diagnosis is a particular type of nontheoretical diagnosis consisting of identifying the disease that afflicts the patient without explaining the underlying etiopathological mechanisms. Its origins are within the essentialist point of view on the nature of diseases, which dates back at least to 18th-century taxonomy studies. In this article, we propose a model of nosological diagnosis as a two-phase process composed of the categorization of inductive inferences and argumentations by analogy. In the inductive phase, disease entities are identified (...)
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  5. Employing Machine Learning-Based Predictive Analytical Approaches to Classify Autism Spectrum Disorder Types.Muhammad Kashif Hanif, Naba Ashraf, Muhammad Umer Sarwar, Deleli Mesay Adinew & Reehan Yaqoob - 2022 - Complexity 2022:1-10.
    Autism spectrum disorder is an inherited long-living and neurological disorder that starts in the early age of childhood with complicated causes. Autism spectrum disorder can lead to mental disorders such as anxiety, miscommunication, and limited repetitive interest. If the autism spectrum disorder is detected in the early childhood, it will be very beneficial for children to enhance their mental health level. In this study, different machine and deep learning algorithms were applied to classify the severity of autism spectrum disorder. Moreover, (...)
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  6. Pathological Withdrawal Syndrome: A New Kind of Depression?Katelynn V. Healy - 2022 - Inquiries Journal.
    Marion Godman makes the argument that Pathological Withdrawal Syndrome (PWS) makes the case for psychiatric disorders as a natural kind. Godman argues that we can classify kinds according to their shared ‘grounding’, but we need not know what the grounding is to know that the natural is a natural kind. However, I argue that Godman erroneously classifies PWS as its own natural kind when it is in fact a variant of depression, which is its own natural kind. Cooper highlights culture-bound (...)
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  7. A Classification System for Post-Acute Sequelae of Sars Cov-2 Infection.Leonard A. Jason & Mohammed F. Islam - 2022 - Central Asian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ethics 3 (1):38-51.
    This study aimed to contribute to the development of a research case definition for post-acute sequelae of SARS CoV-2 infection using a PASC data set and experiences from case definitions developed for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome. Our database included patients with PASC who provided self-report symptomology during the onset of infection and the time of survey completion. We found that we could distinguish between those with mild, moderate, and severe PASC. Regarding the proportion meeting an ME/CFS case definition, we found (...)
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  8. La classification des maladies entre faits et valeurs : le cas de l’obésité.Pierre-Olivier Méthot - 2022 - Philosophiques 49 (1):61-80.
    L’obésité est aujourd’hui reconnue par de nombreuses associations médicales comme un état pathologique. Dans cet article, je m’intéresse d’abord à la construction des entités nosologiques avant d’aborder les étapes ayant conduit à la médicalisation de l’obésité au siècle dernier. J’examine ensuite les principales approches en philosophie de la médecine pour déterminer si elles offrent des arguments qui sont en faveur ou qui vont à l’encontre de la thèse selon laquelle l’obésité est une maladie. Je soutiens que l’approche naturaliste, plus sensible (...)
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  9. A Review on Voice Pathology: Taxonomy, Diagnosis, Medical Procedures and Detection Techniques, Open Challenges, Limitations, and Recommendations for Future Directions. [REVIEW]Mazin Abed Mohammed, Belal Al-Khateeb & Nuha Qais Abdulmajeed - 2022 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 31 (1):855-875.
    Speech is a primary means of human communication and one of the most basic features of human conduct. Voice is an important part of its subsystems. A speech disorder is a condition that affects the ability of a person to speak normally, which occasionally results in voice impairment with psychological and emotional consequences. Early detection of voice problems is a crucial factor. Computer-based procedures are less costly and easier to administer for such purposes than traditional methods. This study highlights the (...)
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  10. A Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization with Multi-Objective Clustering for Dermatologic Diseases Diagnosis.R. Nagaraja & Ravinder Reddy Baireddy - 2022 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 31 (1):876-890.
    Effective and personalized treatment relies heavily on skin disease categorization. In the stratification of skin disorders, it is crucial to identify the subtypes of illnesses to provide an efficient therapy. To attain this aim, researchers have focused their attention on cluster algorithms for the stratification of skin disorders in recent decades. But, cluster algorithms have real-world drawbacks, including experimental noises, a large number of dimensions, and a poor ability to comprehend. Cluster algorithms, in particular, determine the quality of clusters using (...)
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  11. Classification of Alzheimer's Disease Using Convolutional Neural Networks.Lamis F. Samhan, Amjad H. Alfarra & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 6 (3):18-23.
    Brain-related diseases are among the most difficult diseases due to their sensitivity, the difficulty of performing operations, and their high costs. In contrast, the operation is not necessary to succeed, as the results of the operation may be unsuccessful. One of the most common diseases that affect the brain is Alzheimer’s disease, which affects adults, a disease that leads to memory loss and forgetting information in varying degrees. According to the condition of each patient. For these reasons, it is important (...)
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  12. The DSM-5 Introduction of the Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder as a New Mental Disorder: A Philosophical Review.M. Cristina Amoretti, Elisabetta Lalumera & Davide Serpico - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (4):1-31.
    The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders included the Social Communication Disorder as a new mental disorder characterized by deficits in pragmatic abilities. Although the introduction of SPCD in the psychiatry nosography depended on a variety of reasons—including bridging a nosological gap in the macro-category of Communication Disorders—in the last few years researchers have identified major issues in such revision. For instance, the symptomatology of SPCD is notably close to that of Autism Spectrum Disorder. This (...)
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  13. Cardiac Disorder Classification by Electrocardiogram Sensing Using Deep Neural Network.Ali Haider Khan, Muzammil Hussain & Muhammad Kamran Malik - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-8.
    Cardiac disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiovascular diseases can be prevented if an effective diagnostic is made at the initial stages. The ECG test is referred to as the diagnostic assistant tool for screening of cardiac disorder. The research purposes of a cardiac disorder detection system from 12-lead-based ECG Images. The healthcare institutes used various ECG equipment that present results in nonuniform formats of ECG images. The research study proposes a generalized methodology to process all formats of (...)
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  14. The prospects of precision psychiatry.Kathryn Tabb & Maël Lemoine - 2021 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 42 (5):193-210.
    Since the turn of the twenty-first century, biomedical psychiatry around the globe has embraced the so-called precision medicine paradigm, a model for medical research that uses innovative techniques for data collection and analysis to reevaluate traditional theories of disease. The goal of precision medicine is to improve diagnostics by restratifying the patient population on the basis of a deeper understanding of disease processes. This paper argues that precision is ill-fitting for psychiatry for two reasons. First, in psychiatry, unlike in fields (...)
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  15. Natural Kinds of Mental Disorder.Sander Werkhoven - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):10135-10165.
    Are mental disorders natural kinds or socially constructed categories? What is at stake if either of these views prove to be true? This paper offers a qualified defence for the view that there may be natural kinds of mental disorder, but also that the implications of this claim are generally overestimated. Especially concerns about over-inclusiveness of diagnostic categories and medicalisation of abnormal behaviour are not addressed by the debate. To arrive at these conclusions the paper opens with a discussion of (...)
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  16. Clasificar en psiquiatría y el DSM-V: algunas reflexiones con y más allá de Georges Canguilhem.Rodrigo Lagos Berríos - 2020 - Hybris, Revista de Filosofí­A 11 (2):13-44.
    This article addresses the issues related to the problem of classification of mental disorders in psychiatry in the context of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. First, some background information is provided on the history of the classification of mental disorders and the evolution that DSM has had over time is shown. Secondly, the delimitation of the normal and the pathological in psychiatry is investigated through Canguilhem's medical-philosophical thought. Thirdly, the biopolitical management of psychic (...)
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  17. Rethinking Categories and Dimensions in the DSM.James Phillips - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (6):663-682.
    This paper addresses the role of categories and dimensions in the classification of psychopathology. While psychopathology does not sort itself out neatly into natural categories, we do find rough, symptom-based groupings that, through refinement, become diagnostic categories. Given that these categories suffer from comorbidity, uncertain boundaries, and excessive “unspecified disorder” diagnoses, there has been a move toward refining the diagnoses with dimensional measures. The paper traces efforts both to improve the diagnostic categories with validators that allow at least partial validity (...)
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  18. Phenomenology and Dimensional Approaches to Psychiatric Research and Classification.Anthony Vincent Fernandez - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (1):65-75.
    Contemporary psychiatry finds itself in the midst of a crisis of classification. The developments begun in the 1980s—with the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders —successfully increased inter-rater reliability. However, these developments have done little to increase the predictive validity of our categories of disorder. A diagnosis based on DSM categories and criteria often fails to accurately anticipate course of illness or treatment response. In addition, there is little evidence that the DSM categories link up (...)
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  19. Cancer.Anya Plutynski - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Cancer—and scientific research on cancer—raises a variety of compelling philosophical questions. This entry will focus on four topics, which philosophers of science have begun to explore and debate. First, scientific classifications of cancer have as yet failed to yield a unified taxonomy. There is a diversity of classificatory schemes for cancer, and while some are hierarchical, others appear to be “cross-cutting,” or non-nested. This literature thus raises a variety of questions about the nature of the disease and disease classification. Second, (...)
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  20. Galen's Wounds: Dissolutions and the Theoretical Structure of Galen's Disease Taxonomy.Luis Alejandro Salas - 2019 - Classical Antiquity 38 (2):275-297.
    Galen conceives of wounds, fractures, and similar conditions as belonging to one of the highest genera in his taxonomy of disease. This classification is puzzling, as much from an ancient Greco-Roman perspective as from a contemporary one. In what sense are wounds and other injuries diseases? The classification appears more perplexing in light of Galen's method of conceptual analysis, which takes ordinary language use as a starting point. What, then, motivated Galen's departure from common Greek conceptions of disease? This article (...)
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  21. The Absent Body in Psychiatric Diagnosis, Treatment, and Research.Catherine Stinson - 2019 - Synthese 196 (6).
    Discussions of psychiatric nosology focus on a few popular examples of disorders, and on the validity of diagnostic criteria. Looking at Anorexia Nervosa, an example rarely mentioned in this literature, reveals a new problem: the DSM has a strict taxonomic structure, which assumes that disorders can only be located on one branch. This taxonomic assumption fails to fit the domain of psychopathology, resulting in obfuscation of cross-category connections. Poor outcomes for treatment of Anorexia may be due to it being pigeonholed (...)
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  22. Changing The Definition of The Kilogram: Insights For Psychiatric Disease Classification.Hanna M. Van Loo, Jan-Willem Romeijn & Kenneth S. Kendler - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (4):97-108.
    In psychiatry, many scientists desire to move from a classification system based on symptoms toward a system based on biological causes. The idea is that psychiatric diseases should be redefined such that each disease would be associated with specific biological causes. This desire is intelligible because causal disease models often facilitate understanding and identification of new ways to intervene in disease processes. In its attempt to move from syndromal to specific etiological definitions, psychiatry follows the trend of general medicine.Current psychiatric...
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  23. A Perspective on Causation of the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome by Considering its Nosology.Peter Denton White - 2019 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 25 (6):991-996.
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  24. Universal Etiology, Multifactorial Diseases and the Constitutive Model of Disease Classification.Jonathan Fuller - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 67:8-15.
  25. Universal Etiology, Multifactorial Diseases and the Constitutive Model of Disease Classification.Jonathan Fuller - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 67:8-15.
    In this article, I will reconstruct the monocausal model and argue that modern 'multifactorial diseases' are not monocausal by definition. 'Multifactorial diseases' are instead defined according to a constitutive disease model. On closer analysis, infectious diseases are also defined using the constitutive model rather than the monocausal model. As a result, our classification models alone cannot explain why infectious diseases have a universal etiology while chronic and noncommunicable diseases lack one. The explanation is instead provided by the nineteenth-century germ theorists.
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  26. The Case for a Meta-Nosological Investigation of Pragmatic Disease Definition and Classification.Jonathan Livingstone-Banks - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):1013-1018.
    Nosology is the science of defining and classifying diseases. Meta‐nosology is the study of how we do this, on what principles nosological practices are based, the quality of the resulting medical taxonomy, and primarily whether/how diseases can be defined better than they are now. In modern Western medicine, there are a wide variety of ways in which diseases are defined and categorized. Examples include by the symptoms they present with (syndromic), their underlying causes (etiological), the biological mechanisms involved (pathogenetic), available (...)
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  27. Feeling and Smelling Psychosis: American Alienism, Psychiatry, Prodromes and the Limits of ‘Category Work’.Richard Noll - 2018 - History of the Human Sciences 31 (2):22-41.
    Some limitations of ‘category work’ in the history of psychiatry are illustrated via the example of attempts within US alienism and psychiatry since 1889 to identify psychosis and its prodromes. A slowly evolving acceptance of the need for specifiable biological disease concepts, distinct diagnostic categories and defined boundaries of the ‘before and after’ of psychosis among some elite physicians challenged widespread vernacular methods of diagnosis expressed as intuition, feelings or scent as well as local practices of creating novel placeholder terms (...)
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  28. Explaining Cancer: Finding Order in Disorder.Anya Plutynski - 2018 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    This book explores a variety of conceptual and methodological questions about cancer and cancer research: Is cancer one disease, or many? If many, how many exactly? How is cancer classified? What does it mean, exactly, to say that cancer is “genetic,” or “familial”? What exactly are the causes of cancer, and how do scientists come to know about them? When do we have good reason to believe that this or that is a risk factor for cancer? How is cancer a (...)
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  29. Research Domain Criteria as Psychiatric Nosology.Faisal Akram & James Giordano - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (4):592-601.
    :Diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry have continued to rely on clinical phenomenology, despite limitations inherent in that approach. In view of these limitations and recent progress in neuroscience, the National Institute of Mental Health has initiated the Research Domain Criteria project to develop a more neuroscientifically based system of characterizing and classifying psychiatric disorders. The RDoC initiative aims to transform psychiatry into an integrative science of psychopathology in which mental illnesses will be defined as involving putative dysfunctions in neural nodes (...)
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  30. Vagueness in Psychiatry.Geert Keil, Lara Keuck & Rico Hauswald (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford: Oxford University Press UK.
    In psychiatry there is no sharp boundary between the normal and the pathological. Although clear cases abound, it is often indeterminate whether a particular condition does or does not qualify as a mental disorder. For example, definitions of ‘subthreshold disorders’ and of the ‘prodromal stages’ of diseases are notoriously contentious. -/- Philosophers and linguists call concepts that lack sharp boundaries, and thus admit of borderline cases, ‘vague’. Although blurred boundaries between the normal and the pathological are a recurrent theme in (...)
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  31. Ontological Assumptions, a Biopsychosocial Approach, and Patient Participation: Moving Toward an Ethically Legitimate Science of Psychiatric Nosology.Porter Douglas - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (3):223-226.
    Important philosophical work has gone into debunking thoroughly entrenched positivist notions that objective science proceeds in a value neutral manner. Dr. Tamara Kayali Browne's article "A Role for Philosophers, Sociologists, and Bioethicists in Revising the DSM" admirably takes the next step. Given the evaluative elements that permeate, in this case, the science of nosology—how do we deal responsibly with those evaluative elements? She correctly, in my opinion, concludes that dealing with evaluative issues responsibly is tantamount to dealing with them ethically. (...)
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  32. Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine.Thomas Schramme & Steven Edwards (eds.) - 2017 - Springer.
    This is the first wide-ranging, multi-authored handbook in the field of philosophy of medicine, covering the underlying conceptual issues of many important social, political and ethical issues in health care. It introduces and develops over 70 topics, concepts, and issues in the field. It is written by distinguished specialists from multiple disciplines, including philosophy, health sciences, nursing, sociology, political theory, and medicine. Many difficult social and ethical issues in health care are based on conceptual problems, most prominently on the definitions (...)
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  33. Ontologies, Disorders and Prototypes.Cristina Amoretti, Marcello Frixione, Antonio Lieto & Greta Adamo - 2016 - In Proceedings of IACAP 2016.
    As it emerged from philosophical analyses and cognitive research, most concepts exhibit typicality effects, and resist to the efforts of defining them in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. This holds also in the case of many medical concepts. This is a problem for the design of computer science ontologies, since knowledge representation formalisms commonly adopted in this field (such as, in the first place, the Web Ontology Language - OWL) do not allow for the representation of concepts in terms (...)
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  34. Externalist Psychiatry.Will Davies - 2016 - Analysis 76 (3):290-296.
    Psychiatry widely assumes an internalist biomedical model of mental illness. I argue that many of psychiatry’s diagnostic categories involve an implicit commitment to constitutive externalism about mental illness. Some of these categories are socially externalist in nature.
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  35. Values and DSM-5: Looking at the Debate on Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome.Arthur Maciel Nunes Gonçalves, Clarissa de Rosalmeida Dantas & Claudio E. M. Banzato - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-8.
    BackgroundAlthough values have increasingly received attention in psychiatric literature over the last three decades, their role has been only partially acknowledged in psychiatric classification endeavors. The review process of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders received harsh criticism, and was even considered secretive by some authors. Also, it lacked an official discussion of values at play. In this perspective paper we briefly discuss the interplay of some values in the scientific and non-scientific debate around (...)
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  36. Saving the DSM-5? Descriptive Conceptions and Theoretical Concepts of Mental Disorders. MEDICINA & STORIA, 109-128.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2016 - Medicina E Storia 2 (9-10):109-129.
    Abstract: At present, psychiatric disorders are characterized descriptively, as the standard within the scientific community for communication and, to a cer- tain extent, for diagnosis, is the DSM, now at its fifth edition. The main rea- sons for descriptivism are the aim of achieving reliability of diagnosis and improving communication in a situation of theoretical disagreement, and the Ignorance argument, which starts with acknowledgment of the relative fail- ure of the project of finding biomarkers for most mental disorders. Descrip- tivism (...)
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  37. Saving the DSM-5? Descriptive Conceptions and Theoretical Concepts of Mental Disorders.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2016 - Medicina E Storia 9.
    At present, psychiatric disorders are characterized descriptively, as the standard within the scientific community for communication and, to a certain extent, for diagnosis, is the DSM, now at its fifth edition. The main reasons for descriptivism are the aim of achieving reliability of diagnosis and improving communication in a situation of theoretical disagreement, and the Ignorance argument, which starts with acknowledgment of the relative failure of the project of finding biomarkers for most mental disorders. Descriptivism has also the advantage of (...)
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  38. Philosophy of Medicine: An Introduction.R. Paul Thompson & Ross Upshur - 2016 - Routledge.
    What kind of knowledge is medical knowledge? Can medicine be explained scientifically? Is disease a scientific concept, or do explanations of disease depend on values? What is ‘evidence-based’ medicine? Are advances in neuroscience bringing us closer to a scientific understanding of the mind? The nature of medicine raises fundamental questions about explanation, causation, knowledge and ontology – questions that are central to philosophy as well as medicine. In this book Paul R. Thompson and Ross E. G. Upshur introduce the fundamental (...)
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  39. Nosology, Ontology and Promiscuous Realism.Nicholas Binney - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):391-397.
  40. Classification, Disease, and Evidence.P. Huneman (ed.) - 2015 - Springer Science + Business.
    This anthology of essays presents a sample of studies from recent philosophy of medicine addressing issues which attempt to answer very general (interdependent) questions: (a) what is a disease and what is health? (b) How do we (causally) explain diseases? (c) And how do we distinguish diseases, i.e. define classes of diseases and recognize that an instance X of disease belongs to a given class B? (d) How do we assess and choose cure/ therapy?
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  41. Medicine and Society, New Perspectives in Continental Philosophy.Darian Meacham (ed.) - 2015 - Springer Verlag.
    This volume addresses some of the most prominent questions in contemporary bioethics and philosophy of medicine: ‘liberal’ eugenics, enhancement, the normal and the pathological, the classification of mental illness, the relation between genetics, disease and the political sphere, the experience of illness and disability, and the sense of the subject of bioethical inquiry itself. All of these issues are addressed from a “continental” perspective, drawing on a rich tradition of inquiry into these questions in the fields of phenomenology, philosophical hermeneutics, (...)
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  42. What’s a “Disease”? Questions for Applied Ontologies of Diseases.Alan Rector - 2015 - Applied Ontology 10 (2):71-77.
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  43. Philippe Huneman, Gérard Lambert and Marc Silberstein Classification, Disease and Evidence: New Essays in the Philosophy of Medicine: Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London: Springer, 2015, Series: History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences, Vol. 7, 211 Pp, €83,29.Jonathan Sholl - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (3):339-341.
  44. An Alternative Transdiagnostic Mechanistic Approach to Affective Disorders Illustrated With Research From Clinical Psychology.Edward Watkins - 2015 - Emotion Review 7 (3):250-255.
    Current psychiatric classification adopts a disorder-focused diagnostic approach, as exemplified within ICD-11 and DSM-V. Although this approach has improved reliability of categorization, its validity and utility has been questioned. Limitations include high comorbidity between supposedly distinct disorders; heterogeneity within diagnoses; limited treatment efficacy; and similarities across disorders in aetiology, latent symptom structure, and underlying biology. There is also evidence of transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioural processes. An alternative approach is therefore to focus on fundamental underlying mechanisms of psychopathology rather than observed symptom clusters. (...)
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  45. Psychiatry's New Manual (DSM-5): Ethical and Conceptual Dimensions.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics: The Journal of the Institute of Medical Ethics 40 (8):531-536.
    The introduction of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in May 2013 is being hailed as the biggest event in psychiatry in the last 10 years. In this paper I examine three important issues that arise from the new manual: Expanding nosology: Psychiatry has again broadened its nosology to include human experiences not previously under its purview. Consequence-based ethical concerns about this expansion are addressed, along with conceptual concerns about a confusion of "construct validity" and "conceptual validity" and (...)
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  46. Psychiatry's New Manual : Ethical and Conceptual Dimensions: Table 1.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (8):531-536.
    The introduction of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders in May 2013 is being hailed as the biggest event in psychiatry in the last 10 years. In this paper I examine three important issues that arise from the new manual: Expanding nosology: Psychiatry has again broadened its nosology to include human experiences not previously under its purview . Consequence-based ethical concerns about this expansion are addressed, along with conceptual concerns about a confusion of “construct validity” and “conceptual validity” (...)
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  47. Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds.Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - 2014 - In Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (eds.), Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds. MIT Press. pp. 1-10.
    In this volume, leading philosophers of psychiatry examine psychiatric classification systems, including the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, asking whether current systems are sufficient for effective diagnosis, treatment, and research. Doing so, they take up the question of whether mental disorders are natural kinds, grounded in something in the outside world. Psychiatric categories based on natural kinds should group phenomena in such a way that they are subject to the same type of causal explanations and respond similarly to (...)
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  48. Sauvages’ Paperwork: How Disease Classification Arose From Scholarly Note-Taking.J. Andrew Mendelsohn & Volker Hess - 2014 - Early Science and Medicine 19 (5):471-503.
  49. A New Classification of Mental Illness Based on Brain Functions.G. Miraglia Biagio - 2014 - Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 7 (2):63-67.
    The classification of mental disorders based on their phenomenal picture is in crisis and we need a new revolutionary classification primarily based on brain functions: mental disorders shall be derived from dysfunctions of brain circuits performing specific mental functions. This sentence could be taken from a today’s paper discussing the crisis of the DSM-5 and the RDoC Project as a possible revolutionary model based on brain/cognitive dysfunctions. But this same sentence applies very well to the proposal of a new classification (...)
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  50. Mental Disorders, Brain Disorders, Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Challenges for the Philosophy of Psychopathology After DSM-5.Michael Pitman - 2014 - South African Journal of Philosophy 33 (2):131-144.
    The publication of DSM-5 has been accompanied by a fair amount of controversy. Amongst DSM’s most vocal ‘insider’ critics has been Thomas Insel, Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Insel has publicly criticised DSM’s adherence to a symptom-based classification of mental disorder, and used the weight of the NIMH to back a rival research strategy aimed at a more biology-based diagnostic classification. This strategy is part of Insel’s vision of a future, more preventative psychiatry in which mental (...)
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