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Nosology raises philosophical questions about what bases are and should be used for classifying diseases, often focusing on the use of biomedical (etiological/pathogenetic) versus symptomatic bases, and the nature of the ‘boundaries’ between conditions. Much of the existing literature focuses on mental disorder. Literature in applied ethics and related medical humanities examines how nosological systems have been shaped by social and historical factors; shape the practice of medicine at both clinical and policy levels; and raises a range of ethical issues such as access to treatment, labelling, and research practices.

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  1. Cardiac Disorder Classification by Electrocardiogram Sensing Using Deep Neural Network.Ali Haider Khan, Muzammil Hussain & Muhammad Kamran Malik - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-8.
    Cardiac disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiovascular diseases can be prevented if an effective diagnostic is made at the initial stages. The ECG test is referred to as the diagnostic assistant tool for screening of cardiac disorder. The research purposes of a cardiac disorder detection system from 12-lead-based ECG Images. The healthcare institutes used various ECG equipment that present results in nonuniform formats of ECG images. The research study proposes a generalized methodology to process all formats of (...)
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  2. Clasificar en psiquiatría y el DSM-V: algunas reflexiones con y más allá de Georges Canguilhem.Rodrigo Lagos Berríos - 2020 - Hybris, Revista de Filosofí­A 11 (2):13-44.
    This article addresses the issues related to the problem of classification of mental disorders in psychiatry in the context of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. First, some background information is provided on the history of the classification of mental disorders and the evolution that DSM has had over time is shown. Secondly, the delimitation of the normal and the pathological in psychiatry is investigated through Canguilhem's medical-philosophical thought. Thirdly, the biopolitical management of psychic (...)
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  3. Rethinking Categories and Dimensions in the DSM.James Phillips - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (6):663-682.
    This paper addresses the role of categories and dimensions in the classification of psychopathology. While psychopathology does not sort itself out neatly into natural categories, we do find rough, symptom-based groupings that, through refinement, become diagnostic categories. Given that these categories suffer from comorbidity, uncertain boundaries, and excessive “unspecified disorder” diagnoses, there has been a move toward refining the diagnoses with dimensional measures. The paper traces efforts both to improve the diagnostic categories with validators that allow at least partial validity (...)
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  4. Phenomenology and Dimensional Approaches to Psychiatric Research and Classification.Anthony Vincent Fernandez - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (1):65-75.
    Contemporary psychiatry finds itself in the midst of a crisis of classification. The developments begun in the 1980s—with the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders —successfully increased inter-rater reliability. However, these developments have done little to increase the predictive validity of our categories of disorder. A diagnosis based on DSM categories and criteria often fails to accurately anticipate course of illness or treatment response. In addition, there is little evidence that the DSM categories link up (...)
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  5. Cancer.Anya Plutynski - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Cancer—and scientific research on cancer—raises a variety of compelling philosophical questions. This entry will focus on four topics, which philosophers of science have begun to explore and debate. First, scientific classifications of cancer have as yet failed to yield a unified taxonomy. There is a diversity of classificatory schemes for cancer, and while some are hierarchical, others appear to be “cross-cutting,” or non-nested. This literature thus raises a variety of questions about the nature of the disease and disease classification. Second, (...)
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  6. Galen's Wounds: Dissolutions and the Theoretical Structure of Galen's Disease Taxonomy.Luis Alejandro Salas - 2019 - Classical Antiquity 38 (2):275-297.
    Galen conceives of wounds, fractures, and similar conditions as belonging to one of the highest genera in his taxonomy of disease. This classification is puzzling, as much from an ancient Greco-Roman perspective as from a contemporary one. In what sense are wounds and other injuries diseases? The classification appears more perplexing in light of Galen's method of conceptual analysis, which takes ordinary language use as a starting point. What, then, motivated Galen's departure from common Greek conceptions of disease? This article (...)
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  7. The Absent Body in Psychiatric Diagnosis, Treatment, and Research.Catherine Stinson - 2019 - Synthese 196 (6).
    Discussions of psychiatric nosology focus on a few popular examples of disorders, and on the validity of diagnostic criteria. Looking at Anorexia Nervosa, an example rarely mentioned in this literature, reveals a new problem: the DSM has a strict taxonomic structure, which assumes that disorders can only be located on one branch. This taxonomic assumption fails to fit the domain of psychopathology, resulting in obfuscation of cross-category connections. Poor outcomes for treatment of Anorexia may be due to it being pigeonholed (...)
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  8. Changing The Definition of The Kilogram: Insights For Psychiatric Disease Classification.Hanna M. Van Loo, Jan-Willem Romeijn & Kenneth S. Kendler - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (4):97-108.
    In psychiatry, many scientists desire to move from a classification system based on symptoms toward a system based on biological causes. The idea is that psychiatric diseases should be redefined such that each disease would be associated with specific biological causes. This desire is intelligible because causal disease models often facilitate understanding and identification of new ways to intervene in disease processes. In its attempt to move from syndromal to specific etiological definitions, psychiatry follows the trend of general medicine.Current psychiatric...
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  9. A Perspective on Causation of the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome by Considering its Nosology.Peter Denton White - 2019 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 25 (6):991-996.
  10. Universal Etiology, Multifactorial Diseases and the Constitutive Model of Disease Classification.Jonathan Fuller - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 67:8-15.
  11. Universal Etiology, Multifactorial Diseases and the Constitutive Model of Disease Classification.Jonathan Fuller - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 67:8-15.
    In this article, I will reconstruct the monocausal model and argue that modern 'multifactorial diseases' are not monocausal by definition. 'Multifactorial diseases' are instead defined according to a constitutive disease model. On closer analysis, infectious diseases are also defined using the constitutive model rather than the monocausal model. As a result, our classification models alone cannot explain why infectious diseases have a universal etiology while chronic and noncommunicable diseases lack one. The explanation is instead provided by the nineteenth-century germ theorists.
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  12. The Case for a Meta-Nosological Investigation of Pragmatic Disease Definition and Classification.Jonathan Livingstone-Banks - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):1013-1018.
    Nosology is the science of defining and classifying diseases. Meta‐nosology is the study of how we do this, on what principles nosological practices are based, the quality of the resulting medical taxonomy, and primarily whether/how diseases can be defined better than they are now. In modern Western medicine, there are a wide variety of ways in which diseases are defined and categorized. Examples include by the symptoms they present with (syndromic), their underlying causes (etiological), the biological mechanisms involved (pathogenetic), available (...)
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  13. Feeling and Smelling Psychosis: American Alienism, Psychiatry, Prodromes and the Limits of ‘Category Work’.Richard Noll - 2018 - History of the Human Sciences 31 (2):22-41.
    Some limitations of ‘category work’ in the history of psychiatry are illustrated via the example of attempts within US alienism and psychiatry since 1889 to identify psychosis and its prodromes. A slowly evolving acceptance of the need for specifiable biological disease concepts, distinct diagnostic categories and defined boundaries of the ‘before and after’ of psychosis among some elite physicians challenged widespread vernacular methods of diagnosis expressed as intuition, feelings or scent as well as local practices of creating novel placeholder terms (...)
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  14. Explaining Cancer: Finding Order in Disorder.Anya Plutynski - 2018 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    This book explores a variety of conceptual and methodological questions about cancer and cancer research: Is cancer one disease, or many? If many, how many exactly? How is cancer classified? What does it mean, exactly, to say that cancer is “genetic,” or “familial”? What exactly are the causes of cancer, and how do scientists come to know about them? When do we have good reason to believe that this or that is a risk factor for cancer? How is cancer a (...)
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  15. Research Domain Criteria as Psychiatric Nosology.Faisal Akram & James Giordano - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (4):592-601.
    :Diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry have continued to rely on clinical phenomenology, despite limitations inherent in that approach. In view of these limitations and recent progress in neuroscience, the National Institute of Mental Health has initiated the Research Domain Criteria project to develop a more neuroscientifically based system of characterizing and classifying psychiatric disorders. The RDoC initiative aims to transform psychiatry into an integrative science of psychopathology in which mental illnesses will be defined as involving putative dysfunctions in neural nodes (...)
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  16. Vagueness in Psychiatry.Geert Keil, Lara Keuck & Rico Hauswald (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford: Oxford University Press UK.
    In psychiatry there is no sharp boundary between the normal and the pathological. Although clear cases abound, it is often indeterminate whether a particular condition does or does not qualify as a mental disorder. For example, definitions of ‘subthreshold disorders’ and of the ‘prodromal stages’ of diseases are notoriously contentious. -/- Philosophers and linguists call concepts that lack sharp boundaries, and thus admit of borderline cases, ‘vague’. Although blurred boundaries between the normal and the pathological are a recurrent theme in (...)
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  17. Ontological Assumptions, a Biopsychosocial Approach, and Patient Participation: Moving Toward an Ethically Legitimate Science of Psychiatric Nosology.Porter Douglas - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (3):223-226.
    Important philosophical work has gone into debunking thoroughly entrenched positivist notions that objective science proceeds in a value neutral manner. Dr. Tamara Kayali Browne's article "A Role for Philosophers, Sociologists, and Bioethicists in Revising the DSM" admirably takes the next step. Given the evaluative elements that permeate, in this case, the science of nosology—how do we deal responsibly with those evaluative elements? She correctly, in my opinion, concludes that dealing with evaluative issues responsibly is tantamount to dealing with them ethically. (...)
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  18. Ontologies, Disorders and Prototypes.Cristina Amoretti, Marcello Frixione, Antonio Lieto & Greta Adamo - 2016 - In Proceedings of IACAP 2016.
    As it emerged from philosophical analyses and cognitive research, most concepts exhibit typicality effects, and resist to the efforts of defining them in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. This holds also in the case of many medical concepts. This is a problem for the design of computer science ontologies, since knowledge representation formalisms commonly adopted in this field (such as, in the first place, the Web Ontology Language - OWL) do not allow for the representation of concepts in terms (...)
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  19. Externalist Psychiatry.Will Davies - 2016 - Analysis 76 (3):290-296.
    Psychiatry widely assumes an internalist biomedical model of mental illness. I argue that many of psychiatry’s diagnostic categories involve an implicit commitment to constitutive externalism about mental illness. Some of these categories are socially externalist in nature.
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  20. Values and DSM-5: Looking at the Debate on Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome.Arthur Maciel Nunes Gonçalves, Clarissa de Rosalmeida Dantas & Claudio E. M. Banzato - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-8.
    BackgroundAlthough values have increasingly received attention in psychiatric literature over the last three decades, their role has been only partially acknowledged in psychiatric classification endeavors. The review process of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders received harsh criticism, and was even considered secretive by some authors. Also, it lacked an official discussion of values at play. In this perspective paper we briefly discuss the interplay of some values in the scientific and non-scientific debate around (...)
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  21. Saving the DSM-5? Descriptive Conceptions and Theoretical Concepts of Mental Disorders. MEDICINA & STORIA, 109-128.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2016 - Medicina E Storia (9-10):109-129.
    Abstract: At present, psychiatric disorders are characterized descriptively, as the standard within the scientific community for communication and, to a cer- tain extent, for diagnosis, is the DSM, now at its fifth edition. The main rea- sons for descriptivism are the aim of achieving reliability of diagnosis and improving communication in a situation of theoretical disagreement, and the Ignorance argument, which starts with acknowledgment of the relative fail- ure of the project of finding biomarkers for most mental disorders. Descrip- tivism (...)
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  22. Saving the DSM-5? Descriptive Conceptions and Theoretical Concepts of Mental Disorders.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2016 - Medicina E Storia 9.
    At present, psychiatric disorders are characterized descriptively, as the standard within the scientific community for communication and, to a certain extent, for diagnosis, is the DSM, now at its fifth edition. The main reasons for descriptivism are the aim of achieving reliability of diagnosis and improving communication in a situation of theoretical disagreement, and the Ignorance argument, which starts with acknowledgment of the relative failure of the project of finding biomarkers for most mental disorders. Descriptivism has also the advantage of (...)
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  23. Concepts and Causes in the Philosophy of Disease.Benjamin T. H. Smart - 2016 - London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
    Disease is everywhere. Everyone experiences disease, everyone knows somebody who is, or has been diseased, and disease-related stories hit the headlines on a regular basis. Many important issues in the philosophy of disease, however, have received remarkably little attention from philosophical thinkers. -/- This book examines a number of important debates in the philosophy of medicine, including 'what is disease?', and the roles and viability of concepts of causation, in clinical medicine and epidemiology. Where much of the existing literature targets (...)
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  24. Philosophy of Medicine: An Introduction.R. Paul Thompson & Ross Upshur - 2016 - Routledge.
    What kind of knowledge is medical knowledge? Can medicine be explained scientifically? Is disease a scientific concept, or do explanations of disease depend on values? What is ‘evidence-based’ medicine? Are advances in neuroscience bringing us closer to a scientific understanding of the mind? The nature of medicine raises fundamental questions about explanation, causation, knowledge and ontology – questions that are central to philosophy as well as medicine. In this book Paul R. Thompson and Ross E. G. Upshur introduce the fundamental (...)
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  25. Classification, Disease, and Evidence.P. Huneman (ed.) - 2015 - Springer Science + Business.
    This anthology of essays presents a sample of studies from recent philosophy of medicine addressing issues which attempt to answer very general (interdependent) questions: (a) what is a disease and what is health? (b) How do we (causally) explain diseases? (c) And how do we distinguish diseases, i.e. define classes of diseases and recognize that an instance X of disease belongs to a given class B? (d) How do we assess and choose cure/ therapy?
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  26. Medicine and Society, New Perspectives in Continental Philosophy.Darian Meacham (ed.) - 2015 - Springer Verlag.
    This volume addresses some of the most prominent questions in contemporary bioethics and philosophy of medicine: ‘liberal’ eugenics, enhancement, the normal and the pathological, the classification of mental illness, the relation between genetics, disease and the political sphere, the experience of illness and disability, and the sense of the subject of bioethical inquiry itself. All of these issues are addressed from a “continental” perspective, drawing on a rich tradition of inquiry into these questions in the fields of phenomenology, philosophical hermeneutics, (...)
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  27. What’s a “Disease”? Questions for Applied Ontologies of Diseases.Alan Rector - 2015 - Applied Ontology 10 (2):71-77.
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  28. Philippe Huneman, Gérard Lambert and Marc Silberstein Classification, Disease and Evidence: New Essays in the Philosophy of Medicine: Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London: Springer, 2015, Series: History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences, Vol. 7, 211 Pp, €83,29.Jonathan Sholl - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (3):339-341.
  29. An Alternative Transdiagnostic Mechanistic Approach to Affective Disorders Illustrated With Research From Clinical Psychology.Edward Watkins - 2015 - Emotion Review 7 (3):250-255.
    Current psychiatric classification adopts a disorder-focused diagnostic approach, as exemplified within ICD-11 and DSM-V. Although this approach has improved reliability of categorization, its validity and utility has been questioned. Limitations include high comorbidity between supposedly distinct disorders; heterogeneity within diagnoses; limited treatment efficacy; and similarities across disorders in aetiology, latent symptom structure, and underlying biology. There is also evidence of transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioural processes. An alternative approach is therefore to focus on fundamental underlying mechanisms of psychopathology rather than observed symptom clusters. (...)
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  30. Psychiatry's New Manual (DSM-5): Ethical and Conceptual Dimensions.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics: The Journal of the Institute of Medical Ethics 40 (8):531-536.
    The introduction of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in May 2013 is being hailed as the biggest event in psychiatry in the last 10 years. In this paper I examine three important issues that arise from the new manual: Expanding nosology: Psychiatry has again broadened its nosology to include human experiences not previously under its purview. Consequence-based ethical concerns about this expansion are addressed, along with conceptual concerns about a confusion of "construct validity" and "conceptual validity" and (...)
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  31. Psychiatry's New Manual : Ethical and Conceptual Dimensions: Table 1.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (8):531-536.
    The introduction of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders in May 2013 is being hailed as the biggest event in psychiatry in the last 10 years. In this paper I examine three important issues that arise from the new manual: Expanding nosology: Psychiatry has again broadened its nosology to include human experiences not previously under its purview . Consequence-based ethical concerns about this expansion are addressed, along with conceptual concerns about a confusion of “construct validity” and “conceptual validity” (...)
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  32. Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds.Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - 2014 - In Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (eds.), Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds. MIT Press. pp. 1-10.
    In this volume, leading philosophers of psychiatry examine psychiatric classification systems, including the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, asking whether current systems are sufficient for effective diagnosis, treatment, and research. Doing so, they take up the question of whether mental disorders are natural kinds, grounded in something in the outside world. Psychiatric categories based on natural kinds should group phenomena in such a way that they are subject to the same type of causal explanations and respond similarly to (...)
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  33. Sauvages’ Paperwork: How Disease Classification Arose From Scholarly Note-Taking.J. Andrew Mendelsohn & Volker Hess - 2014 - Early Science and Medicine 19 (5):471-503.
  34. A New Classification of Mental Illness Based on Brain Functions.G. Miraglia Biagio - 2014 - Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 7 (2):63-67.
    The classification of mental disorders based on their phenomenal picture is in crisis and we need a new revolutionary classification primarily based on brain functions: mental disorders shall be derived from dysfunctions of brain circuits performing specific mental functions. This sentence could be taken from a today’s paper discussing the crisis of the DSM-5 and the RDoC Project as a possible revolutionary model based on brain/cognitive dysfunctions. But this same sentence applies very well to the proposal of a new classification (...)
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  35. Mental Disorders, Brain Disorders, Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Challenges for the Philosophy of Psychopathology After DSM-5.Michael Pitman - 2014 - South African Journal of Philosophy 33 (2):131-144.
    The publication of DSM-5 has been accompanied by a fair amount of controversy. Amongst DSM’s most vocal ‘insider’ critics has been Thomas Insel, Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Insel has publicly criticised DSM’s adherence to a symptom-based classification of mental disorder, and used the weight of the NIMH to back a rival research strategy aimed at a more biology-based diagnostic classification. This strategy is part of Insel’s vision of a future, more preventative psychiatry in which mental (...)
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  36. A Note on the Dynamics of Psychiatric Classification.José Eduardo Porcher - 2014 - Minerva - An Internet Journal of Philosophy 18 (1):27-47.
    The question of how psychiatric classifications are made up and to what they refer has attracted the attention of philosophers in recent years. In this paper, I review the claims of authors who discuss psychiatric classification in terms referring both to the philosophical tradition of natural kinds and to the sociological tradition of social constructionism — especially those of Ian Hacking and his critics. I examine both the ontological and the social aspects of what it means for something to be (...)
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  37. Madness Cracked.Mick Power - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    The recent publication of DSM-5 highlighted the two opposing views that exist within psychology and psychiatry as to how we deal with mental disorders. This book provides an introduction to the history of psychiatry and clinical psychology, looking at how people have attempted to classify the various problems and disorders they face.
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  38. On the Classification of Diseases.Benjamin Smart - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (4):251-269.
    Identifying the necessary and sufficient conditions for individuating and classifying diseases is a matter of great importance in the fields of law, ethics, epidemiology, and of course, medicine. In this paper, I first propose a means of achieving this goal, ensuring that no two distinct disease-types could correctly be ascribed to the same disease-token. I then posit a metaphysical ontology of diseases—that is, I give an account of what a disease is. This is essential to providing the most effective means (...)
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  39. Psychiatric Taxonomy: At the Crossroads of Science and Ethics.Şerife Tekin - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (8):513-514.
    The scientific investigation of mental disorders is an invigorating area of inquiry for philosophers of mind and science who are interested in exploring the nature of typical and atypical cognition as well as the overarching scientific project of ‘carving nature at its joints’. It is also important for philosophers of medicine and bioethicists who are concerned with concepts of disease and with the development of effective and ethical treatments of mental disorders and the just distribution of mental health services. Philosophical (...)
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  40. Stabilizing Autism: A Fleckian Account of the Rise of a Neurodevelopmental Spectrum Disorder.Berend Verhoeff - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 46 (1):65-78.
    Using the conceptual tools of philosopher of science Ludwik Fleck, I argue that the reframing of autism as a neurodevelopmental spectrum disorder is constrained by two governing ‘styles of thought’ of contemporary psychiatry. The first is the historically conditioned ‘readiness for directed perception’ of, and thinking in terms of, ontologically distinct diseases. The clinical gaze of mental health professionals, the bureaucratic needs of health administration, the clinical and scientific utility of disease categories, and the practices of autism-oriented advocacy groups all (...)
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  41. Classifying Unknowns: The Idiopathic Problem.Thomas Beaney - 2013 - Medical Humanities 39 (2):126-130.
    The term, idiopathic, emerged as a key concept in the classification of disease in the 18th century and has become ingrained in our terminology in defining diseases and their aetiologies throughout all fields of medicine. Despite, or perhaps because of this, little has been written about the meaning or meanings of the word itself. Although most medical professionals will be able to offer a definition of idiopathic, different definitions of the word are in use and are often confused or used (...)
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  42. Fallgeschichte, Historia, Klassifikation: François Boissier de Sauvages Bei der Schreibarbeit.Volker Hess & J. Andrew Mendelsohn - 2013 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 21 (1):61-92.
    What was classification as it first took modern form in the eighteenth century, how did it work, and how did it relate to earlier describing and ordering? We offer new answers to these questions by considering an example less well known than that of botany or zoology, namely medicine, and by reconstructing practice on paper. The first and best-known disease classification is the “nosology” of the Montpellier physician François Boissier de Sauvages de Lacroix. Its several editions, we show, were less (...)
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  43. Representing Disease Courses: An Application of the Neurological Disease Ontology to Multiple Sclerosis Typology.Mark Jensen, Alexander P. Cox, Barry Smith & Alexander Diehl - 2013 - In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), CEUR, vol. 1060.
    The Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) is being developed to provide a comprehensive framework for the representation of neurological diseases (Diehl et al., 2013). ND utilizes the model established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in medicine and disease (Scheuermann et al., 2009). The goal of ND is to include information for each disease concerning its molecular, genetic, and environmental origins, the processes involved in its etiology and realization, as well as its clinical presentation (...)
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  44. Evolutionary Psychiatry and Nosology: Prospects and Limitations.Luc Faucher - 2012 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 7.
    In this paper, I explain why evolutionary psychiatry is not where the next revolution in psychiatry will come from. I will proceed as follows. Firstly, I will review some of the problems commonly attributed to current nosologies, more specifically to the DSM. One of these problems is the lack of a clear and consensual definition of mental disorder; I will then examine specific attempts to spell out such a definition that use the evolutionary framework. One definition that deserves particular attention, (...)
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  45. Taking Disease Seriously: Beyond "Pragmatic" Nosology.S. Nassir Ghaerni - 2012 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oxford University Press. pp. 42-72.
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  46. Constructing a Lattice of Infectious Disease Ontologies From a Staphylococcus Aureus Isolate Repository.Albert Goldfain, Lindsay G. Cowell & Barry Smith - 2012 - In Proceeedings of the Third International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (CEUR 897).
    A repository of clinically associated Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) isolates is used to semi‐automatically generate a set of application ontologies for specific subfamilies of Sa‐related disease. Each such application ontology is compatible with the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO) and uses resources from the Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) Foundry. The set of application ontologies forms a lattice structure beneath the IDO‐Core and IDO‐extension reference ontologies. We show how this lattice can be used to define a strategy for the construction of a new (...)
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  47. A Brief Historicity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Issues and Implications for the Future of Psychiatric Canon and Practice. [REVIEW]Shadia Kawa & James Giordano - 2012 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7:1-9.
    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association, currently in its fourth edition and considered the reference for the characterization and diagnosis of mental disorders, has undergone various developments since its inception in the mid-twentieth century. With the fifth edition of the DSM presently in field trials for release in 2013, there is renewed discussion and debate over the extent of its relative successes - and shortcomings - at iteratively incorporating scientific evidence on the often ambiguous nature (...)
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  48. The Six Most Essential Questions in Psychiatric Diagnosis: A Pluralogue Part 2: Issues of Conservatism and Pragmatism in Psychiatric Diagnosis. [REVIEW]James Phillips, Allen Frances, Michael A. Cerullo, John Chardavoyne, Hannah S. Decker, Michael B. First, Nassir Ghaemi, Gary Greenberg, Andrew C. Hinderliter, Warren A. Kinghorn, Steven G. LoBello, Elliott B. Martin, Aaron L. Mishara, Joel Paris, Joseph M. Pierre, Ronald W. Pies, Harold A. Pincus, Douglas Porter, Claire Pouncey, Michael A. Schwartz, Thomas Szasz, Jerome C. Wakefield, G. Waterman, Owen Whooley & Peter Zachar - 2012 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7:8-.
    In face of the multiple controversies surrounding the DSM process in general and the development of DSM-5 in particular, we have organized a discussion around what we consider six essential questions in further work on the DSM. The six questions involve: 1) the nature of a mental disorder; 2) the definition of mental disorder; 3) the issue of whether, in the current state of psychiatric science, DSM-5 should assume a cautious, conservative posture or an assertive, transformative posture; 4) the role (...)
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  49. Psychiatric Classification and Diagnosis. Delusions and Confabulations.Lisa Bortolotti - 2011 - Paradigmi (1):99-112.
    In psychiatry some disorders of cognition are distinguished from instances of normal cognitive functioning and from other disorders in virtue of their surface features rather than in virtue of the underlying mechanisms responsible for their occurrence. Aetiological considerations often cannot play a significant classificatory and diagnostic role, because there is no sufficient knowledge or consensus about the causal history of many psychiatric disorders. Moreover, it is not always possible to uniquely identify a pathological behaviour as the symptom of a certain (...)
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  50. Classification, Disease, and Diagnosis.Annemarie Jutel - 2011 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (2):189-205.
    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. As clinicians classify symptoms and illnesses, they trigger a range of actions and consequences. The assignment of particular disease labels is linked to both therapeutic and social responses. However, the classifications of medicine, natural though they may seem, contain significant social content, and are arrived at via a number of cultural framing devices (Aronowitz 2008). This article will explore the social intent and construction of classification and their embodiment in medical diagnosis.Effective classification recognizes (...)
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