Media Ethics

Edited by Lavinia Marin (Delft University of Technology)
Assistant editor: Matthew Kieran (University of Leeds)
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  1. El rol de una comunicadora en España. Entrevista a Marta Ramos Matas.Jesús Miguel Delgado Del Aguila - forthcoming - Argus-A. Artes and Humanidades.
  2. The Business of Liberty: Freedom and Information in Ethics, Politics, and Law.Boudewijn de Bruin - 2022 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    What makes political freedom valuable to us? Two well-known arguments are that freedom contributes to our desire satisfaction and to our personal responsibility. Here, Boudewijn de Bruin argues that freedom is valuable when it is accompanied by knowledge. He offers an original and systematic account of the relationship between freedom and knowledge and defends two original normative ideals of known freedom and acknowledged freedom. -/- By combining psychological perspectives on choice and philosophical views on the value of knowledge, he shows (...)
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  3. Online Misinformation and “Phantom Patterns”: Epistemic Exploitation in the Era of Big Data.Megan Fritts & Frank Cabrera - 2022 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 60 (1):57-87.
    In this paper, we examine how the availability of massive quantities of data i.e., the “Big Data” phenomenon, contributes to the creation, spread, and harms of online misinformation. Specifically, we argue that a factor in the problem of online misinformation is the evolved human instinct to recognize patterns. While the pattern-recognition instinct is a crucial evolutionary adaptation, we argue that in the age of Big Data, these capacities have, unfortunately, rendered us vulnerable. Given the ways in which online media outlets (...)
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  4. Editorial: Theoretical and Practical Issues in the Epistemology of Science Journalism.Carrie Figdor - 2022 - Frontiers in Communication 7 (868849):1-2.
    This Editorial summarizes the papers in a Frontiers in Communication Research Topic that looks at science journalism’s mediating role between the production of scientific knowledge and its public uptake. The four papers in the Research Topic consider science communication and journalism from the perspective of philosophy of science and epistemology. Framing the Research Topic is a conceptual analysis of the multiple aims of science communication and an assessment of empirical evidence to date regarding whether these aims are being met. The (...)
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  5. Another Thing to Worry About.Julian Friedland - 2022 - Boston Globe 20 (1):K2.
    Use of the word “worry” is on the rise. Does that reflect our anxious time — or make it worse?
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  6. Reporting and Discoverability of “Tweets” Quoted in Published Scholarship: Current Practice and Ethical Implications.Shannon Mason & Lenandlar Singh - 2022 - Research Ethics 18 (2):93-113.
    Research Ethics, Volume 18, Issue 2, Page 93-113, April 2022. Twitter is an increasingly common source of rich, personalized qualitative data, as millions of people daily share their thoughts on myriad topics. However, questions remain unclear concerning if and how to quote publicly available social media data ethically. In this study, focusing on 136 education manuscripts quoting 2667 Tweets, we look to investigate the ways in which Tweets are quoted, the ethical discussions forwarded and actions taken, and the extent to (...)
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  7. Failing Institutions, Whistle-Blowing, and the Role of the News Media.Emanuela Ceva & Dorota Mokrosinska - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    The paper discusses the normative grounds for recognizing a watchdog role to the news media as concerns the dissemination of information about an institutional failure menacing a well-ordered society. This is, for example, the case of the news media’s role in the diffusion of whistleblowers’ disclosures. We argue that many popular justifications for the watchdog role of the news media (as a ‘fourth estate’; a trustee of the people’s right to know; expert communicator) fail to ground that role in some (...)
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  8. New Culture/Old Ethics: What Technological Determinism Can Teach Us About Public Relations Ethics.Elspeth Tilley, B. E. Drushel & K. German (eds.) - 2011 - New York: Continuum.
    New media have changed the parameters of public relations, multiplying audiences and altering the nature of relationships. Practitioners’ ethics approaches have been slower to adapt, frequently proving inadequate to the changes. McLuhan’s theory of technological determinism predicts this lag in conceptualizing and adapting to technological evolution; with awareness of the problem, however, practitioners have an opportunity to consciously shift to using the potential of new media proactively for ethical guidance, rather than continuing to allow ethics processes to lag behind technological (...)
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  9. Digital Change and Marginalized Communities: Changing Attitudes Towards Digital Media in the Margins.Gen Eickers & Matthias Rath - 2021 - ICERI2021 Proceedings.
    Marginalized communities are confronted with issues resulting from their marginalization, such as exclusion, invisibility, misrepresentation, and hate speech, not only offline but – due to digital change – increasingly online. Our research project DigitalDialog21 aims at evaluating the effects of digital change on society and how digital change, and the risks and possibilities that come with it, is perceived by the population. Digital change is understood as a factor of social change in this project. By investigating digital change and its (...)
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  10. Digital Change and The “Trust Deficit”: Ethical and Pedagogical Implications – First Results of the German Research Project Digitaldialog21.Gen Eickers & Matthias Rath - 2020 - INTED2020 Proceedings.
    Digital change is one of the most critical factors influencing social change in most societies. The Digital Evaluation Index 2017 (Chakravorti & Chaturvedi, 2017) showed based on 60 national economies that almost no digitally indifferent societies exist anymore. However, different speeds of development and, above all, different attitudes towards the challenges and opportunities of digitization can be observed. Primarily industrially, highly developed nations are also digitally highly developed. However, a "trust deficit" is prevalent in those nations as well; that is, (...)
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  11. ‘Why Aren’T You Taking Any Notes?’ On Note-Taking as a Collective Gesture.Lavinia Marin & Sean Sturm - 2021 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 53 (13):1399-1406.
    The practice of taking hand-written notes in lectures has been rediscovered recently because of several studies on its learning efficacy in the mainstream media. Students are enjoined to ditch their laptops and return to pen and paper. Such arguments presuppose that notes are taken in order to be revisited after the lecture. Learning is seen to happen only after the event. We argue instead that student’s note-taking is an educational practice worthy in itself as a way to relate to the (...)
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  12. A Fairness Doctrine for the Twenty-First Century.Julian Friedland - 2021 - Areo.
    Michael Goldhaber, who popularized the term the attention economy, said of the US Capitol insurrection: “It felt like an expression of a world in which everyone is desperately seeking their own audience and fracturing reality in the process. I only see that accelerating.” If we don’t do something about this, American democracy may not survive. For when there is no longer any common ground of evidence and reason, history shows that misinformation will eventually overwhelm public discourse and authoritarianism can take (...)
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  13. Civility in the Post-Truth Age: An Aristotelian Account.Maria Silvia Vaccarezza & Michel Croce - 2021 - Humana.Mente - Journal of Philosophical Studies 39 (39):127-150.
    This paper investigates civility from an Aristotelian perspective and has two objectives. The first is to offer a novel account of this virtue based on Aristotle’s remarks about civic friendship. The proposed account distinguishes two main components of civility—civic benevolence and civil deliberation—and shows how Aristotle’s insights can speak to the needs of our communities today. The notion of civil deliberation is then unpacked into three main dimensions: motivational, inquiry-related, and ethical. The second objective is to illustrate how the post-truth (...)
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  14. What Social Media Facilitates, Social Media Should Regulate: Duties in the New Public Sphere.Leonie Smith - 2021 - The Political Quarterly 92 (2):1-8.
    This article offers a distinctive way of grounding the regulative duties held by social media companies (SMCs). One function of the democratic state is to provide what we term the right to democratic epistemic participation within the public sphere. But social media has transformed our public sphere, such that SMCs now facilitate citizens’ right to democratic epistemic participation and do so on a scale that was previously impossible. We argue that this role of SMCs in expanding the scope of what (...)
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  15. The Case of Two Devices: Disclosure to Subjects Following Phase IV ("Post-Marketing") Research.James R. Anderson, Andrew Jameton, Paul J. Reitemeier & Ernest Prentice - 1995 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 17 (3):6.
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  16. Baby Fae and the Media: How the Law Allows Appropriate Access.Nicholas Christakis & Morris Panner - 1986 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 8 (2):5.
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  17. De la presse en démocratie.Charles Girard - 2019
    Les nouveaux médias représentent-ils une menace ou un progrès pour la presse en régime démocratique ? À partir d’une analyse du rôle politique de la presse, qui contribue au droit de chacun à gouverner, Charles Girard s’interroge sur le renouvellement du métier de journaliste et sur les modes de délibération démocratique.
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  18. (Online) Manipulation: Sometimes Hidden, Always Careless.Michael Klenk - forthcoming - Review of Social Economy.
    Ever-increasing numbers of human interactions with intelligent software agents, online and offline, and their increasing ability to influence humans have prompted a surge in attention toward the concept of (online) manipulation. Several scholars have argued that manipulative influence is always hidden. But manipulation is sometimes overt, and when this is acknowledged the distinction between manipulation and other forms of social influence becomes problematic. Therefore, we need a better conceptualisation of manipulation that allows it to be overt and yet clearly distinct (...)
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  19. Google and Facebook Vs Rawls and Lao-Tzu: How Silicon Valley’s Utilitarianism and Confucianism Are Bad for Internet Ethics.Morten Bay - 2020 - AoIR 2020: The 21th Annual Conference of the Association of Internet Researchers.
    The proposed paper presents an argument in favor of a Rawlsian approach to ethics for Internet technology companies (den Hoven & Rooksby, 2008; Hoffman, 2017). Ethics statements from such companies are analyzed and shown to be utilitarian and teleological in nature, and therefore in opposition to Rawls’ theories of justice and fairness. The statements are also shown to have traits in common with Confucian virtue ethics (Ames, 2011; Nylan, 2008).
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  20. COVID-19 and Mental Health: Government Response and Appropriate Measures.Genevieve Bandares-Paulino & Randy A. Tudy - 2020 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 30 (7):378-382.
    As governments around the world imposed lockdowns or stay-at-home measures, people began to feel the stress as time dragged on. There were already reports on some individuals committing suicide. How do governments respond to such a phenomenon? Our main focus is the Philippine government and how it responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we argue that the problem with COVID-19 went forth just dealing with physical health. First, people suffer not just from being infected but the psychological stress (...)
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  21. Excavating “Excavating AI”: The Elephant in the Gallery.Michael J. Lyons - 2020 - arXiv 2009:1-15.
    Two art exhibitions, “Training Humans” and “Making Faces,” and the accompanying essay “Excavating AI: The politics of images in machine learning training sets” by Kate Crawford and Trevor Paglen, are making substantial impact on discourse taking place in the social and mass media networks, and some scholarly circles. Critical scrutiny reveals, however, a self-contradictory stance regarding informed consent for the use of facial images, as well as serious flaws in their critique of ML training sets. Our analysis underlines the non-negotiability (...)
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  22. Summer of Protest.Alida Liberman - 2020 - The Philosophers' Magazine 91:33-39.
    I assess the ways in which popular narratives about protests against police brutality in the summer of 2020 are ethically and epistemically problematic. I argue that many news outlets have pushed a false and misleading narrative that frames the protests as inherently violent and dangerous when in fact they were primarily non-violent. I analyze the ways in which these narratives are likely to increase epistemic injustice, including testimonial injustice against protestors. I then introduce a new framework that I call ignorance (...)
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  23. Fear, Anger, and Media-Induced Trauma During the Outbreak of COVID-19 in the Czech Republic.Radek Trnka & Radmila Lorencova - 2020 - Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 12.
    Fear, anger and hopelessness were the most frequent traumatic emotional responses in the general public during the first stage of outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in the Czech Republic (N = 1,000). The four most frequent categories of fear were determined: (a) fear of the negative impact on household finances, (b) fear of the negative impact on the household finances of significant others, (c) fear of the unavailability of health care, and (d) fear of an insufficient food supply. The pessimistic (...)
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  24. Misinformation and Intentional Deception: A Novel Account of Fake News.Michel Croce & Tommaso Piazza - forthcoming - In Maria Silvia Vaccarezza & Nancy Snow (eds.), Virtues, Democracy, and Online Media: Ethical and Epistemic Issues. Routledge.
    This chapter introduces a novel account of fake news and explains how it differs from other definitions on the market. The account locates the fakeness of an alleged news report in two main aspects related to its production, namely that its creators do not think to have sufficient evidence in favor of what they divulge and they fail to display the appropriate attitude towards the truth of the information they share. A key feature of our analysis is that it does (...)
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  25. The Links Between Religiousness and Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adulthood: The Mediating Roles of Media Exposure Preferences and Empathic Tendencies.Youngsook Han & Gustavo Carlo - 2021 - Journal of Moral Education 50 (4):419-435.
    ABSTRACT We examined the links among religiousness, prosocial and violent media exposure preferences, empathic tendencies, and prosocial behaviors in early adulthood. Participants were U.S. college students. While young adults’ religiousness was not associated with prosocial media exposure preferences, it was negatively related to violent movie and Internet exposure preferences. In turn, violent movie exposure preference was negatively related to prosocial behaviors through perspective taking and empathic concern. Prosocial movie exposure preference was positively linked to prosocial behaviors. Moreover, religiousness was related (...)
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  26. Julian Assange: Periodismo científico, conspiración y ética hacker.David Villena Saldaña - 2011 - Quehacer 181 (181):58-69.
    This essay attempts to explain the ethics behind WikiLeaks. It also assesses the concepts of conspiration and scientific journalism introduced by Julian Assange in one his manifestos.
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  27. Inoculation Against Populism: Media Competence Education and Political Autonomy.Frodo Podschwadek - 2019 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 6 (2):211-234.
    This paper offers an analysis of the relation between political populism and mass media, and how this relation becomes problematic for democratic societies. It focuses on the fact that mass media, due to their purpose and infrastructure, can unintentionally reinforce populist messages. Research findings from communication science and political psychology are used to illustrate how, for example, a combination of mass media agenda setting and motivated reasoning can influence citizens’ political decisions and impair their political autonomy. This poses a particular (...)
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  28. Конструювання російського пропагандистського сюжету про «поїзд дружби».Kateryna Boguslavska - 2018 - NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture 1:29-34.
    У статті здійснено спробу простежити генеалогію російського пропагандистського сюжету про «поїзд дружби» від інформаційного приводу до фейкової новини та від фейкової новини до сталої частини канону, послуговуючись яким, російська пропаганда говорить про анексію Криму. За допомогою понять інтеграційної та агітаційної пропаганди Жака Еллюля проаналізовано, у чому саме полягає пропагандистський потенціал цього сюжету. Досліджено, яким чином кінематограф перетворив фейкову новину, покликану налякати та мобілізувати населення, на стійкий пропагандистський сюжет зі сталим набором елементів. Оцінено перспективи його подальшого використання російською владою при спробах (...)
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  29. Зародження теорії і практики нових медіа: проекти Алана Кея і Теда Нельсона.Oleksandr Mandelina - 2018 - NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture 1:11-16.
    Мета статті – з’ясувати концептуальний контекст виникнення нових медіа. Задля цього здійснено огляд ключових для нових медіа ідей Алана Кея та Теда Нельсона, а саме: перетворення комп’ютера на персональний метамедіум за допомогою користувацького інферфейсу та ідеї гіпертексту. Підкреслено, що створення медіа на базі комп’ютерних технологій супроводжувалось впливом медіа-теорії Маклюена та поєднанням технічного і гуманітарного дискурсів. Від початку створення нових медіа осмислювалась їхня метапозиція щодо традиційних медіа через здатність перших до симуляції наявних медіа-форм та створення нових. Теоретичні підвалини нових медіа як (...)
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  30. The Perception of Germany in the Kyivan Press: From Ukrainian People’s Republic to the Hetmanate (November 1917 — December 1918).Ivan Basenko - 2017 - Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal 4:67-84.
    The 1917 February Revolution led to the reshaping of the war-era image of the German enemy. Focusing on the former imperial borderland province of the Southwestern Krai, this article unveils the national, political, and cultural considerations of the local Ukrainian and Russian-language media that affected their attitude towards the Germans. It argues that the developments of the 1917–1918 Ukrainian Revolution presented a unique case of constructing the image of the Germans due to the ongoing rivalry between the respective Ukrainian and (...)
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  31. The Obligation to Diversify One's Sources: Against Epistemic Partisanship in the Consumption of News Media.Alex Worsnip - 2019 - In Carl Fox & Joe Saunders (eds.), Media Ethics: Free Speech and the Requirements of Democracy. London: Routledge. pp. 240-264.
    In this paper, I defend the view that it is wrong for us to consume only, or overwhelmingly, media that broadly aligns with our own political viewpoints: that is, it is wrong to be politically “partisan” in our decisions about what media to consume. We are obligated to consume media that aligns with political viewpoints other than our own – to “diversify our sources”. This is so even if our own views are, as a matter of fact, substantively correct.
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  32. Digitale Entmündigung und User Experience Design. Wie digitale Geräte uns nudgen, tracken und zur Unwissenheit erziehen.Rainer Mühlhoff - 2018 - Leviathan - Berliner Zeitschrift Für Sozialwissenschaft 46 (4).
    Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht moderne Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion im Kontext verbreiteter Hard- und Softwareoberflächen und diskutiert davon ausgehend die Frage nach Aufklärung und Gegenaufklärung im digitalen Zeitalter. Er nimmt das Feld des »User Experience Designs« in den Blick - dies ist ein stilprägender Fachdiskurs, in dem verhaltenswissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse und massendatenbasierte Analysen zur Optimierung von Benutzeroberflächen und Interaktionsdesigns eingesetzt werden. Anhand von Beispielstudien wird argumentiert, dass dieser Gestaltung systematisch drei implizite anthropologische Annahmen zugrunde liegen: Nutzerverhalten gilt als durch prä-reflexive Stimuli beeinflussbar; es gilt (...)
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  33. Lynton Crosby and the Dark Arts of Democracy.Joe Saunders - 2019 - In Joe Saunders & Carl Fox (eds.), Media Ethics, Free Speech and the Requirements of Democracy. Routledge.
    This paper explores the political campaigning strategies of Lynton Crosby, and argues that they pose a threat to democracy. In doing so, I looks to shed light on Crosby’s tactics, but also to elucidate exactly what is anti-democratic about them. I argue that there are two worrying aspects to this. The first involves Crosby’s lack of respect for voters’ beliefs, interests and values, whereas the second concerns his propensity for avoiding debate.
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  34. Information Before Information Theory: The Politics of Data Beyond the Perspective of Communication.Colin Koopman - forthcoming - New Media and Society.
    Scholarship on the politics of new media widely assumes that communication functions as a sufficient conceptual paradigm for critically assessing new media politics. This article argues that communication-centric analyses fail to engage the politics of information itself, limiting information only to its consequences for communication, and neglecting information as it reaches into our selves, lives, and actions beyond the confines of communication. Furthering recent new media historiography on the “information theory” of Shannon and Wiener, the article reveals both the primacy (...)
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  35. Foreword.Lee Wilkins - 2012 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 27 (2):79-79.
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  36. Illuminating the Complexities of Ethical Decision Making: APA Ethics Code Commentary and Case Illustrations. Linda Campbell, Melba Vasquez, Stephen Behnke, and Robert Kinscherff. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010, 392 Pages, $69.95. [REVIEW]Rebecca A. Rialon & Sharon E. Williams - 2011 - Ethics and Behavior 21 (3):261-262.
    Ethics & Behavior, Volume 21, Issue 3, Page 261-262, May-June 2011.
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  37. Covering Ethics Through Analysis and Commentary: A Case Study.David A. Craig - 2002 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 17 (1):53-68.
    In this article I use a case study of 3 newspaper pieces about assisted suicide and euthanasia to show how journalists can use analysis and commentary to highlight the ethical dimension of an important public issue. Using an approach grounded in ethical theory, I examine how these pieces-from the Christian Science Monitor, Los Angeles Times, and New York Times-shed light on ethical issues including matters of duties and consequences. It is argued that an analytical approach that openly frames a topic (...)
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  38. Responsibility and Ethics in the Canadian Media: Some Basic Concerns.Raphael Cohen-Almagor - 2002 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 17 (1):35-52.
    In this article I analyze some of the troubling issues in Canadian media ethics, based on in-depth interviews with more than 50 experts on Canadian media. I begin by reflecting on the cultural considerations involved in the Canadian media's proximity to the United States. Subsequently, I discuss the problems of excessive ownership of the media by a few organizations, arguing that the right to exercise free expression does not include the right to own as many media organizations as money can (...)
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  39. Privacy Invasion by the News Media: Three Ethical Models.Candace Cummins Gauthier - 2002 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 17 (1):20-34.
    In this article I provide an overview of philosophical conceptions of privacy and suggest 3 models to assist with the ethical analysis of privacy invasion by the news media. The models are framed by respect for persons, the comparison of harms and benefits, and the transfer of power. After describing the models, I demonstrate how they can be applied to news reporting that invades the privacy of public figures.
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  40. Times V. Sullivan: Landmark or Land Mine on the Road to Ethical Journalism?John C. Watson - 2002 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 17 (1):3-19.
    In this article I address the ethical implications of the legal issues the U. S. Supreme Court resolved in New York Times v. Sullivan and its progeny. In a ruling with far-reaching moral implications, the Court addressed truthtelling-journalism's primary ethical directive-and undermined it by favoring other moral principles and social goals. Much of this article focuses on the ethical arguments addressed to the Court in legal briefs that sought rulings that would support fundamental principals of ethical journalism. The creation of (...)
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  41. Normative Conflict in the Newsroom: The Case of Digital Photo Manipulation.Wilson Lowrey - 2003 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (2):123-142.
    Digital photo manipulation is often treated in the literature as a problem that occurs when individuals stray from a single set of ethical standards. It is proposed in this study that the newsroom comprises various subgroups, each with unique norms and values, and each seeking to shape newsroom decision making. It is expected that photo manipulation should result from subgroups' perceptions of, and reactions to, this plurality of newsroom norms. This expectation is assessed through both in-depth interviews and a national (...)
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  42. Can Natural Law Defend Advertising?Jeffrey J. Maciejewski - 2003 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (2):111-122.
    To advance the philosophical debate of advertising's role in society, in this article I situate the natural tendencies of individuals that manifest themselves in economic relationships within the broader context of natural-law theory. I propose that a natural tendency to exchange goods underscores the classical liberal economic model. As a result, individuals have a natural inclination toward the use of persuasive rhetoric. In addition, as animale symbolicum, individuals have a natural tendency toward symbol use and creation, which in turn affects (...)
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  43. Public Opinion About News Coverage of Leaders' Private Lives.Daniel Riffe - 2003 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (2):98-110.
    The need for those who govern to be accountable to the governed often conflicts with the right of an individual, albeit a public leader, to privacy. This survey found that most Ohio residents believe job performance can be affected by what goes on in private lives, but most don't believe scrutiny of private matters is a media responsibility and find such coverage excessive and unfair. Belief in importance of accountability was related to support for media's responsibility to provide scrutiny, but (...)
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  44. Appreciating W. D. Ross:On Duties and Consequences.Christopher Meyers - 2003 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (2):81-97.
    In this article I describe the theoretical underpinnings of 20th-century British philosopher W. D. Ross's approach to linking deontological and teleological decision making. I attempt to fill in what Ross left on the whole unanswered, that is, how to use his duties to resolve dilemmas. A case study in journalism demonstrates how to apply the theory. I conclude with an analysis of what I take to be the strengths and weaknesses in Ross's theory.
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  45. Digital Research in Media Ethics: An Annotated Webliography of Information Resources.Emily Walshe - 2001 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (4):305-312.
    This webliography has several functions: for teaching faculty to consult as a tool to aid in enhancing the media ethics curricula; contribute to the scholarly exchange of ideas; and perhaps cultivate a new awareness and direction for exploring secondary and tertiary nonprint sources involving ethics and mass media.
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  46. Electronic Mail and Listservs: Effective Journalistic Ethical Fora?Thomas E. Ruggiero - 2001 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (4):293-304.
    This exploratory study investigated the ramifications of e-mail and listservs as modes of journalistic ethical discussion. Results of the e-mail questionnaire to online newspaper journalists indicated that, although American online journalists overwhelmingly use e-mail to conduct both professional and personal business, it is unlikely that many are logging on to electronic discussion groups to discuss ethical issues. Moreover, this study suggests that the "informality" of listservs may reflect their perceived ineffectiveness and consequent underutilization by journalists. Journalists who do participate in (...)
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  47. Online Journalists Face New Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons From The Netherlands.Daphna Yeshua & Mark Deuze - 2001 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (4):273-292.
    In this article, we discuss the findings of a pilot project involving online journalists and online journalism graduate students in The Netherlands regarding their experiences and professional views on ethical dilemmas specifically related to new media. This article offers an exploratory analysis of the literature regarding new media ethics, singles out a number of specific issues confronting the online professional, and measures their relative impact on the self-perception and daily practices of online journalists in The Netherlands.
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  48. "Fruit of the Poisonous Tree": Journalistic Ethics and Voice-Mail Surveillance.Cecilia Friend & Donald Challenger - 2001 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (4):255-272.
    A 1998 Cincinnati Enquirer investigation into the Central American labor practices of Chiquita Brands International was substantiated by the taped words of company officials themselves. Yet, soon after publication, the Enquirer ran a stunning front-page retraction and disavowed the report without challenging its claims. The Gannett Corporation, the paper's owner, paid Chiquita $14 million to avoid a suit. The resultant outcry by journalists was directed not at Gannett, but at lead reporter Michael Gallagher, who had surreptitiously accessed Chiquita voice mail (...)
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  49. Learning Journalism Ethics: The Classroom Versus the Real World.Gary Hanson - 2002 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 17 (3):235-247.
    This study assesses the disconnect between television news directors' and journalism students' perceptions of issues in media ethics. Responses from 60 news directors and 166 students enrolled in ethics courses at three universities offer insight into what issues practitioners actually face, what issues students think they will face, and how serious each group perceives potential ethical dilemmas to be. Both groups agree that ethics is best learned on the job.
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  50. Media Ethics Textbook Case Studies Need New Actors and New Issues.James B. McPherson & Virginia Whitehouse - 2002 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 17 (3):226-234.
    In this article we consider the value and effective use of ethics courses and case study pedagogy, analyze media ethics cases in 3 textbooks, support changing primary actors in many future text case studies, and call for the addition of ethical issues most relevant to the professional positions students will hold after graduation.
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