V.V. Rozanov belongs to the older generation of the "new religious consciousness" in Russia. He was born in 1856 in Vetluga, Kostromskaia province, to the family of a collegiate assessor. Rozanov passed his early childhood in Kostroma, and his secondary-school years in Kostroma, Simbirsk, and Nizhnii Novgorod. In secondary school he was attracted by positivism and revolutionary and democratic writings, especially those of V.G. Belinskii. In 1878 he entered the History and Philological Department of Moscow University, completing it with a (...) diploma of teacher of history and geography. He then left to take teaching posts in the provinces. (shrink)
H.m. is the science of the most general laws and root forces in the development of human society. H.m. came into being in the mid-19th century. Its creators were the leaders and ideologists of the working class: Marx and Engels. In founding a new philosophical world view, dialectical materialsm, Marx and Engels applied it to cognition of society, its history and life.
The purpose of this article is to consider critically the humanistic potential of Olympism. We consider the concepts ‘human’ and ‘humanism’ from an existential perspective. Existentialism argues that human beings exist in a state of freedom. Freedom, as the basis of being human, holds a human fully responsible for his or her own existence. This responsibility assumes an active mode of behaviour, predicated on human effort. It can also include the making of specific artifacts such as creating creations. According to (...) Mamardashvili, creating creations are unique cultural mechanisms that remain in the boundaries of morality, beauty, thought and so on, adding quality to human existence. The article argues that the desire to be fulfilled as a human being is the moral basis to which Olympism directs Olympic athletes. Moreover, Olympism expresses the human’s need of self-overcoming, constant self-perfection which is necessary aspect of the humanity. Thus, the humanistic potential of Olympism lies in the fact that it allows for the creative space in sport which is itself a place for human realization. Therefore, Olympism can be characterized as opera operans, creating creation. (shrink)
February 18, 1994, marks the seventieth anniversary of the birth of Eval'd Vasil'evich Il'enkov. In this article, I would like to undertake a dual task: on the one hand, to trace out the general logic of Il'enkov's theoretical works; and on the other, to sketch a portrait of his personality . I would like to show that Il'enkov the man and Il'enkov the thinker are inseparable.
As it happened, I became acquainted with E.V. Il'enkov quite late, in the mid- or even the late 1960s. It was only a bit more than ten years before his death that I began to feel at home in his house, was able to visit without calling ahead, and was able to call him by his first name and the familiar "you"—that is, like many, many of not only his true friends but also like-minded thinkers, who became his close acquaintances, (...) most of whom justly considered themselves his pupils … The door would open wide, and Olia, Professor K.I. Salimova, Eval'd's wife and most devoted friend, not at all surprised by the unexpected guest and seemingly even quite happy at his arrival , would try first to draw him into the kitchen and feed him … which she more often than not succeeded in doing. I am not talking about myself: there were always many guests, and this is precisely how they arrived at the Il'enkovs' apartment. Recently, a critic in Literaturnaia gazeta recalled those whom he met in Eval'd's apartment in the 1960s: "This was a tight circle of like-minded thinkers," wrote the critic. "But some of them are no longer with us, while most are far away, beyond our borders." Obviously, he had not been in the house often or had forgotten things over the distance of years. There was no "circle," nor could there have been one—not with this host, not with his lifestyle and way of relating to people. I met a good hundred fine and various people in Eval'd's home: I.N. Korzhavin, V. Davydov, A. Meshcheriakov, S. Vinogradova, N. Dubinin, V. Zinchenko, A. Zinov'ev, Iu. Kamiakin, and … indeed, five pages would not be enough to list the quite famous and the not-quite-so-famous, simply ordinary people with no claim to fame. Nazym Khikmet, A.N. Leont'ev, and B.M. Kedrov were friends of the house … Ever new faces, figures, and words come to mind. I cannot forgive myself: once Eval'd Vasil'evich wanted to take me along to Iurii Liubimov's to read his play Neither God nor Tsar nor Hero … [Ni bog, ni tsar' i ni geroi], but I had some other business, something so important that I do not even remember now what it was, and it is probably not worth remembering. But most likely I was too timid to appear uninvited at the house of a person burning with creativity. The same thing happened with Galich … Eval'd liked especially his song about Zoshchenko. He did not sing it; he narrated it, but in such a way that tears always came to one's eyes. (shrink)
November 1965 marked ninety years since the birth of Anatolii Vasil'evich Lunacharskii, outstanding critic and theoretician of art, who made an enormous contribution to the building of socialist culture.
Here we suggest a formal using of N.A. Vasil’ev’s logical ideas in categorical logic: the idea of “accidental” assertion is formalized with topoi and the idea of the notion of nonclassical negation, that is not based on incompatibility, is formalized in special cases of monoidal categories. For these cases, the variant of the law of “excluded n-th” suggested by Vasil’ev instead of the tertium non datur is obtained in some special cases of these categories. The paraconsistent law suggested by Vasil’ev (...) is also demonstrated with linear and tensor logics but in a form weaker than he supposed. As we have, in fact, many truth-values in linear logic and topos logic, the admissibility of the traditional notion of inference in the categorical interpretation of linear and intuitionistic proof theory is discussed. (shrink)
The paper investigates the system of 'Imaginary Logic' created by the Russian logician N.A. Vasil'ev (1880-1940), considered by some to be a forerunner of paraconsistent or intuitionistic logics. It is shown how he constructs a logic without the law of contradiction redefining the concept of negation. Vasil'ev singles out two levels of logic, an external one which is absolute and one depending on commitments in relation to cognizable objects which is not absolute. His reconstruction of the syllogism shows the viability (...) of his system and indicates how, indeed, he may be called an initiator of nonclassical logics. (shrink)
This edition contains the correspondence between Paul Tillich and his friend Fedor Stepun, a sociologist and philosopher of religion. Tillich and Stepun had been colleagues at Technische Universität Dresden in the mid 1920s. The correspondence covers the period between 1934 and 1964. The early letters address the situation in Germany during the onset of National Socialism: the so-called Röhm-Putsch, the Kirchenkampf, the institutional changes in the university system and, later, the dismissal of Stepun as professor in Dresden in 1937. (...) After a hiatus of several years, the correspondence continues in 1946. The correspondence shows the search for a new positioning in the postwar years, from the perspective of the émigré Paul Tillich and Stepun, the expert on Russia, who from Munich observed the political developments of the Cold War with great concern. Stepun consistently proves an acute critic of the political theologian Paul Tillich. In particular, Tillich's Christology and his program of religious socialism met with his friend's fierce criticism. (shrink)
The solution of the problem of the future random events truth is considered in Vasil’ev’s logic. N. A. Vasil’ev graded the logic according to two levels—the level of facts, i.e. time fixed events, and the level of notions or rules, governing these facts. The mathematical construction previously suggested for imaginary Vasil’ev’s logic, extends to the early variant of his logic—a logic of notions. In the paper, we investigate the meaning of problematic and uncertain assertions introduced by Vasil’ev. As a result, (...) we developed a model of Vasil’ev’s logic of facts that resolves also the truth problem of future random events. The imaginary logic has also been extended to the level of notions, and the law of the excluded eighth is gotten in it. The correspondence between Vasil’ev’s terms “some” and “all” and modern quantifiers is discussed. (shrink)
This paper is about the ?Imaginary Logic? developed by the Russian logician Nicholas Vasil'év between about 1910 and 1913, a logic that is often claimed to be a forerunner of different sorts of modern nonclassical logics. The paper describes the content of that logic (not by trying to interpret it in modern logic, as some commentators have done, but by describing it in its own terms). It then looks at the philosophical underpinnings of the logic. Finally, in the light of (...) the preceding, it discusses Vasil?év's place in the history of logic. (shrink)
I interpret Dostoevskij’s religious concepts in terms of mythogenesis and mythopoesis. Dostoevskij’s religious concepts arose on the basis both of his personal emotional experience and of the discourse of popular Orthodoxy. They demonstrate the antinomial nature of Russian spirituality, and are typified by his conception of the family, which illustrates the communal basis of the individual personality. The antimomial idea of the family is most fully developed in Dostoevskij’s novel The Brothers Karamazov, in which the four models of fatherhood correspond (...) to Isaac the Syrian’s concepts of physical, spiritual, mental and divine fatherhood. (shrink)
Метою статті є порівняння антропології статі В. Розанова та етики статевої відмінності Л. Ірігаре, виявлення подібностей та відмінностей цих концепцій, оцінка їхньої ролі у становленні гендерних досліджень. Теоретичний базис об’єднує компаративістський метод та гендерний підхід, основою якого є не просто опис різниці статусів, ролей та інших аспектів життя чоловіків та жінок, а й подолання андроцентризму сучасного світу. Наукова новизна полягає, в тому, що в статті вперше в контексті гендерних досліджень було зроблено спеціальне філософсько-антропологічне порівняння концепцій статі Розанова та Ірігаре. Це (...) дозволило розанівську концепцію зарахувати до есенціалізму, а концепцію Ірігаре – до анти-есенціалізму. У статті також виявлена схожість антропології статі Розанова та етики статевої відмінності Ірігаре в аспекті поняття сексуальності, проаналізовані та детально зіставлені їхні основні ідеї. Висновок. Спільним в концепціях Розанова та Ірігаре є утвердження жіночої суб’єктивності, яка є рівноцінною чоловічий. Жіночий еквівалент сексуальності у Розанова проявляється в понятті "самочності", а у Ірігаре – в метонімії "двох губ". Методологічною основою їхніх концепцій виступає непереборна опозиція "чоловічого" та "жіночого". Розанов прагне до ототожнення "чоловічого" та "жіночого", а Ірігаре більше зосереджується на їхній радикальній відмінності. За Розановим гендерні відмінності детерміновані біологічно або метафізично, що визначає їхній вічний та незмінний характер. У свою чергу Ірігаре стверджує, що гендерні відмінності обумовлені фалоцентричною культурою та можуть бути подолані разом зі зміною мовних структур. Принципова ж схожість концепцій двох філософів полягає в тому, що в них сексуалізовоно не лише чоловіче, а й жіноче начало. Таким чином, Розанов у своїй стилістиці, акцентованій на увазі до тілесності, напрочуд близький теперішній гендерній антропології та може розглядатися як її предтеча. Разом з тим вплив філософських концепцій Ірігаре на сучасні гендерні дослідження полягає в тому, що вона вперше вказала на необхідність створення жіночого іншого дискурсу, який поважає статеву відмінність, та показала проблематичність виділення відмінності жіночого іншого від будь-якого іншого в ньому. (shrink)