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Summary

Socialism is a political and economic order in which the means of production (e.g. land, factories, machinery, communication and transportation infrastructure, etc.) are subject to public control and the traditionally gendered and often unpaid labor of reproduction (e.g. child rearing, domestic labor, etc.) is compensated or socialized. While the structure of governance, use of markets, degree of cooperative labor, and kinds welfare guarantees may vary, socialism seeks to prioritize the satisfaction of human needs, while mitigating material inequality and social oppression. Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) argued that the objective possibility of socialism was immanent to capitalism. (Socialism supported by moral principles or human will alone, was critically referred to as utopian.) Immanent to socialism, in turn, is the objective possibility of communism, which entails the complete dissolution of the state, division of labor, and the value form associated with commodity production. Marxist socialism is thus a stage in the historical development of communism, whose defining characteristic is the overcoming of all internal contradictions and radical otherness (a characteristic it shares with Hegel’s notion of absolute spirit). Marxism, however, also refers to a systematic, dialectical, and historical analysis of capitalism; a reflexive form of critical social theory with an emancipatory intent; a historical materialist methodology; theories of class formation, conflict, and ideology; as well as to critiques of alienation, reification, and commodity fetishism. There are now several different schools of Marxist thought, from Humanist, Structuralist, and Autonomist Marxism, to Analytical, Feminist, and Cultural Marxism, among others.

Key works Major early works in socialist thought include Charles Fourier,

The Theory of the Four Movements

(1808), Robert Owen,

New View of Society

(1813), and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What Is Property? (1840). Major works by Marx and Engels include Karl Marx's Capital, Volumes 1-3, the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, “On the Jewish Question,” and The Eighteenth Brumaire; Engels' The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844) and The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884); as well as 

The Communist Manifesto

(1848) and the German Ideology (1845), which Marx and Engels authored together. The collected works of Marx and Engels in German are here (MEGA) and in English here (MECW). Other key texts in the Marxist tradition include Lenin, State and Revolution (1917); Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks; Rosa Luxemburg, The Accumulation of Capital (1913), Georg (György) Lukács,

History and Class Consciousness (1923); Louis Althusser, For Marx (1965); and Jean-Paul Sartre, Critique of Dialectical Reason, 2 Volumes (1960, 1985).

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  1. Ethical Life.Liam Kofi Bright - manuscript
    A sketch of my ethical views, or secular moral philosophy. Emphasis is on stating how it all hangs together.
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  2. A ‘Grooming Chamber’ For Antisemitism.Jan M. Van der Molen - Jan 28, 2020 - University of Groningen.
    If Jewish Bolsheviks could put an end to the imperial rule of the Romanovs, could they pose a threat to the vision of a Third Reigh? A question the German National Socialists are likely to have asked themselves before and on the eve of plotting the rise of the Nazi regime. After all, Europe had had a long-standing relationship with blaming the Jews for the world’s miseries. A relationship Germany was ready to refuel, as indicated by German Field Marshal Walter (...)
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  3. Mark Neocleous, Fascism.T. Abse - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  4. Lenin Reads Hegel.Andreas Arndt - forthcoming - Hegel-Studien.
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  5. The End/s of Socialism.Ronald Aronson - forthcoming - Theoria.
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  6. Has the Soviet Union Taken a Step Toward Communism?Alexander S. Balinky - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  7. The Proclaimed Emergence of Communism in the USSR.Alexander S. Balinky - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  8. Capital ReturnsMarx’s Inferno: The Political Theory of Capital, by RobertsWilliam Clare. Princeton University Press. 2017, 304 Pp.Portfolio Society: On the Capitalist Mode of Prediction, by AscherIvan. Zone Books. 2016, 192 Pp. [REVIEW]Charles Barbour - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059171773398.
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  9. The Crisis in Marxist Sociology.Norman Birnbaum - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  10. Un Martor Al Realimului Socialist.Radu Bogdan - forthcoming - Dilema.
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  11. Market Socialism: A Subjectivist Perspective.R. Bradley - forthcoming - Journal of Libertarian Studies.
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  12. Still Primus Inter Pares for Understanding and Opposing the Capitalist System.Richard A. Brosio - forthcoming - Journal of Thought.
  13. Marxism and the Multitude '.Alex Callinicos - forthcoming - Multitudes: Revue Politique, Artistique, Philosophique.
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  14. To Study Marxism with Marx's Academic Spirit.Xu Chang-fu - forthcoming - Modern Philosophy.
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  15. The Dialectics of Standing One's Ground.George Ciccariello-Maher - forthcoming - Theory and Event 15 (3).
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  16. Philippe Van Parijs, Marxism Recycled.A. Collier - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  17. Stephen A. Resnick and Richard D. Wolff, Class Theory and History: Capitalism and Communism in the USSR.C. el-Ojeili - forthcoming - Thesis Eleven.
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  18. Antonio Gramsci, Letters From Prison.G. Elliott - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  19. John E. Roemer, A Future for Socialism.G. Elliott - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  20. The Point of Change: Marxism/Australia.Carole Ferrier & Rebecca Pelan - forthcoming - History/Theory.
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  21. Apriamo un franco dibattito all'interno del Partito.Ludovico Geymonat - forthcoming - (l'Unità).
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  22. La funzione del parlamento.Ludovico Geymonat - forthcoming - (l'Unità).
  23. Perfectionism and Dignity.Pablo Gilabert - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    Perfectionism about well-being is, at a minimum, the view that people’s lives go well when, and because they realize their capacities. It is common to link perfectionism with an idea of human essence or nature, to yield the view that what constitutes people’s well-being is the development and exercise of characteristically human capacities. The first part of this paper considers the very serious problems associated with the idea of human nature or essence, and argues that perfectionism would be more plausible (...)
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  24. Fredric Jameson, Brecht and Method.S. Giles - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  25. Democracy’s History of Inegalitarianism: Symposium on Michael Hanchard, The Spectre of Race: How Discrimination Haunts Western Democracy, Princeton University Press, 2018, 272 Pgs. [REVIEW]Robert Gooding-Williams, David Theo Goldberg, Juliet Hooker & Michael G. Hanchard - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059172090186.
  26. Contemporary Marxist Sociology.Erich Hahn - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  27. Perry Anderson, The Origins of Postmodernity.H. Harootunian - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  28. Literature on the Theory of a Socialist Economy.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  29. Marxism and Underdeveloped Countries.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  30. Socialism and Democracy.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  31. The Interplay of Capitalism and Socialism in the American Economy.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  32. Karel Kosík's Notion of "Positivism".Tomas Hribek - forthcoming - In Jan Mervart, Joseph G. Feinberg & Ivan Landa (eds.), Karel Kosík's Dialectics of the Concrete. Leiden, Nizozemsko:
    The most prominent Czech philosopher, Karel Kosík, makes a few hints to the Vienna Circle, Otto Neurath and "positivism" in his important book, DIALECTICS OF THE CONCRETE (1963). I mine these few remarks for a better understanding of the conflicts, as well as connections, between the social progressivism of the Vienna Circle and the later Marxist humanism.
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  33. The Communist Farmer.Alvin Johnson - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  34. The American Worker and His Education.Horace M. Kallen - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  35. Communism as a Secret Individualism.Horace Meyer Kallen - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  36. Communism and Social Democracy.Harry W. Laidler - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  37. Comment on Mayer's Analysis of National Socialism.Carl Landauer - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  38. Van Weense Socialist Tot Britse Mandarijn: Poppers Ontwikkeling.M. M. Leezenberg - forthcoming - Wijsgerig Perspectief.
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  39. The Legal Structure of the Communist Bloc.Dietrich André Loeber - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  40. Kevin Anderson, Lenin, Hegel and Western Marxism.M. Loewy - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  41. Culture and the Trend of Scientific Socialism in Contemporary Arab Thought.Ahmed Madi - forthcoming - Philosophy and Culture. Nairobi: Bookwise Limited.
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  42. The Marxist School of Sociology: What is Sociology in a Marxist Sense?Oleg Mandić - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  43. Hegemony or Socialism?S. Martin - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  44. Some Sociological Problems of Socialist Factories.Alexander Matejko - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  45. Stephen Perkins, Marxism and the Proletariat: A Lukacsian Perspective.D. McLellan - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  46. French Intellectuals and Communism.Charles A. Micaud - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  47. The Politics of Economic Rationality: Observations on the Soviet Economy.Alec Nove - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  48. What is Economic Liberty?Tom O'Shea - forthcoming - Philosophical Topics.
    Economic liberty is best understood in opposition to economic domination. This article develops a radical republican conception of such domination. In particular, I argue that radical republicanism provides a more satisfactory account of individual economic freedom than the market-friendly liberties of working, transacting, holding, and using championed by Nickel and Tomasi. So too, it avoids the pitfalls of other conceptions of economic liberty which emphasise real freedom, alternatives to immiserating work, or unalienated labour. The resulting theory holds that economic domination (...)
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  49. A Phenomenological Account of Being Poor in America.Joseph D. Osel - forthcoming - Social Science Research Network__Res Publica (2011).
  50. War and Grace: The Force of Simone Weil on Homer.Adrian Poole - forthcoming - Arion 2 (1).
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