About this topic

Socialism is a political and economic order in which the means of production (e.g. land, factories, machinery, communication and transportation infrastructure, etc.) are subject to public control and the traditionally gendered and often unpaid labor of reproduction (e.g. child rearing, domestic labor, etc.) is compensated or socialized. While the structure of governance, use of markets, degree of cooperative labor, and kinds welfare guarantees may vary, socialism seeks to prioritize the satisfaction of human needs, while mitigating material inequality and social oppression. Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) argued that the objective possibility of socialism was immanent to capitalism. (Socialism supported by moral principles or human will alone, was critically referred to as utopian.) Immanent to socialism, in turn, is the objective possibility of communism, which entails the complete dissolution of the state, division of labor, and the value form associated with commodity production. Marxist socialism is thus a stage in the historical development of communism, whose defining characteristic is the overcoming of all internal contradictions and radical otherness (a characteristic it shares with Hegel’s notion of absolute spirit). Marxism, however, also refers to a systematic, dialectical, and historical analysis of capitalism; a reflexive form of critical social theory with an emancipatory intent; a historical materialist methodology; theories of class formation, conflict, and ideology; as well as to critiques of alienation, reification, and commodity fetishism. There are now several different schools of Marxist thought, from Humanist, Structuralist, and Autonomist Marxism, to Analytical, Feminist, and Cultural Marxism, among others.

Key works Major early works in socialist thought include Charles Fourier,

The Theory of the Four Movements

(1808), Robert Owen,

New View of Society

(1813), and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What Is Property? (1840). Major works by Marx and Engels include Karl Marx's Capital, Volumes 1-3, the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, “On the Jewish Question,” and The Eighteenth Brumaire; Engels' The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844) and The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884); as well as 

The Communist Manifesto

(1848) and the German Ideology (1845), which Marx and Engels authored together. The collected works of Marx and Engels in German are here (MEGA) and in English here (MECW). Other key texts in the Marxist tradition include Lenin, State and Revolution (1917); Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks; Rosa Luxemburg, The Accumulation of Capital (1913), Georg (György) Lukács,

History and Class Consciousness (1923); Louis Althusser, For Marx (1965); and Jean-Paul Sartre, Critique of Dialectical Reason, 2 Volumes (1960, 1985).

Related categories

5130 found
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  1. added 2019-01-01
    Karl Marx’s Ecosocialism: Capital, Nature. And the Unfinished Critique of Political Economy, by Kohei Saito. [REVIEW]Kaan Kangal - 2019 - Science and Society 83:130-132.
  2. added 2018-12-22
    Political Uses of Utopia: New Marxist, Anarchist, and Radical Democratic Perspectives.Paul Raekstad - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-4.
  3. added 2018-12-22
    Between Equal Rights: Primitive Accumulation and Capital’s Violence.Onur Ulas Ince - 2018 - Political Theory 46 (6):885-914.
    This essay attempts to elaborate a political theory of capital’s violence. Recent analyses have adopted Karl Marx’s notion of the “primitive accumulation of capital” for investigating the forcible methods by which the conditions of capital accumulation are reproduced in the present. I argue that the current scholarship is limited by a certain functionalism in its theorization of ongoing primitive accumulation. The analytic function accorded to primitive accumulation, I contend, can be better performed by the concepts of “capital-positing violence” and “capital-preserving (...)
  4. added 2018-12-22
    Maoism in South America: Comparing Peru’s Sendero Luminoso with Mexico’s PRP and PPUA.Kevin Pinkoski - 2013 - Constellations 4 (1).
  5. added 2018-12-21
    Porównanie myśli Herberta Marcusego z myślą Michela Foucaulta – czyli jak w latach sześćdziesiątych i siedemdziesiątych XX wieku outsiderzy zmienili społeczny porządek kultury zachodniej.Markus Lipowicz - 2016 - Diametros 49:27-49.
    The aim of the article is to compare the ideas of Herbert Marcuse and Michel Foucault. In his works Marcuse focused on the excluded social circles. Their revolt against the establishment shook up the normative foundations of the social order in the 1960s and the 1970s, which finally led to a cultural revolution. Inspired by these social changes, Foucault was interested in the effects of this revolution at the epistemological and moral level. He recognized that the actions of the excluded (...)
  6. added 2018-12-17
    Manfredo Tafuri, Fredric Jameson and the Contestations of Political Memory.Gail Day - 2012 - Historical Materialism 20 (1):31-77.
  7. added 2018-12-16
    Nations, Colonies and Social Classes: The Position of Marx and Engels.Horace B. Davis - 1965 - Science and Society 29 (1):26 - 43.
  8. added 2018-12-15
    The American Civil War Considered as a Bourgeois Revolution.Neil Davidson - 2011 - Historical Materialism 19 (4):98-144.
  9. added 2018-12-15
    How Revolutionary Were the Bourgeois Revolutions?Neil Davidson - 2005 - Historical Materialism 13 (3):3-54.
  10. added 2018-12-15
    How Revolutionary Were the Bourgeois Revolutions?Neil Davidson - 2005 - Historical Materialism 13 (3):3-33.
  11. added 2018-12-15
    Reviews : Gregor McLennan, Marxism and the Methodologies of History, (Verso, London, 1981), Pp. 272. Anthony Giddens, A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism, (MacMillan, London, 1981), Pp. 294. Raphael Samuel, Ed., People's History and Socialist Theory. History Workshop Series, (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1981), Pp. Vi + 417. G. Osborne and W. F. Mandle, Eds., New History Studying Australia Today, (George Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1982), Pp. 216. [REVIEW]Alastair Davidson - 1983 - Thesis Eleven 7 (1):171-175.
    Reviews : Gregor McLennan, Marxism and the Methodologies of History, , pp. 272. Anthony Giddens, A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism, , pp. 294. Raphael Samuel, ed., People's History and Socialist Theory. History Workshop Series, , pp. vi + 417. G. Osborne and W. F. Mandle, eds., New History Studying Australia Today, , pp. 216.
  12. added 2018-12-14
    Western Modernization and Marxist Political Theory: An Alternative to Lib-Eralism Modernização Ocidental E Teoria Política Marxista: Uma Alternativa Ao Liberalismo.Leno Francisco Danner - 2016 - Doispontos 13 (1).
  13. added 2018-12-14
    Review: Politicism and Idealism in State Theory. [REVIEW]Raju J. Das - 1999 - Science and Society 63 (1):97 - 104.
  14. added 2018-12-08
    Craft Theory And The Creation Of A New Capitalism.Jonathan Morgan - 2018 - The New Polis.
    This paper challenges the notion that the only way to progress to a post-capitalist society is through the wholesale destruction of the capitalist economic system. Instead, I argue that Craft —an existential state and praxis informed by the creation and maintenance of objects of utility—is uniquely situated to effectively reclaim these systems due to its its focus on materiality over abstraction and its unique position as a socially aware form of praxis. This argument focuses not on competition, but on hyper-abstraction (...)
  15. added 2018-12-08
    Capital Returns.Charles Barbour - 2018 - Political Theory 46 (6):938-946.
  16. added 2018-12-03
    A Marxist Ethic of Business.J. Angelo Corlett - 2013 - In Christopher Luetege (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer. pp. 463--480.
  17. added 2018-12-03
    On the Marriage of Philosophy and Politics.Daniel W. Conway - 1997 - Political Theory 25 (6):855-868.
  18. added 2018-12-03
    Social Relations and Forces of Production.B. T. Coram - 1989 - Social Theory and Practice 15 (2):213-229.
  19. added 2018-12-03
    II. Solving the Problem of Socrates.Daniel W. Conway - 1988 - Political Theory 16 (2):257-280.
  20. added 2018-12-03
    Marxist Models in French Economic-Anthropology-Ready-to-Wear or High-Fashion.J. Copans - 1988 - Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 84:161-176.
  21. added 2018-12-03
    Agnes Heller and Our Needs.David Cooper - 1987 - Thesis Eleven 16 (1):100-103.
  22. added 2018-12-03
    The Bourgeois in Marxian Rhetoric.Paul E. Corcoran - 1980 - History of Political Thought 1 (2):301-314.
  23. added 2018-12-02
    Una filosofía centrada en la vida. (En ocasión del 200 aniversario del natalicio de Karl Marx: 1818 - 2018).José Ramón Fabelo Corzo - 2017 - Graffylia. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la BUAP 25 (15):44-55.
    El artículo revela cómo la filosofía que desarrolló Karl Marx estuvo centrada en el tema de la vida. La esencia de la comprensión marxiana de la sociedad y la historia no radica en una primacía abstracta de lo económico, sino en el proceso real de producción y reproducción de la vida. Es la vida –y no la economía por sí misma– la que constituye el fundamento de la concepción materialista de la historia desarrollada por Marx.
  24. added 2018-12-02
    Confronting American Labor: The New Left Dilemma.Jeffrey W. Coker - 2002 - University of Missouri.
    _Confronting American Labor_ traces the development of the American left, from the Depression era through the Cold War, by examining four representative intellectuals who grappled with the difficult question of labor’s role in society. Since the time of Marx, leftists have raised over and over the question of how an intelligentsia might participate in a movement carried out by the working class. Their modus operandi was to champion those who suffered injustice at the hands of the powerful. From the late (...)
  25. added 2018-12-02
    Between Postmodernism and Nowhere: The Predicament of the Postmodernist.Mike Cole, Dave Hill & Glenn Rikowski - 1997 - British Journal of Educational Studies 45 (2):187 - 200.
    This paper counters Blake's (1996) claim that educational neo-Marxism 'died' in the 1970s through demonstrating that there has been a substantial output of neo-Marxist educational writings since 1980. Blake also promotes postmodernism as a resource for rejuvenating educational theory. The paper demonstrates that postmodernism is inadequate as a basis for rethinking educational theory and for forging a radical educational politics.
  26. added 2018-12-02
    [Book Review] Rethinking the French Revolution, Marxism and the Revisionist Challenge. [REVIEW]George C. Comninel - 1990 - Science and Society 54 (3):375-378.
  27. added 2018-12-02
    Socialism, Politics and Equality: Hierarchy and Change in Eastern Europe and the USSR.Walter D. Connor - 1983 - Science and Society 47 (3):361-364.
  28. added 2018-12-02
    Alienation, Sociality, and the Division of Labor: Contradictions in Marx's Ideal of "Social Man".Craig A. Conly - 1978 - Ethics 89 (1):82-94.
  29. added 2018-12-02
    On Materialist Contradictions: A Criticism.Morris Colman & M. Mark Mussachia - 1978 - Science and Society 42 (2):185 - 198.
  30. added 2018-12-02
    Karl Marx, the International and the British Trade Union Movement.Henry Collins - 1962 - Science and Society 26 (4):400 - 421.
  31. added 2018-12-02
    Some Aspects of the Marxian Philosophy of God.Francis Conklin - 1954 - New Scholasticism 28 (1):38-57.
  32. added 2018-12-01
    Self-Ownership, Communism and Equality.G. A. Cohen & Keith Graham - 1990 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 64 (1):25 - 61.
  33. added 2018-12-01
    Marx, Justice and History: A Philosophy and Public Affairs Reader.Marshall Cohen, Thomas Nagel, Thomas Scanlon, Hugo Meynell & Allen W. Wood - 1983 - Ethics 93 (4):792-799.
  34. added 2018-12-01
    Symposium: On Some Criticisms of Historical Materialism.Gerald A. Cohen & H. B. Acton - 1970 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 44:121 - 156.
  35. added 2018-11-30
    The Relation Between Economic and Political Instances in the Communist Mode of Production.Paul Cockshott, Allin Cottrell, Pat Devine & David Laibman - 2002 - Science and Society 66 (1):50 - 71.
  36. added 2018-11-30
    Value, Markets and Socialism.W. Paul Cockshott & Allin F. Cottrell - 1997 - Science and Society 61 (3):330 - 357.
    The labor theory of value provides both a moral and a conceptual foundation for an equitable and efficient socialism. Given modern information technology, a system of planning can work. Markets in consumer goods are required, but not markets for the means of production. We advocate a system of payment in labor-tokens, and argue for its superiority over the wages system in terms of both equity and economic efficiency.
  37. added 2018-11-30
    A Marxist Interpretation of Black Attempts at Political Self- Definition in South Africa.P. H. Coetzee - 1997 - Koers: Bulletin for Christian Scholarship 62 (4):423-446.
    In this article I address the problem of political self-definition in South Africa. I attempt to trace and explain the rise of political consciousness among the Black people of South Africa. I show that the rise of political consciousness was expressed in a Marxist attempt at political self-definition. This attempt has conceptual connections with communitarian politics, which explains why it was so easily accepted by black people. Black Consciousness made room for a wider political consciousness which included elements of traditional (...)
  38. added 2018-11-25
    Early Socialism as Intellectual History.Gregory Claeys - 2014 - History of European Ideas 40 (7):893-904.
    This article examines approaches to early socialism from an intellectual history viewpoint, focussing on British Owenite socialism. It assesses the author's own research in the field over the past thirty-five years in an effort to measure the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches he initially adopted to the field. It attempts to balance insights associated with the so-called “Cambridge School” with those gained in particular from the standpoints of the history of religion and the history of emotions, and a theory (...)
  39. added 2018-11-25
    Class, Politics and the Economy.Stewart Clegg, Paul Boreham & Geoff Dow - 2014 - Routledge.
    This study, first published in 1986, provides a systematic account of the processes and structure of class formation in the major advanced capitalist societies. The focus is on the organizational mechanisms of class cohesion and division, theoretically deriving from a neo-Marxian perspective. Chapters consider the organization and structure of the ‘corporate ruling class’, the middle class and the working class, and are brought together in an overarching analysis of the organization of class in relation to the state and the economy. (...)
  40. added 2018-11-25
    The Deep Difference Between Labor and Use-Value: Comment.John Clay & Cheol-Soo Park - 2006 - Science and Society 70 (3):375 - 380.
  41. added 2018-11-25
    A Grammar Of The Multitude: For An Analysis Of Contemporary Forms Of Life. [REVIEW]Samuel Clark - 2005 - Political Theory 33 (5):735-737.
  42. added 2018-11-25
    Marx's Theory of Crisis.Simon Clarke - 1996 - Science and Society 60 (1):122-126.
  43. added 2018-11-25
    VII—Social Change and Legal Norms.M. Clifford-Vaughan - 1967 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 67 (1):103-110.
  44. added 2018-11-25
    Social Change and Legal Norms.M. Clifford-Vaughan - 1966 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 67:103 - 110.
  45. added 2018-11-24
    The Democratization of Philosophy.C. West Churchman & Russell L. Ackoff - 1949 - Science and Society 13 (4):327 - 339.
  46. added 2018-11-23
    Politics, Power and the State: A Marxist Response to Postanarchism.Simon Choat - unknown
  47. added 2018-11-23
    Accumulation and Accumulators: The Metaphor Marx Muffed.David Christian - 1990 - Science and Society 54 (2):219 - 224.
  48. added 2018-11-22
    Toward a Communist Immanent Critique: Maoism, the Frankfurt School, and "Angelus Novus".Wai Kit Choi - 2009 - Science and Society 73 (2):208 - 216.
  49. added 2018-11-22
    The Value of Marx: Political Economy for Contemporary Capitalism (Book).Paresh Chattopadhyay - 2003 - Science and Society 67 (3):367.
  50. added 2018-11-22
    Marx and Nature (Book Review).Paresh Chattopadhyay - 2000 - Science and Society 64 (2):259.
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