About this topic
Summary

Socialism is a political and economic order in which the means of production (e.g. land, factories, machinery, communication and transportation infrastructure, etc.) are subject to public control and the traditionally gendered and often unpaid labor of reproduction (e.g. child rearing, domestic labor, etc.) is compensated or socialized. While the structure of governance, use of markets, degree of cooperative labor, and kinds welfare guarantees may vary, socialism seeks to prioritize the satisfaction of human needs, while mitigating material inequality and social oppression. Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) argued that the objective possibility of socialism was immanent to capitalism. (Socialism supported by moral principles or human will alone, was critically referred to as utopian.) Immanent to socialism, in turn, is the objective possibility of communism, which entails the complete dissolution of the state, division of labor, and the value form associated with commodity production. Marxist socialism is thus a stage in the historical development of communism, whose defining characteristic is the overcoming of all internal contradictions and radical otherness (a characteristic it shares with Hegel’s notion of absolute spirit). Marxism, however, also refers to a systematic, dialectical, and historical analysis of capitalism; a reflexive form of critical social theory with an emancipatory intent; a historical materialist methodology; theories of class formation, conflict, and ideology; as well as to critiques of alienation, reification, and commodity fetishism. There are now several different schools of Marxist thought, from Humanist, Structuralist, and Autonomist Marxism, to Analytical, Feminist, and Cultural Marxism, among others.

Key works Major early works in socialist thought include Charles Fourier,

The Theory of the Four Movements

(1808), Robert Owen,

New View of Society

(1813), and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What Is Property? (1840). Major works by Marx and Engels include Karl Marx's Capital, Volumes 1-3, the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, “On the Jewish Question,” and The Eighteenth Brumaire; Engels' The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844) and The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884); as well as 

The Communist Manifesto

(1848) and the German Ideology (1845), which Marx and Engels authored together. The collected works of Marx and Engels in German are here (MEGA) and in English here (MECW). Other key texts in the Marxist tradition include Lenin, State and Revolution (1917); Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks; Rosa Luxemburg, The Accumulation of Capital (1913), Georg (György) Lukács,

History and Class Consciousness (1923); Louis Althusser, For Marx (1965); and Jean-Paul Sartre, Critique of Dialectical Reason, 2 Volumes (1960, 1985).

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5245 found
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  1. added 2020-05-23
    The Market and Liberal Values.Arthur Diquattro - 1980 - Political Theory 8 (2):183-202.
  2. added 2020-05-22
    Reification: A New Look at an Old Idea.Axel Honneth & Martin Jay - 2009 - Political Theory 37 (2):310-313.
  3. added 2020-05-19
    Book Review of "Hegel in the Arab World: Modernity, Colonialism, and Freedom" by Lorella Ventura. [REVIEW]Zeyad El Nabolsy - 2019 - Marx and Philosophy Review of Books.
    The choice of tracking Hegel’s reception in the Arab world in order to explore the connections between modernity and colonialism is an excellent one, since it was Hegel himself who inaugurated the explicit philosophical discourse of modernity (Habermas 1990: 4-5). Ventura’s book is divided into three parts of roughly equal length of around fifty pages each. The first part provides an overview of Hegel’s philosophy of history, and of the place of Arab peoples and Islam in his philosophy of history. (...)
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  4. added 2020-05-16
    Socialism Revised.John E. Roemer - 2017 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 45 (3):261-315.
  5. added 2020-05-15
    Khayalan Altruisme: inklusif kebugaran dan runtuhnya peradaban.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Kecenderungan genetik untuk membantu kerabat dekat kita ("altruisme"), yang sangat penting untuk kelangsungan hidup dalam leluhur kita di dataran Afrika puluhan ribu sampai puluhan juta tahun yang lalu, adalah Cacat fatal dalam dunia yang penuh sesak di mana tetangga kita tidak lagi terkait erat dan terlibat dalam perjuangan hidup dan mati untuk bertahan hidup. Saya telah mengacu pada ini sebagai ' The One Big Happy Family Delusion ' dan itu adalah pusat dari utopis yang bunuh diri delusi politik kiri, yang (...)
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  6. added 2020-05-15
    Cohen’s Community: Beyond the Liberal State?Louis-Philippe Hodgson - 2018 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 17 (1):23-50.
    Does the kind of socialist ideal articulated by G. A. Cohen in Why Not Socialism? add anything substantial to the Rawlsian conception of justice? Is it an ideal that Rawlsians should want to take on board, or is it ultimately foreign to their outlook? I defend a mixed answer to these questions. On the one hand, we shouldn’t underestimate the extent to which Rawls's theory already addresses the concerns that motivate Cohen’s appeal to the socialist ideal. Within the bounds of (...)
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  7. added 2020-05-15
    Totalitarianism as a Non-State.Vicky Iakovou - 2009 - European Journal of Political Theory 8 (4):429-447.
    The objective of this article is to show that Hannah Arendt’s understanding of totalitarianism is indebted to the analysis of National Socialism elaborated by Franz Neumann in Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism . It is argued that Arendt adopted the central thesis of Neumann according to which Nazi Germany is a ‘non-state’ and that this thesis as well as its presuppositions are discernible in her overall approach, developed in The Origins of Totalitarianism.
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  8. added 2020-05-15
    Violence and Revolutionary Subjectivity.Christopher J. Finlay - 2006 - European Journal of Political Theory 5 (4):373-397.
    The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between revolution and violence in Marxism and in a series of texts drawing on Marxian theory. Part 1 outlines the basic normative frameworks which determine the outer limits of permissible violence in Marxism. Part 2 presents a critical analysis of a series of later discussions - by Sorel, Fanon and Žižek - which transformed the terms in which violence was discussed by developing one particular aspect of Marxist thought. By teasing (...)
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  9. added 2020-05-15
    Back to the Future.Brian T. Trainor - 2005 - European Journal of Political Theory 4 (4):413-428.
  10. added 2020-05-15
    Self-Ownership, Marxism, and Egalitarianism.Eric Mack - 2002 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 1 (1):75-108.
  11. added 2020-05-15
    Self-Ownership, Marxism, and Egalitarianism.Eric Mack - 2002 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 1 (2):237-276.
  12. added 2020-05-13
    地獄へようこそ : 赤ちゃん、気候変動、ビットコイン、カルテル、中国、民主主義、多様性、ディスジェニックス、平等、ハッカー、人権、イスラム教、自由主義、繁栄、ウェブ、カオス、飢餓、病気、暴力、人工知能、戦争.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    アメリカと世界は過剰な人口増加から崩壊し、そのほとんどが前世紀に及び、現在は第3世界の人々のために崩壊しています。資源の消費と1または200以上のca.2100の追加は、産業文明を崩壊させ、驚異的な規 模で飢餓、病気、暴力と戦争をもたらすでしょう。何十億人もの人が死んで、核戦争は確実です。アメリカでは、これは大規模な移民と移民の生殖によって非常に加速されており、民主主義によって可能になった虐待と組み 合わされています。堕落した人間性は、民主主義と多様性の夢を犯罪と貧困の悪夢に変えます。崩壊の根本的な原因は、私たちの生来の心理学が現代世界に適応できないことであり、人々は無関係な人を共通の利益を持って いるかのように扱う。これは、基本的な生物学と心理学の無知に加えて、民主的な社会を支配する部分的に教育を受けた人々のソーシャルエンジニアリングの妄想につながります。一人の人を助けた場合、誰かに危害を加え る人はいませんが、無料のランチはなく、誰もが消費するアイテムが修復を超えて地球を破壊することを理解している人はほとんどいません。その結果、至る所の社会政策は持続不可能であり、利己主義に対する厳格な統制 なしに、すべての社会が一つ一つ無政府状態または独裁に崩壊する。劇的かつ即時の変化がなければ、アメリカの崩壊や民主主義システムに続く国を防ぐ望みはありません。したがって、私のエッセイ「民主主義による自殺 」。 また、中国を支配する7つの社会主義者が第三次世界大戦に勝っていることも明らかであり、私の結論エッセイも明らかです。唯一の大きな脅威は、私が簡単にコメントする人工知能です。 私たちについてのすべてに関する鍵は生物学であり、オバマ、チョムスキー、クリントン、民主党、教皇のような何百万人もの賢い教育を受けた人々が、地球上の地獄に無尽蔵にまっすぐにつながる自殺ユートピアの理想を 提唱するのは、それに気づかない。 Wが指摘したように、見るのが最も難しいのは、常に私たちの目の前にあるものです。 私たちは意識的な審議言語システム2の世界に住んでいますが、無意識の自動反射システム1がルールを定めています。これは、サールの表現型錯覚(TPI)、ピンカーのブランクスレートとトゥービーとコスミデスの標 準的な社会科学モデルによって記述された普遍的な失明の源です。 記事の最初のグループは、理論的な妄想のない私たちがどのように振る舞うかについての洞察を与えようとします。次の3つのグループでは、持続可能な世界を妨げる3つの主な妄想(技術、宗教、政治(協力グループ)に ついてコメントします。人々は社会が彼らによって救われると信じているので、私はこれが有名な作家による最近の本の短い記事やレビューを通じて起こりそうにない理由について、本の残りの部分でいくつかの提案を提供 します。 別のセクションでは、宗教的な妄想について説明しています – 私たちを救ういくつかの超能力があります。 次のセクションでは、システム2の言語ゲームとシステム1の自動化を混同するデジタル妄想について説明します。 他のデジタル妄想は、システム2によって作成されたコンピュータ/AI/ロボティクス/ナノテク/遺伝子工学によって、システム1の純粋な悪(利己主義)から救われるということです。 ノーフリーランチ校長は、重大でおそらく致命的な結果が起こる可能性があることを教えてくれます。 最後のセクションでは、私たちが皆と協力するために選ばれたこと、そして民主主義、多様性、平等のユーフォニアの理想が、物事を正しく管理するだけでユートピアに導くという大きな幸せな家族の妄想(政治の可能性) について説明します。 繰り返しますが、ノーフリーランチ原則は、それが真実であるはずがないと警告する必要があり、厳格なコントロール、利己主義、愚かさがなければ優位に立ち、すぐにこれらの妄想を受け入れる国を破壊することを歴史と 現代世界全体で見ています。さらに、猿の心は未来を急激に割引するので、私たちは一時的な快適さのために子孫の遺産を販売することに協力し、問題を大きく悪化させます。 .
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  13. added 2020-05-13
    The Elusive Politics of Radical Democratic Philosophy.J. Matthew Hoye - 2018 - Contemporary Political Theory 17 (S1):43-50.
  14. added 2020-05-13
    “Schumpeterianism” Revised: The Critique of Elites in Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy.Natasha Piano - 2017 - Critical Review 29 (4):505-529.
    ABSTRACTA close reading of Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy underscores Schumpeter's critique of elite political capacities. Given the neglect of this critique in contemporary scholarship, it might warrant a revision of our understanding of “Schumpeterianism.” To notice the critique of elites, we need to read Part IV in the context of the work as a whole, and with greater sensitivity to the sarcasm, irony, and humor that permeate the book. Such a reading produces a fundamentally altered understanding of Schumpeter's contribution to (...)
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  15. added 2020-05-13
    Can Liberal Democracy Survive Capitalism?George Thomas - 2017 - Critical Review 29 (4):530-544.
    ABSTRACTJoseph Schumpeter’s Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy captures the unique blend of politics and economics, along with a particular culture and civil society, that are characteristic of liberal democracy. Commercial and economic activity have been so crucial to liberal democracy that it has often been characterized as “commercial republicanism,” and Schumpeter referred to it with justification as “bourgeois democracy.” Schumpeter’s view, which is too often characterized as simply elitist, can be situated in the realist tradition, offering a helpful corrective to simplistic (...)
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  16. added 2020-05-13
    Property and the State: A Discussion of Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and UtopiaAnarchy, State, and Utopia.Milton Fisk & Robert Nozick'S. - 1980 - Noûs 14 (1):99.
  17. added 2020-05-12
    A Socialist Republican Theory of Freedom and Government.James Muldoon - forthcoming - European Journal of Political Theory.
    In response to the republican revival of the ideal of freedom as non-domination, a number of ‘radical’, ‘labour’ and ‘workplace’ republicans have criticised the limitations of Philip Pettit’s accou...
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  18. added 2020-05-12
    Reading Marx.Joshua Rayman - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-4.
  19. added 2020-05-12
    South African Animal Legislation and Marxist Philosophy of Law.Luis Cordeiro-Rodrigues - 2019 - Cultura 16 (1):23-38.
    Marxist Philosophy as an explanation of social reality has, since the fall of the Berlin Wall, been largely neglected. However, some philosophers have contended that it may still be relevant to explain today’s social reality. In this article, I wish to demonstrate precisely that Marxist philosophy can be relevant to understand social reality. To carry out this task, I show that Marxist philosophy of law can offer a sound explanation of Animal law in South Africa. My argument is that South (...)
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  20. added 2020-05-12
    Socialism and Populism.Andrew Arato - 2019 - Constellations 26 (3):464-474.
  21. added 2020-05-11
    Die Erkenntnisstheoretischen Grundlagen des Historischen Materialismus. [REVIEW]Alexander Meiklejohn - 1896 - Philosophical Review 5:322-323.
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  22. added 2020-05-10
    The Earliest Chinese Translation of Kropotkin’s Mutual Aid.Yinli Ge - 2019 - Cultura 16 (2):89-104.
    In 1908, the first and second chapters of Kropotkin’s Mutual Aid were first translated into Chinese by Li Shizeng, greatly influencing Chinese anarchists. Li Shizeng followed Kropotkin’s scientific argument of anarchism and strengthened the viewpoint for praising “public” and suppressing “private”. When translating Kropotkin’s thoughts, Li Shizeng focused on political revolution, glossing over the criticism of the capitalist economy, and barely referenced Kropotkin’s original anarchist communist ideology.
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  23. added 2020-05-10
    No Social Revolution Without Sexual Revolution.Kevin Duong - 2019 - Political Theory 47 (6):809-835.
    Recent studies have revealed how workers’ movements adapted republicanism into a language of anticapitalism in the nineteenth century. Much less attention has been paid, however, to the role feminists played in this process. This essay addresses this oversight by introducing the voices of the utopian socialists under July Monarchy France. These socialists insisted that there could be no social revolution without sexual revolution. Although they are often positioned outside of the republican tradition, this essay argues that the utopian socialists are (...)
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  24. added 2020-05-09
    Witamy do Piekła na Ziemi - Dzieci, zmiany klimatu, bitcoiny, kartele, Chiny, demokracja, różnorodność, dysgenika, równość, hakerzy, prawa człowieka, islam, liberalizm, dobrobyt, sieć, chaos, głód, choroby, przemoc, sztuczna inteligencja, wojna.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Ameryka i świat są w trakcie upadku z nadmiernego wzrostu populacji, większość z nich w ostatnim stuleciu, a teraz wszystko to ze względu na 3-cia ludzi świata. Konsumpcja zasobów i dodanie jednego lub dwóch miliardów więcej około 2100 upadnie cywilizacji przemysłowej i doprowadzić do głodu, chorób, przemocy i wojny na oszałamiającą skalę. Miliardy umrą, a wojna nuklearna jest pewna. W Ameryce jest to znacznie przyspieszone przez masową imigrację i reprodukcję imigrantów, w połączeniu z nadużyciami możliwymi przez demokrację. Zdeprawowana ludzka natura (...)
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  25. added 2020-05-09
    Political Conservation, or How to Prevent Institutional Decay.Martin Beckstein - 2019 - Constellations 26 (4):623-637.
  26. added 2020-05-08
    Revolution or legality? Confronting the spectre of Marx in Habermas’s legal philosophy.Igor Shoikhedbrod - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-24.
    As early as 1962, Jürgen Habermas was convinced that Karl Marx’s theoretical attempt to ‘turn Hegel the right side up’ had resulted in a one-sided embrace of revolution and a perilous rejection of legality and rights. Habermas would restate these remarks thirty years later in Between Facts and Norms, noting that the collapse of state socialism, with its characteristic disdain for legality and rights, culminated in the discrediting of revolutionary Marxism. This article revisits Habermas’s theoretical dichotomy between revolution and legality (...)
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  27. added 2020-05-08
    Review: Envisioning Real Utopias by Erik Olin Wright. [REVIEW]David Ellerman - 2018 - Cosmos + Taxis 5:94-103.
    This article is a review of Erik Olin Wright’s 2010 book Envisioning Real Utopias. The review focuses on certain topics such as his understanding of ‘capitalism,’ his conception of worker cooperatives, and the general issues surrounding markets, the Left, and Marxism.
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  28. added 2020-05-07
    Efficiency and Domination in the Socialist Republic: A Reply to O’Shea.Harrison Frye - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059172090339.
    In a recent essay in this journal, Tom O’Shea defends socialist republicanism, marrying the value of freedom as nondomination to public ownership of the means of production. In this reply, I argue that the efficiency costs that often attach to public ownership may undercut the ability of the socialist republic to combat domination by public agents. I provide two reasons in support of this claim. First, the economic gains provided by efficiency can insulate individuals from the discretionary power of other (...)
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  29. added 2020-05-07
    Democracy’s History of Inegalitarianism: Symposium on Michael Hanchard, The Spectre of Race: How Discrimination Haunts Western Democracy, Princeton University Press, 2018, 272 Pgs. [REVIEW]Robert Gooding-Williams, David Theo Goldberg, Juliet Hooker & Michael G. Hanchard - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059172090186.
  30. added 2020-05-07
    The political technology of the ‘Camp’ in historical capitalism.John Welsh - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-23.
    So much of what we experience in neoliberal capitalism resembles the operation of the camp. How then can we understand the camp as a political technology of labour control recurrent in historical capitalism, and why would we want to? Driven by the perennial imperatives to govern and to accumulate, the camp as a modulation of social control allows us to explore the role of ‘meta-disciplinary’ technique in the ‘real subsumption of labour’. The aims here are to question the sanguine expectations (...)
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  31. added 2020-05-07
    Bienvenue en Enfer sur Terre.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    L’Amérique et le monde sont en train de s’effondrer à cause d’une croissance démographique excessive, la plupart pour le siècle dernier et maintenant tout cela en raison de la 3e population mondiale. La consommation de ressources et l’ajout d’un ou deux milliards de dollars de plus vers 2100 vont effondrer la civilisation industrielle et provoquer la famine, la maladie, la violence et la guerre à une échelle stupéfiante. Des milliards vont mourir et la guerre nucléaire est presque certaine. En Amérique, (...)
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  32. added 2020-05-07
    The Market, Competition, and Structural Exploitation.Hannes Kuch - 2020 - Constellations 27 (1):95-110.
  33. added 2020-05-07
    Beyond the Neoliberal Horizon: Elements for a Theory of Universal Crisis.Nicolas Veroli - 2020 - Constellations 27 (1):79-94.
  34. added 2020-05-07
    Willkommen in der Hölle auf Erden.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Amerika und die Welt befinden sich im Prozess des Zusammenbruchs durch übermäßiges Bevölkerungswachstum, das meiste davon im letzten Jahrhundert und jetzt alles aufgrund der Menschen in der 3. Welt. Der Verbrauch von Ressourcen und die Hinzufügung von ein oder zwei Milliarden weiteren etwa 2100 wird die industrielle Zivilisation zusammenbrechen und Hunger, Krankheit, Gewalt und Krieg in einem erschütternden Ausmaß herbeiführen. Milliarden werden sterben, und ein Atomkrieg ist so gut wie sicher. In Amerika wird dies durch massive Einwanderung und Reproduktion von (...)
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  35. added 2020-05-07
    Back to the Future! Habermas and Dewey on Democracy in Capitalist Times.Veith Selk & Dirk Jörke - 2020 - Constellations 27 (1):36-49.
  36. added 2020-05-06
    Listening to Black lives matter: racial capitalism and the critique of neoliberalism.Siddhant Issar - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-24.
    This article explores left critiques of neoliberalism in light of the Black Lives Matter movement’s recourse to the notion of ‘racial capitalism’ in their analyses of anti-Black oppression. Taking a cue from BLM, I argue for a critical theory of racial capitalism that historicizes neoliberalism within a longue durée framework, surfacing racialized continuities in capitalism’s violence. I begin by revealing how neo-Marxist and neo-Foucaultian approaches to neoliberalism, particularly that of David Harvey and Wendy Brown, respectively, partition race from the workings (...)
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  37. added 2020-05-06
    Human Connection in the Light of the Writings of Karl Marx and Amartya Sen.Simantini Mukhopadhyay - 2019 - International Journal of Social Quality 9 (2):35-57.
    This article uses Karl Marx’s notions of alienation and antagonism to understand human connection, defined as the interrelationship between human beings that helps transcend self-interest and fosters the sense of solidarity. The Marxian notions are revisited using the works of Amartya Sen, particularly those on identity and violence. Sen’s critique of rationality is discussed, invoking his notions of sympathy, antipathy, and commitment. The article uses two texts, Franz Kafka’s Metamorphosis and Manik Bandyopadhyay’s Ekannoborti, as vantage points to understand the key (...)
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  38. added 2020-05-01
    From Organic Subjectivity to Internal Reality. [REVIEW]Ekin Erkan - 2020 - Radical Philosophy 2 (7):119-122.
    A review of Michel Henry's Marx (2020) that focuses on the later philosophical-economic body of his works.
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  39. added 2020-04-24
    Benvenuti all'inferno sulla Terra: Bambini, Cambiamenti climatici, Bitcoin, Cartelli, Cina, Democrazia, Diversità, Disgenetica, Uguaglianza, Pirati Informatici, Diritti umani, Islam, Liberalismo, Prosperità, Web, Caos, Fame, Malattia, Violenza, Intelligenza Artificiale, Guerra.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    L'America e il mondo sono in procinto di collassare a causa di una crescita eccessiva della popolazione, la maggior parte per il secolo scorso e ora tutto a causa di persone del terzo mondo. Il consumo di risorse e l'aggiunta di uno o due miliardi in più di 2100 crolleranno la civiltà industriale e porterà alla fame, alle malattie, alla violenza e alla guerra su scala impressionante. Miliardi moriranno e la guerra nucleare è tutt'altro che certa. In America questo è (...)
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  40. added 2020-04-22
    Selamat Datang di Neraka di Bumi: Bayi, Perubahan Iklim, Bitcoin, Kartel, Tiongkok, Demokrasi, Keragaman, Disgenik, Kesetaraan, Peretas, Hak Asasi Manusia, Islam, Liberalisme, Kemakmuran, Web, Kekacauan, Kelaparan, Penyakit, Kekerasan, Kecerdasan Buatan, Perang.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    America and the world are in the process of collapse from excessive population growth, most of it for the last century and now all of it due to 3rd world people. Consumption of resources and the addition of one or two billion more ca. 2100 will collapse industrial civilization and bring about starvation, disease, violence and war on a staggering scale. Billions will die and nuclear war is all but certain. In America this is being hugely accelerated by massive immigration (...)
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  41. added 2020-04-21
    पृथ्वी पर नर्क में आपका स्वागत है: शिशुओं, जलवायु परिवर्तन, बिटकॉइन, कार्टेल, चीन, लोकतंत्र, विविधता, समानता, हैकर्स, मानव अधिकार, इस्लाम, उदारवाद, समृद्धि, वेब, अराजकता, भुखमरी, बीमारी, हिंसा, कृत्रिम बुद्धिमत्ता, युद्ध.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Ls Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    अमेरिका और दुनिया अत्यधिक जनसंख्या वृद्धि से पतन की प्रक्रिया में हैं, यह सबसे पिछली सदी के लिए और अब यह सब 3 दुनिया के लोगों के कारण । संसाधनों की खपत और एक या दो अरब अधिक सीए के अलावा औद्योगिक सभ्यता का पतन होगा और भुखमरी, बीमारी, हिंसा और युद्ध को चौंका देने वाले पैमाने पर लाएगा । अरबों मर जाएगा और परमाणु युद्ध सब लेकिन निश्चित है । अमेरिका में यह बेहद बड़े पैमाने पर आव्रजन और आप्रवासी (...)
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  42. added 2020-04-20
    Review of Rhonda L. Hinther, "Perogies and Politics: Canada's Ukrainian Left, 1891-1991". [REVIEW]Jeff Kochan - 2020 - East/West: Journal of Ukrainian Studies 7 (1):283-285.
    Using an intersectionalist analysis, Hinther recounts efforts by Canada’s Ukrainian minority to build an ethnically distinct leftist movement. Opposed from without by both left-wing internationalists and right-wing nationalists, and hobbled from within by stubborn gender and generational inequalities, the movement finally lost its radical political momentum and so took up its allotted place in Canada’s polite multicultural mosaic. (Published in the series “Studies in Gender and History,” University of Toronto Press, 2018.).
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  43. added 2020-04-19
    欢迎来到地球上的地狱 婴儿,气候变化,比特币,卡特尔,中国,民主,多样性,养成基因,平等,黑客,人权,伊斯兰教,自由主义,繁荣,网络,混乱。饥饿,疾病,暴力,人工智能,战争.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    美国和世界正处于人口过度增长的崩溃过程中,大部分都发生在上个世纪,现在这一切都是由于第三世界人民造成的。资源消耗和增加10亿至2100亿美元,将使工业文明崩溃,并造成饥饿、疾病、暴力和战争。" ;数十亿人将死去,核战争几乎可以肯定。在美国,大规模移民和移民再生产,加上民主带来的滥用,大大加速了这一速度。堕落的人性无情地把民主和多样性的梦想变成犯罪和贫穷的噩梦。崩溃的根本原因是我们天生的心理无 法适应现代世界,这导致人们把不相关的人当作他们有共同的兴趣对待。再加上对基本生物学和心理的无知,导致部分受教育者的社会工程妄想,他们控制着民主社会。很少有人明白,如果你帮助一个人,你伤害了别人——没有 免费的午餐,任何人消费的每一件物品都会破坏地球,无法修复。因此,世界各地的社会政策都是不可持续的,如果不严格控制自私,所有社会都会陷入无政府状态或独裁。如果不立即作出戏剧性改变,就没有希望阻止美国或任 何遵循民主制度的国家的崩溃。因此,我的文章"民主自杀"。 现在很清楚,统治中国的七个社会道路正在赢得第三次世界大战,所以我关于他们的结论性文章。唯一更大的威胁是人工智能,我简要地评论。 我们一切的关键是生物学,而正是它所忽视它,导致数百万聪明受过教育的人,如奥巴马,乔姆斯基,克林顿,民主党和教皇支持自杀的乌托邦理想,无情地直接导致地球上的地狱。 正如W指出的,我们眼前最难看的就是什么。 我们生活在有意识的议事语言系统2的世界里,但它是无意识的,自动反射系统1的规则。这是西尔的《现象幻象》(TPI)、平克的《空白石板》和《图比》和《科斯米德的标准社会科学模型》中描述的普遍失明的根源。 第一组文章试图让我们了解我们是如何合理摆脱理论错觉的。在接下来的三个组中,我评论了阻碍可持续世界的三个主要错觉——技术、宗教和政治(合作团体)。人们相信社会可以由他们拯救,所以我在书的其余部分提供一些 建议,为什么这不太可能通过短篇文章和评论最近出版的著名作家的书。 另一节描述了宗教错觉——有一些超级力量会拯救我们。 下一节将数字错觉描述为将系统2的语言游戏与系统1的自动化混为一谈,因此无法区分生物机器(即人)和其他种类的机器(即计算机)。 其他数字错觉是,我们将从系统1的纯邪恶(自私)由计算机/AI/机器人/纳米技术/基因工程由系统2创建。 没有免费午餐校长告诉我们,将有严重,甚至致命的后果。 最后一节描述了"一个幸福家庭"的幻想,即我们被选中与大家合作,如果我们只是正确管理事情(政治的可能性),民主、多样性和平等等异想天意将引导我们进入乌托邦。 再次,没有免费午餐原则应该警告我们,它不能是真实的,我们看到整个历史和整个当代世界,没有严格的控制,自私和愚蠢占上风,并很快摧毁任何国家,拥抱这些妄想。此外,猴子的头脑大大折扣的未来,所以我们合作出售 我们的后代的遗产为临时舒适,大大加剧了问题。 .
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  44. added 2020-04-17
    21世纪的自杀性乌托邦妄想: 哲学,人性与文明的崩溃.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    美国和世界正处于人口过度增长的崩溃过程中,大部分都发生在上个世纪,现在这一切都是由于第三世界人民造成的。资源消耗和增加10亿至2100亿美元,将使工业文明崩溃,并造成饥饿、疾病、暴力和战争。" ;数十亿人将死去,核战争几乎可以肯定。在美国,大规模移民和移民再生产,加上民主带来的滥用,大大加速了这一速度。堕落的人性无情地把民主和多样性的梦想变成犯罪和贫穷的噩梦。崩溃的根本原因是我们天生的心理无 法适应现代世界,这导致人们把不相关的人当作他们有共同的兴趣对待。再加上对基本生物学和心理的无知,导致部分受教育者的社会工程妄想,他们控制着民主社会。很少有人明白,如果你帮助一个人,你伤害了别人——没有 免费的午餐,任何人消费的每一件物品都会破坏地球,无法修复。因此,世界各地的社会政策都是不可持续的,如果不严格控制自私,所有社会都会陷入无政府状态或独裁。如果不立即作出戏剧性改变,就没有希望阻止美国或任 何遵循民主制度的国家的崩溃。因此,我的文章"民主自杀"。 现在很清楚,统治中国的七个社会道路正在赢得第三次世界大战,所以我关于他们的结论性文章。唯一更大的威胁是人工智能,我简要地评论。 我们一切的关键是生物学,而正是它所忽视它,导致数百万聪明受过教育的人,如奥巴马,乔姆斯基,克林顿,民主党和教皇支持自杀的乌托邦理想,无情地直接导致地球上的地狱。 正如W指出的,我们眼前最难看的就是什么。 我们生活在有意识的议事语言系统2的世界里,但它是无意识的,自动反射系统1的规则。这是西尔的《现象幻象》(TPI)、平克的《空白石板》和《图比》和《科斯米德的标准社会科学模型》中描述的普遍失明的根源。 第一组文章试图让我们了解我们是如何合理摆脱理论错觉的。在接下来的三个组中,我评论了阻碍可持续世界的三个主要错觉——技术、宗教和政治(合作团体)。人们相信社会可以由他们拯救,所以我在书的其余部分提供一些 建议,为什么这不太可能通过短篇文章和评论最近出版的著名作家的书。 另一节描述了宗教错觉——有一些超级力量会拯救我们。 下一节将数字错觉描述为将系统2的语言游戏与系统1的自动化混为一谈,因此无法区分生物机器(即人)和其他种类的机器(即计算机)。 其他数字错觉是,我们将从系统1的纯邪恶(自私)由计算机/AI/机器人/纳米技术/基因工程由系统2创建。 没有免费午餐校长告诉我们,将有严重,甚至致命的后果。 最后一节描述了"一个幸福家庭"的幻想,即我们被选中与大家合作,如果我们只是正确管理事情(政治的可能性),民主、多样性和平等等异想天意将引导我们进入乌托邦。 再次,没有免费午餐原则应该警告我们,它不能是真实的,我们看到整个历史和整个当代世界,没有严格的控制,自私和愚蠢占上风,并很快摧毁任何国家,拥抱这些妄想。此外,猴子的头脑大大折扣的未来,所以我们合作出售 我们的后代的遗产为临时舒适,大大加剧了问题。 .
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  45. added 2020-04-03
    Lukács 1933-1942. L'irrazionalismo nell'età del fascismo.Matteo Gargani - 2020 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 75 (1):81-106.
    "Lukács 1933-1942. Irrationalism in the Age of Fascism". This essay reconstructs the philosophical and historiographical premises to Georg Lukács’ research on irrationalism conducted during the period of Nazi rule in Germany. To this end, the Author focuses chiefly on two posthumous works: How Did Fascist Philosophy Arise in Germany? (1933) and How Did Germany Become the Centre of reactionary Ideology? (1941-1942). After a brief historical contextualization, the Author illustrates the main purpose of these texts: to free German philosophy and culture (...)
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  46. added 2020-04-02
    21 वीं सदी में आत्मघाती यूटोपियाई भ्रम दर्शन, मानव प्रकृति और सभ्यता का पतन लेख और समीक्षाएं 2006-2019 5वीं संस्करण.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Tवह लेख के पहले समूह के लिए हम कैसे व्यवहार है कि काफी सैद्धांतिक भ्रम से मुक्त है में कुछ अंतर्दृष्टि देने का प्रयास. अगले तीन समूहों में मैं एक स्थायी दुनिया को रोकने के प्रमुख भ्रम के तीन पर टिप्पणी - प्रौद्योगिकी, धर्म और pol(सहकारी समूह)। लोगों का मानना है कि समाज उनके द्वारा बचाया जा सकता है, तो मैं क्यों यह छोटे लेख और प्रसिद्ध लेखकों द्वारा हाल ही में पुस्तकों की समीक्षा के माध्यम से संभावना नहीं है (...)
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  47. added 2020-03-30
    "...Lehetetlen úgy megváltoztatni a jelent, hogy ne változtassuk meg a múltat" - Losoncz Alpárral Tóth Szilárd János és Kocsis Árpád beszélget.Szilárd János Tóth, Árpád Kocsis & Alpár Losoncz - 2019 - Híd 86 (10):5-19.
    Interjú az Új Symposion örökségéről, Jugoszláviáról, a vajdasági magyarság baloldali radikális hagyományáról, az avantgárdról stb.
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  48. added 2020-03-25
    Mutual Recognition and the Dialectic of Master and Slave: Reading Hegel Against Kojève.Richard A. Lynch - 2001 - International Philosophical Quarterly 41 (1):33-48.
  49. added 2020-03-21
    Reproducing Refugees: Photographìa of a Crisis.Anna Carastathis & Myrto Tsilimpounidi - 2020 - London, UK: Rowman and Littlefield International.
    Since 2015, the ‘refugee crisis’ is possibly the most photographed humanitarian crisis in history. Photographs taken, for instance, in Lesvos, Greece, and Bodrum, Turkey, were instrumental in generating waves of public support for, and populist opposition to “welcoming refugees” in Europe. But photographs do not circulate in a vacuum; this book explores the visual economy of the ‘refugee crisis,’ showing how the reproduction of images is structured by, and secures hierarchies of gender, sexuality, and ‘race,’ essential to the functioning of (...)
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  50. added 2020-03-18
    Neoliberalism and the Right to Be Lazy: Inactivity as Resistance in Lazzarato and Agamben.Tim Christiaens - 2018 - Rethinking Marxism 2 (30):256-274.
    Neoliberalism has installed an unending competitive struggle in the economy. Within this context activists have pushed for a reappraisal of laziness and inactivity as forms of resistance. This idea has been picked up by Maurizio Lazzarato and Giorgio Agamben in different ways. I start with explaining the former’s appraisal of laziness as a release of potentialities unrealizable under financial capitalism. Lazzarato’s appraisal of laziness however resembles neoliberal theories of innovation, because both share the conceptual persona of a subject whose potentialities (...)
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