About this topic
Summary

Socialism is a political and economic order in which the means of production (e.g. land, factories, machinery, communication and transportation infrastructure, etc.) are subject to public control and the traditionally gendered and often unpaid labor of reproduction (e.g. child rearing, domestic labor, etc.) is compensated or socialized. While the structure of governance, use of markets, degree of cooperative labor, and kinds welfare guarantees may vary, socialism seeks to prioritize the satisfaction of human needs, while mitigating material inequality and social oppression. Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) argued that the objective possibility of socialism was immanent to capitalism. (Socialism supported by moral principles or human will alone, was critically referred to as utopian.) Immanent to socialism, in turn, is the objective possibility of communism, which entails the complete dissolution of the state, division of labor, and the value form associated with commodity production. Marxist socialism is thus a stage in the historical development of communism, whose defining characteristic is the overcoming of all internal contradictions and radical otherness (a characteristic it shares with Hegel’s notion of absolute spirit). Marxism, however, also refers to a systematic, dialectical, and historical analysis of capitalism; a reflexive form of critical social theory with an emancipatory intent; a historical materialist methodology; theories of class formation, conflict, and ideology; as well as to critiques of alienation, reification, and commodity fetishism. There are now several different schools of Marxist thought, from Humanist, Structuralist, and Autonomist Marxism, to Analytical, Feminist, and Cultural Marxism, among others.

Key works Major early works in socialist thought include Charles Fourier,

The Theory of the Four Movements

(1808), Robert Owen,

New View of Society

(1813), and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What Is Property? (1840). Major works by Marx and Engels include Karl Marx's Capital, Volumes 1-3, the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, “On the Jewish Question,” and The Eighteenth Brumaire; Engels' The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844) and The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884); as well as 

The Communist Manifesto

(1848) and the German Ideology (1845), which Marx and Engels authored together. The collected works of Marx and Engels in German are here (MEGA) and in English here (MECW). Other key texts in the Marxist tradition include Lenin, State and Revolution (1917); Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks; Rosa Luxemburg, The Accumulation of Capital (1913), Georg (György) Lukács,

History and Class Consciousness (1923); Louis Althusser, For Marx (1965); and Jean-Paul Sartre, Critique of Dialectical Reason, 2 Volumes (1960, 1985).

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  1. Ethical Life.Liam Kofi Bright - manuscript
    A sketch of my ethical views, or secular moral philosophy. Emphasis is on stating how it all hangs together.
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  2. The Economics of Diversity.Ryan Wasser - manuscript
    At first blush values such as diversity appear to be worth striving for. The question is whether or not such values—which have become increasingly prevalent the institutional credos of academia—are values as such, that being that they are things of moral worth (Value, n.d.), or if they are something else altogether. My unpopular suspicion leans toward the latter. Personal opinions, of course, can hardly be said to be good justification for a withering critique, however, these opinions of mine mirror similar (...)
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  3. A ‘Grooming Chamber’ For Antisemitism.Jan M. Van der Molen - Jan 28, 2020 - University of Groningen.
    If Jewish Bolsheviks could put an end to the imperial rule of the Romanovs, could they pose a threat to the vision of a Third Reigh? A question the German National Socialists are likely to have asked themselves before and on the eve of plotting the rise of the Nazi regime. After all, Europe had had a long-standing relationship with blaming the Jews for the world’s miseries. A relationship Germany was ready to refuel, as indicated by German Field Marshal Walter (...)
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  4. Mark Neocleous, Fascism.T. Abse - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  5. The Many Tasks of the Marxist Translator.Gavin Arnall - forthcoming - Historical Materialism:1-34.
    This article examines numerous conceptions of translation within the Marxist tradition. It begins with Antonio Gramsci’s theorisation of the concept before turning to the problem of Marxism in Latin America and how the Zapatistas have dealt with this problem. The aim is to shed light on a critical school of Marxist thinking, which requires that Marxism’s universalist claims be translated in response to changing historical conditions so that they may become concrete formulations capable of speaking to and intervening in concrete (...)
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  6. Lenin Reads Hegel.Andreas Arndt - forthcoming - Hegel-Studien.
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  7. The End/s of Socialism.Ronald Aronson - forthcoming - Theoria.
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  8. Has the Soviet Union Taken a Step Toward Communism?Alexander S. Balinky - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  9. The Proclaimed Emergence of Communism in the USSR.Alexander S. Balinky - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  10. Capital ReturnsMarx’s Inferno: The Political Theory of Capital, by RobertsWilliam Clare. Princeton University Press. 2017, 304 Pp.Portfolio Society: On the Capitalist Mode of Prediction, by AscherIvan. Zone Books. 2016, 192 Pp. [REVIEW]Charles Barbour - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059171773398.
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  11. The Crisis in Marxist Sociology.Norman Birnbaum - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  12. Un Martor Al Realimului Socialist.Radu Bogdan - forthcoming - Dilema.
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  13. Market Socialism: A Subjectivist Perspective.R. Bradley - forthcoming - Journal of Libertarian Studies.
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  14. John Stuart Mill, Socialiste.Christopher Brooke - forthcoming - History of European Ideas:1-3.
  15. Still Primus Inter Pares for Understanding and Opposing the Capitalist System.Richard A. Brosio - forthcoming - Journal of Thought.
  16. Marxism and the Multitude '.Alex Callinicos - forthcoming - Multitudes: Revue Politique, Artistique, Philosophique.
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  17. Why the Socialist Mill Will Not Alarm His Liberal Readers: A Reflection on Helen McCabe’s John Stuart Mill, Socialist.Ross Carroll - forthcoming - History of European Ideas:1-3.
  18. To Study Marxism with Marx's Academic Spirit.Xu Chang-fu - forthcoming - Modern Philosophy.
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  19. The Dialectics of Standing One's Ground.George Ciccariello-Maher - forthcoming - Theory and Event 15 (3).
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  20. Humanist Redemption and Afterlife: The Frankfurt School in Communist Romania.Alexandru Cistelecan - forthcoming - Historical Materialism:1-35.
    This paper discusses the reception of Frankfurt School critical theory in Communist Romania. After some opening remarks concerning the relevance of this topic, Section 2 sketches the evolving political and historical contexts that circumscribed this philosophical reception. The content and configuration of the Romanian reception of critical theory is then discussed in a double sequence: first, by surveying and analysing the main clusters of arguments developed in these texts, which are filtered and classified into four categories: a) general considerations and (...)
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  21. Philippe Van Parijs, Marxism Recycled.A. Collier - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  22. In What Senses Should We See John Stuart Mill as a Socialist?Gregory Conti - forthcoming - History of European Ideas:1-3.
  23. Symposium on Helen McCabe’s John Stuart Mill, Socialist.Hugo Drochon - forthcoming - History of European Ideas:1-1.
  24. Stephen A. Resnick and Richard D. Wolff, Class Theory and History: Capitalism and Communism in the USSR.C. el-Ojeili - forthcoming - Thesis Eleven.
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  25. Antonio Gramsci, Letters From Prison.G. Elliott - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  26. John E. Roemer, A Future for Socialism.G. Elliott - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  27. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy.Giorgio Fazio - forthcoming - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche.
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  28. Sartre antihumaniste: Antisujectivisme, marxisme critique, postcolonialisme.Alex J. Feldman - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-4.
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  29. The Point of Change: Marxism/Australia.Carole Ferrier & Rebecca Pelan - forthcoming - History/Theory.
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  30. Capitalism, Socialism, Populism: Continuing the Conversation.Nancy Fraser - forthcoming - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche.
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  31. La funzione del parlamento.Ludovico Geymonat - forthcoming - (l'Unità).
  32. Apriamo un franco dibattito all'interno del Partito.Ludovico Geymonat - forthcoming - (l'Unità).
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  33. Fredric Jameson, Brecht and Method.S. Giles - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  34. Democracy’s History of Inegalitarianism: Symposium on Michael Hanchard, The Spectre of Race: How Discrimination Haunts Western Democracy, Princeton University Press, 2018, 272 Pgs. [REVIEW]Robert Gooding-Williams, David Theo Goldberg, Juliet Hooker & Michael G. Hanchard - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059172090186.
  35. Contemporary Marxist Sociology.Erich Hahn - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  36. Perry Anderson, The Origins of Postmodernity.H. Harootunian - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  37. Literature on the Theory of a Socialist Economy.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  38. The Interplay of Capitalism and Socialism in the American Economy.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  39. Marxism and Underdeveloped Countries.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  40. Socialism and Democracy.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  41. The Communist Farmer.Alvin Johnson - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  42. The American Worker and His Education.Horace M. Kallen - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  43. Communism as a Secret Individualism.Horace Meyer Kallen - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  44. Should Socialists Be Republicans?Jan Kandiyali - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-18.
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  45. Contact Building: Emotional Exchanges Between Counsellees and Counsellors in the Late Socialist Period in Poland.Agnieszka Kościańska - forthcoming - Medical Humanities:medhum-2021-012335.
    In Poland after World War II, the related fields of sexology, sex education and sex counselling developed a distinctive model of communication between counsellees and counsellors. This article focuses on Wiesław Sokoluk, one of the key Polish youth counsellors and sex educators active during the late socialist period, looking at his path to becoming a sex educator and youth counsellor as well as his practice in both fields. It treats his story as a case study that illustrates the distinctive development (...)
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  46. Communism and Social Democracy.Harry W. Laidler - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  47. Comment on Mayer's Analysis of National Socialism.Carl Landauer - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  48. From cybersin to cybernet. Considerations for a cybernetics design thinking in the socialism of the XXI century.Leonardo Lavanderos - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    From its origins, cybernetics has based its desire on the concept of transverse nature, today transdisciplinary. Within its history, the breaking point is unquestionably Stafford Beer and the VMS applied in Salvador Allende's government. Chile's historical conditions and context undoubtedly allowed a series of conceptual emergencies that were not necessarily developed after the 1973 coup d'état. Beer's design, as he claims, could serve both a socialist vision and a fascist command. This tells us that the tool depends on the hand (...)
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  49. Van Weense Socialist Tot Britse Mandarijn: Poppers Ontwikkeling.M. M. Leezenberg - forthcoming - Wijsgerig Perspectief.
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  50. Questions About Sex with Socialist Answers. [REVIEW]James H. P. Lewis - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-4.
    Review of The Right to Sex by Amia Srinivasan.
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