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Summary This category addresses the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679). The most famous aspect of Hobbes's work is his political philosophy, which is explained in Leviathan and elsewhere. But Hobbes, like many philosophers of his day, also worked on a wide variety of other issues. Thus this section includes works that address Hobbes's views on many topics outside political philosophy, including mind, language, and religion.
Key works Hobbes's most famous book, Leviathan, is available in a variety of editions, including MacPherson's Penguin edition, Curley's Hackett edition, which includes translations of variants in the Latin edition, and a new edition of both the English and Latin texts, edited by Malcolm as part of the Clarendon Edition of the works of Hobbes. Other works include (in recent editions and translations) Hobbes 1994, Hobbes 1998, Hobbes 1994, Hobbes 1994, and Hobbes 1981
Introductions Lloyd & Sreedhar 2008 is an introduction to Hobbes's moral and political philosophy.  Duncan 2009 is an introduction to other aspects of Hobbes's philosophy.
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  1. representación política en Thomas Hobbes.Mbaidiguim Djikoldigam - 2022 - Revista de Filosofia Moderna E Contemporânea 10 (1):239-253.
    El artículo examina la teoría de la representación por medio de la cual el filósofo inglés Thomas Hobbes construye la más madura y elaborada versión de su doctrina política. La demostración del Leviatán innova y resuelve ciertas ambigüedades de los trabajos anteriores por el uso de la teoría de la representación, apoyo del poder supremo del soberano; abre la ciencia política a la modernidad. Con esta ficción, el razonamiento adquiere una coherencia que aún no había alcanzado ni en Elements of (...)
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  2. Transubstantiation, Absurdity, and the Religious Imagination: Hobbes and Rational Christianity.Amy Chandran - 2024 - Hobbes Studies:1-31.
    This article evaluates the political implications of Thomas Hobbes’s extensive treatment of religion by taking up the motif of the Eucharist (and accompanying doctrine of transubstantiation) in Leviathan. Hobbes holds out transubstantiation as an exemplar of absurdity and an historical outgrowth of Christianity’s inauspicious meeting with pagan practices. At the same time, Leviathan contains allusions to eucharistic imagery in its narration of the generation of the “Mortal God,” the commonwealth, as the incorporation of a civil body. These conflicting sentiments are (...)
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  3. Der Hobbes-Kristall und die Kritik des Naturrechts.Ieva Höhne - 2024 - Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie 110 (2):203-228.
    This article presents a reading of Carl Schmitt’s Concept of the Political, in recourse to lesser known works of his such as Dictatorship and On the Three Types of Juristic Thought and in light of a hypothesis developed while examining his comment to Concept, going back to the German re-edition of the latter in 1963. There, Schmitt offers an interpretative scheme he has himself named “Hobbes-Crystal”, encapsulating not only a suggestion of how to decipher Hobbes, but also Schmitt’s own approach (...)
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  4. Anticlerical legacies: the deistic reception of Thomas Hobbes 1670–1740 Anticlerical legacies: the deistic reception of Thomas Hobbes 1670–1740, by Elad Carmel, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2024, ix +211 pp (hardback), ISBN: 9781526168825 (hardcopy) and 9781526168818 (electronic version). [REVIEW]Heikki Haara - forthcoming - History of European Ideas.
    In recent years, scholars have delved deeper into the intricate connections between Thomas Hobbes’s political and religious doctrines. It is now widely recognized that religion plays a central role...
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  5. Philosophy at Yeditepe, Special Issue: Method in Philosophy.Manuel Dr Knoll (ed.) - 2016 - Yeditepe University.
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  6. A Blackwell Companion to Hobbes.Justin Steinberg (ed.) - 2021 - Wiley-Blackwell.
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  7. Prisoner, Sailor, Soldier, Spy: Hobbes on Coercion and Consent.Daniel Luban - 2024 - Journal of the History of Ideas 85 (2):185-208.
    This article examines Thomas Hobbes’s notorious claim that “fear and liberty are consistent” and therefore that agreements coerced by threat of violence are binding. This view is to a surprising extent inherited from Aristotle, but its political implications became especially striking in the wake of the English Civil War, and Hobbes recast his theory in far-reaching ways between his early works and Leviathan to accommodate it. I argue that Hobbes’s account of coercion is both philosophically safe from the most common (...)
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  8. Practical Necessity, Freedom, and History: From Hobbes to Marx by David James (review).Meghan Robison - 2024 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 62 (2):329-330.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:Practical Necessity, Freedom, and History: From Hobbes to Marx by David JamesMeghan RobisonDavid James. Practical Necessity, Freedom, and History: From Hobbes to Marx. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021. Pp. 256. Hardback, $70.00.In his newest monograph, David James offers an elaborate, well-wrought reflection on human freedom and its limits by considering five canonical modern philosophers: Hobbes, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, and Marx. Judging from the table of contents, the book (...)
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  9. Hobbes and God in Locke’s law of nature.Daniel E. Burns - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-31.
    Locke bases his moral and political philosophy on his doctrine of the ‘law of nature’. Scholars have debated the content and grounding of this law and its relationship to Christian theology. The ambiguities of the Lockean natural law’s content are traceable to an unclear grammatical construction in a crucial passage of the Treatises of Government, which can be resolved by following out a related set of arguments in that work. The ambiguities of the Lockean natural law’s grounding can then be (...)
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  10. The Multitude, the People, and Popular Sovereignty: Pufendorf and Locke in Reply to Hobbes.James Harris - forthcoming - Hobbes Studies:1-29.
    In the early iterations of his political thought, The Elements of Law and De Cive, Hobbes proposed a new account of the nature of the people. In Section 2 I describe Pufendorf’s critical response. Pufendorf’s theory of the people is a neglected aspect of the political argument of the De Jure. Just as neglected is Locke’s theory of the people in Two Treatises of Government, though there is better reason for neglect in Locke’s case, in so far as he fails (...)
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  11. Returning to Hobbes: Reflections on Political Philosophy.Jonathan Wolff - 2023 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 32 (1):191-197.
    My paper ‘Hobbes and the Motivations of Social Contract Theory’ was published in this journal in 1994. In this contribution I explain the background that led me to write that paper at an early stage of my career, relating the explanation to my education as a student at UCL, and, briefly, at Harvard and contrasting the methodological approaches I experienced in the two departments. The Hobbes paper itself offers a type of ‘rational reconstruction’ of Hobbes, drawing on the logic of (...)
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  12. Hobbesian resistance and the law of nature.Samuel Mansell - 2024 - Intellectual History Review 34 (2):317-341.
    Hobbes’s account of the individual’s right to resist sovereign authority is nuanced. His allowance for cases in which a sovereign’s command falls outside the terms of the social contract, despite recent reappraisals, cannot rescue him from the accusation that his system is contradictory. It has been suggested that some Hobbesian rights can be transferred whilst others are quarantined, or that it is the institution of law, rather than the particular commands of the sovereign, which Hobbes ultimately upholds. By reconsidering Hobbes’s (...)
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  13. Leaving the State of Nature: Strengths and Limits of Kant’s Transformation of the Social Contract Tradition.Helga Varden - forthcoming - Zeitschrift Für Politische Theorie.
    (Early) Modern social contract theories reject the idea that legal and political institutions are grounded in an alleged natural ordering or hierarchy of human beings, and instead argue that only government by a public (and not private) authority can fulfil the idea of justice as freedom and equality for all. To be authoritative and not just powerful, governing institutions must be shared as ours in this irreducible sense. I first outline how Kant’s ideal account of rightful freedom brilliantly transforms this (...)
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  14. In the shadow of Leviathan: John Locke and the politics of conscience In the shadow of Leviathan: John Locke and the politics of conscience, by Jeffrey R. Collins, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2020, Ideas in Context 127, 430 pp., £101.00 (hardback) ISBN 9781108478816, £32.99 (paperback) ISBN 9781108746229. [REVIEW]J. C. Walmsley - forthcoming - History of European Ideas.
    Jeffrey Collins’ new book aims to presents Locke’s views on religious toleration in the light of Thomas Hobbes’ political philosophy. At first blush, Hobbes seems an unusual choice as a point of co...
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  15. Concepts of Punishment.Thomas Hobbes, A. M. Quinton, Kurt Baier & Joel Feinberg - 2015 - In Gertrude Ezorsky (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment, Second Edition. State University of New York Press. pp. 1-34.
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  16. Hobbes, Locke, and the Christian Commonwealth.Timothy Stanton & Tim Stuart-Buttle - forthcoming - Hobbes Studies:1-51.
    Locke refrained from engaging explicitly with Hobbes in any of his writings. Locke’s policy of non-engagement should be interpreted, we argue, neither as evidence of his lack of interest in (or ignorance of) Hobbes’s arguments, nor as an attempt to conceal from the uninitiated Locke’s covert Hobbesian commitments. Locke’s silence reveals rather than conceals. What it reveals is an absolute determination to “distinguish between the business of civil government and that of religion, and to mark the true bounds between them”. (...)
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  17. Hobbes on laughter.Petr Glombíček - 2024 - Filosoficky Casopis 72 (1):35-53.
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  18. Hobbes and Locke: Meaning, Method, Modernity.Timothy Stanton & Tim Stuart-Buttle - forthcoming - Hobbes Studies:1-10.
    An introduction to the special issue on Hobbes and Locke: Meaning, Method, Modernity.
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  19. Slavery and Race: Philosophical Debates in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.Julia Jorati - 2024 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Slavery and Race: Philosophical Debates in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries explores philosophical ideas, theories, and arguments that are central to early modern discussions of slavery. Jorati explores a topic that is widely neglected by historians of philosophy: debates about the morality of slavery in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century America and Europe. Slavery and Race: Philosophical Debates in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries explores philosophical ideas, theories, and arguments that are central to early modern discussions of slavery. It is a companion (...)
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  20. The Compatibility of Individual and Common Good in Hobbes’s Philosophy.Alexandra Chadwick - 2024 - In Heikki Haara & Juhana Toivanen (eds.), Common Good and Self-Interest in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Springer Verlag. pp. 219-236.
    This chapter considers the extent to which individual and common good are compatible within Thomas Hobbes’s philosophy. It explores Hobbes’s notion of “good”, and considers how he allows for the existence of “real” individual goods. Next, it examines Hobbes’s definition of common good as that which is “good for the commonwealth”. It is the sovereign who decides what is good for the commonwealth, but just as there are real individual goods, there are real common goods. Real goods for the commonwealth (...)
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  21. Self-Interest as a Source of the Common Good in Post-Hobbesian Natural Law.Heikki Haara - 2024 - In Heikki Haara & Juhana Toivanen (eds.), Common Good and Self-Interest in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Springer Verlag. pp. 237-256.
    Thomas Hobbes’s radical tendency to view natural law as a means of individual self-preservation sparked critical responses among natural law theorists in England and continental Europe. This chapter compares how two of Hobbes’s immediate successors and critics – Richard Cumberland and Samuel Pufendorf – dealt with the potential conflict between self-interest and the requirements of natural law. The chapter shows how both intended to reply to Hobbes in their own distinctive ways by attempting to show that the ultimate aim of (...)
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  22. Autorité, sociabilité et passions: la philosophie de la famille de Thomas Hobbes à John Millar.Justine Roulin - 2022 - [S.l.]: Schwabe Verlag.
    La famille a longtemps t considre comme une unit sociale compose de trois relations simples : mari-femme, parent-enfant et matre-serviteur. Mais la fin du dix-huitime sicle, la dimension affective de la famille devient prpondrante, ce qui en exclut progressivement les serviteurs. Cette tude se penche sur le moment crucial de l'histoire des ides ou le paradigme familial est en train de changer, en s'intressant aux discours sur la famille d'une srie de penseurs issus de la tradition du droit naturel moderne (...)
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  23. Thomas Hobbes: la religione e la coscienza.Luca Tenneriello - 2023 - Pisa: Edizioni ETS.
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  24. Credulity, diffidence, and civil trust in Hobbes.Erfan Xia - 2023 - In Mark Alfano, David Collins & Iris Jovanovic (eds.), Perspectives on Trust in the History of Philosophy. Lanham: Lexington.
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  25. In defense of a «Spirit of Freedom».Inês Beatriz Ferreira - 2024 - Revista Filosófica de Coimbra 33 (65):65-88.
    The following essay aims to elaborate a comparative study between the political theories of Kant and Hobbes, based on the second part of the Kantian essay Theory and Practice. The first part of the essay studies the legitimizing sources suggested by Kant and Hobbes to explain the need for a civil state. The second part analyzes the three republican principles suggested by Kant and compares them with the Hobbesian proposal. The third part studies the direct critique of Kant to Hobbes; (...)
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  26. Psychologische und erkenntnistheoretische probleme bei Hobbes..Albert Holden Abbott - 1904 - Würzburg,: Druck der B'onitas-Bauer'schen druckerei.
    This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be (...)
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  27. Human nature, equality and violence.Mehmet Şirin Çağmar - 2024 - Kalagatos 21 (1):24002-24002.
    This article discusses the effects of the political structures that emerged with the civilization process on human nature in Hobbes. Hobbes constructs the state of nature in an area where humans can live their nature completely freely. Although this situation creates a certain area of freedom for human nature, when it comes to social relations, this freedom endangers the lives of all people. As is known, Hobbes' solution on this issue is to build political structures such as states that will (...)
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  28. Hobbes against hate speech.Teresa M. Bejan - 2022 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 32 (2):247-264.
    ABSTRACT This article argues that Thomas Hobbes' analysis of insult or ‘contumely’ prefigures recent developments in moral and political philosophy in striking ways. Specifically, Hobbes's concerns about the dignitary harms in hate speech went well beyond ‘fighting words’ to the essential role played by expressions of hatred and contempt in making and unmaking social hierarchies. Hobbes’s sensitivity to contumely’s subtle power to constitute social in/equalities recalls recent work in feminist and critical race theory. Yet his expansive solutions – both negative (...)
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  29. Modern.Anat Schechtman - 2024 - In Kathrin Koslicki & Michael J. Raven (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Essence in Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 41-52.
    My aim in this chapter is to survey some of the most important developments in thinking about essence in the early modern period, highlighting ways in which thinkers in the period gradually depart from the medieval Aristotelian tradition. In this tradition, essence is thought of as selective, explanatory, and kind-determining. Whereas in the beginning of the early modern period some figures (such as René Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, Margaret Cavendish, and Anne Conway) still adhere to this traditional view, later figures (including (...)
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  30. Materialism from Hobbes to Locke, written by Duncan, Stewart.Charles Wolfe - forthcoming - Hobbes Studies:1-6.
  31. Hobbes’ Philosophy of Education: Finding Model for Civic Education.김용환 ) - 2019 - Modern Philosophy 14:27-58.
  32. Human Rights and Rights of War – Hobbes’ De Cive and De Homine.이준호 ) - 2018 - Modern Philosophy 12:5-33.
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  33. El Indómito cuerpo del Leviatán. Notas sobre la democracia en Thomas Hobbes.Julián A. Ramírez Beltrán - 2022 - Perseitas 11:185-223.
    Las distinciones conceptuales propuestas por Thomas Hobbes reflejan el problema político de considerar lo múltiple en la unidad o la convergencia de innumerables cuerpos, deseos y pasiones en la consolidación de una voluntad soberana unitaria. Ejemplo de ello son las nociones de potentiae (potencias) y potestas (poder), junto a otras como multitud y pueblo o súbditos y soberano. Todas ellas reflejan el problema de la estabilidad del Estado y su legitimidad institucional: la necesidad de generar, de manera continua, un poder (...)
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  34. Leviathan.Thomas Hobbes - 1966 - In John Martin Rich (ed.), Readings in the philosophy of education. Belmont, Calif.,: Wadsworth Pub. Co..
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  35. Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679).Norbert Campagna - 2024 - In Norbert Campagna, Oliver Hidalgo & Skadi Siiri Krause (eds.), Tocqueville-Handbuch: Leben – Werk – Wirkung. J.B. Metzler. pp. 161-164.
    Auch wenn man davon ausgehen kann, dass Tocqueville von Hobbes gehört hatte und dass er auch zumindest die vom englischen Philosophen vertretenen Hauptthesen kannte – etwa über Arthur de Gobineau –, so ist nicht ganz klar, ob er ein Werk von Hobbes gelesen hatte. In der ersten Démocratie erwähnt er zwar ausdrücklich den homo puer robustus, der im De Cive von Hobbes auftaucht, aber es scheint eher so zu sein, dass Tocqueville diese Hobbessche Charakterisierung des Menschen nur indirekt über Rousseaus (...)
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  36. Hobbes and the Problem of International Trade.Mikko Jakonen - 2024 - In Benjamin Bourcier & Mikko Jakonen (eds.), British Modern International Thought in the Making: Politics and Economy from Hobbes to Bentham. Springer Verlag. pp. 45-70.
    In this chapter Mikko Jakonen emphasises the importance of economy in Hobbes’ theory of international relations. Economy was a crucial issue for Hobbes’ political theory. Yet, economic activity is not situated solely in the domestic sphere. For Hobbes, the different phenomena involved in international economics, such as free trade, trade corporations, monopolies, and colonies, all raised the question of how the sovereign could regulate international economic activity.
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  37. British Modern International Thought in the Making: Politics and Economy from Hobbes to Bentham.Benjamin Bourcier & Mikko Jakonen (eds.) - 2024 - Springer Verlag.
    This book articulates international political theory in dialogue with economics on several questions. It asks: how has modern international theory been adjusted and nourished by economic ideas, theories and practices? How far has the distinctive contribution of some theorists to international theory been informed by their views on economy? What has been the impact of the theory of the state for economic and international theory? What sort of economic thinking has led to revise the debates constitutive for the modern international (...)
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  38. Hobbesian pessimism or Schopenhauerian mechanism: the construction of the individual in Thomas Hobbes and Arthur Schopenhauer.Patricia Costa da Silva Baehr - 2024 - Griot 24 (1):62-70.
    It is rare that we have Arthur Schopenhauer and Thomas Hobbes in the same publication, and when this occurs, it is usually aimed at exploring their dissenting political views. However, this study is based on the belief that both philosophers have significant similarities in their theories about the creation of the individual as a human being. Schopenhauer and Hobbes have, in their constructions, the pessimistic view of human nature and, furthermore, there are prominent similarities in the construction of the human (...)
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  39. Stewart Duncan, "Materialism from Hobbes to Locke.".Geoffrey Gorham - 2024 - Philosophy in Review 44 (1):18-21.
  40. Between Hobbes and Locke: John Humfrey and Restoration Theories of Political Obligation.Jacob Donald Chatterjee - 2019 - Locke Studies 19:1-34.
    This article presents a new understanding of how the context of Restoration debates around toleration, magisterial authority and political obligation impinged upon Locke’s mature thought. It proposes that prominent Anglican clergymen, by utilising Hobbist ideas in their arguments for religious conformity, transformed the debate around toleration. In particular, Samuel Parker’s Discourse of Ecclesiastical Politie’s potent mix of Hobbism, theological moralism and Scholastic natural law led to important nonconformists, such as Owen and Ferguson, reshaping their arguments in response. They were forced (...)
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  41. Practical necessity, freedom, and history: From Hobbes to Marx.Umur Başdaş - 2024 - Contemporary Political Theory 23 (1):156-159.
  42. Hobbes’s Medeas.Arthur Bradley - 2024 - Philosophy Today 68 (1):9-25.
    This article explores Thomas Hobbes’s political translations of Euripides’s Medea and, particularly, his representation of the Dionysian ritual of killing and dismembering a sacrificial victim (sparagmos). To answer the question of what forms political theology may take in modernity, I contend that Hobbes seeks to reverse the political theological meaning of ancient Greek sparagmos—which was originally depicted in Euripides as a legitimate religious sacrifice whose objective was to reunify the polis—by turning it into a senseless act of political violence that (...)
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  43. The moderating ideology of the Brazilian FFAA and the opinion of Hobbes and Constant.Francisco Luciano Teixeira Filho - 2024 - ARGUMENTOS - Revista de Filosofia 31:145-159.
    In 2022, the Brazilian Armed Forces reaffirmed an old interventionist ideology that marked the history of the Republic of Brazil. The text seeks to show that such military ideology does not find a pretext in the history of modern political ideas. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), at first, and then Benjamin Constant (1767-1830), two ideologists who shaped today's understanding of the State, understand representative institutions in disagreement with any non-submission of the FFAA to Political Power. In this way, the ideology of military (...)
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  44. Cautos, bribones y tontos.José Reinel Sánchez - 2010 - Revista Disertaciones 1 (1):2-21.
    El trabajo llama la atención sobre un problema poco atendido por los filósofos contractualistas el cual puede presentarse a manera de pregunta: ¿Cuál es la posición original de los individuos que pactan un acuerdo de fundación de la sociedad civilizada? Para efectos del presente trabajo recurriré a la propuesta de contrato social en De Cive (1642) y Leviathan de Thomas Hobbes (1651). El trabajo defenderá la tesis de que el camino sugerido por Hobbes apela a un recurso que, a pesar (...)
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  45. La recepción del cristianismo de Thomas Hobbes. La Cristología hobbesiana como causa de su descrédito.Jorge Alfonso Vargas - 2024 - Pensamiento 79 (304):581-601.
    El artículo analiza la cristología de Thomas Hobbes con el propósito de entender una de las principales causas de su descrito como un pensador cristiano o, incluso, ateo, lo que afecta eventualmente la validez de su teología política. El autor sostiene que si bien Hobbes hace uso de la Biblia como fundamento de su filosofía política, su recepción del cristianismo en general no es enteramente correcta, debido a que está fuertemente influenciada por su decisión política en favor del absolutismo. Esta (...)
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  46. An apologist for English colonialism? The use of America in Hobbes’s writings.Jiangmei Liu - 2024 - History of European Ideas 50 (1):17-33.
    This paper challenges the colonial reading of Thomas Hobbes’s use of America. Firstly, by analysing all the references and allusions to America in Hobbes’s writings, I claim that Hobbes simply uses America to support his central theory of the state of nature, showing the fundamental significance of a large and lasting society to our being and well-being. Secondly, I argue that Hobbes’s use of America does not serve a second purpose that is similar to Locke’s justification of English land appropriation. (...)
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  47. The scholastic’s dilemma: Hobbes critique of scholastic politics and papal power on the Leviathan frontispiece.Allan Gabriel Cardoso dos Santos - 2024 - History of European Ideas 50 (1):1-16.
    The idea that the Leviathan frontispiece offers a visual summary of the contents of the work is widespread. However, the analysis of the frontispiece often under-explores Leviathan's text or leaves certain iconographic elements aside. In discussions of the Scholastics ‘Dilemma’ emblem, for instance, the image is commonly reduced to a representation of ‘logic’ or ‘scholasticism’, leaving aside the intricate interrelationship between the objects present in the image and their connection with the content of the book. This paper argues that this (...)
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  48. Life, Death, and the Political: Existential Foundations of Thomas Hobbes’s and Carl Schmitt’s Teachings.Vladimir Brodskiy - 2022 - Sociology of Power 34 (3-4):72-101.
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  49. Death Stranding, Hobbes and the Problem of Social Order: Where (and How) Should we Haul the Sovereign?S. V. Kozlov - 2020 - Sociology of Power 32 (3):142-164.
    In this article I describe the implicit conceptualization of social order which exists in Death Stranding — localized in both the setting and the mechanics of the game — and compare it with the conceptualization of Thomas Hobbes’s “Leviathan”. First, the theoretical tension between Death Stranding and “Leviathan” is traced: the speculative conceptualization of the Leviathan and the procedural conceptualization of Death Stranding are compared by clarifying the role that the concepts of action, authorization, right and sovereignty play in Hobbesian (...)
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  50. Populus: the Birth, Death and Resurrection of the Political Subject (from Cicero to Hobbes).A. V. Marey - 2019 - Sociology of Power 31 (4):95-111.
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