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  1. Scientific Realism and Antirealism.Iep Author - 2016 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Scientific Realism and Antirealism Debates about scientific realism concern the extent to which we are entitled to hope or believe that science will tell us what the world is really like. Realists tend to be optimistic; antirealists do not. To a first approximation, scientific realism is the view that well-confirmed scientific theories are approximately true; … Continue reading Scientific Realism and Antirealism →.
     
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  2. Metaepistemology.Iep Author - 2016
    Metaepistemology Metaepistemology is, roughly, the branch of epistemology that asks questions about first-order epistemological questions. It inquires into fundamental aspects of epistemic theorizing like metaphysics, epistemology, semantics, agency, psychology, responsibility, reasons for belief, and beyond. So, if as traditionally conceived, epistemology is the theory of knowledge, metaepistemology is the theory of the theory of knowledge. … Continue reading Metaepistemology →.
     
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  3. Dynamic Epistemic Logic.Iep Author - 2016
    Dynamic Epistemic Logic This article tells the story of the rise of dynamic epistemic logic, which began with epistemic logic, the logic of knowledge, in the 1960s. Then, in the late 1980s, came dynamic epistemic logic, the logic of change of knowledge. Much of it was motivated by puzzles and paradoxes. The number … Continue reading Dynamic Epistemic Logic →.
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  4. Quantum Mechanics, Interpretations Of.Iep Author - 2016
    Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics Quantum mechanics is a physical theory developed in the 1920s to account for the behavior of matter on the atomic scale. It has subsequently been developed into arguably the most empirically successful theory in the history of physics. However, it is hard to understand quantum mechanics as a description of the … Continue reading Quantum Mechanics, Interpretations of →.
     
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  5. Human Dignity.Iep Author - 2016
    Human Dignity The mercurial concept of human dignity features in ethical, legal, and political discourse as a foundational commitment to human value or human status. The source of that value, or the nature of that status, are contested. The normative implications of the concept are also contested, and there are two partially, or even wholly, … Continue reading Human Dignity →.
     
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  6. Quantum Logic.Iep Author - 2016
    Quantum Logic in Historical and Philosophical Perspective Quantum Logic was developed as an attempt to construct a propositional structure that would allow for describing the events of interest in Quantum Mechanics. QL replaced the Boolean structure, which, although suitable for the discourse of classical physics, was inadequate for representing the atomic realm. The … Continue reading Quantum Logic →.
     
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  7. Everettian Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics.Iep Author - 2016 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Everettian Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics Between the 1920s and the 1950s, the mathematical results of quantum mechanics were interpreted according to what is often referred to as “the standard interpretation” or the “Copenhagen interpretation.” This interpretation is known as the “collapse interpretation" because it supposes that an observer external to a system causes the system, … Continue reading Everettian Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics →.
     
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  8. Stoicism.Iep Author - 2016
    Stoicism Stoicism originated as a Hellenistic philosophy, founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium, c. 300 B.C.E. It was influenced by Socrates and the Cynics, and it engaged in vigorous debates with the Skeptics, the Academics, and the Epicureans. It moved to Rome where it flourished during the period of the Empire, … Continue reading Stoicism →.
     
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  9. Testjunk.Iep Author - 2017
    TestJunk testjunk summary Table of Contents Life The Modern Turn Against Scholasticism Descartes’ Project 1. Life 2. The Modern Turn a. Against Scholasticism i. Descartes’ Project Reference … Continue reading testjunk →.
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  10. Ancient Greek Philosophy.Iep Author - 2016
    Ancient Greek Philosophy From Thales, who is often considered the first Western philosopher, to the Stoics and Skeptics, ancient Greek philosophy opened the doors to a particular way of thinking that provided the roots for the Western intellectual tradition. Here, there is often an explicit preference for the life of reason and rational thought. We … Continue reading Ancient Greek Philosophy →.
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  11. Philosophy of Biology.Iep Author - 2016
    Philosophy of Biology Philosophy of biology is the branch of philosophy of science that deals with biological knowledge. It can be practiced not only by philosophers, but also by scientists who reflect on their own work. The distinctive mark of philosophy of biology is the effort to achieve generalizations about biology, up to various degrees. … Continue reading Philosophy of Biology →.
     
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  12. Wittgenstein: Epistemology.Iep Author - 2016
    Wittgenstein: Epistemology Although Ludwig Wittgenstein is generally more known for his works on logic and on the nature of language, but throughout his philosophical journey he reflected extensively also on epistemic notions such as knowledge, belief, doubt, and certainty. This interest is more evident in his final notebook, published posthumously as On Certainty (1969, henceforth … Continue reading Wittgenstein: Epistemology →.
     
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  13. Camus, Albert.Iep Author - 2016
    Albert Camus Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, philosophical essayist, and Nobel laureate. Though he was neither by advanced training nor profession a philosopher, he nevertheless made important, forceful contributions to a wide range of issues in moral philosophy in his novels, reviews, articles, essays, and speeches—from terrorism and political violence to … Continue reading Camus, Albert →.
     
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  14. Classification.Iep Author - 2016
    Classification One of the main topics of scientific research is classification. Classification is the operation of distributing objects into classes or groups—which are, in general, less numerous than them. It has a long history that has developed during four periods: Antiquity, where its lineaments may be found in the writings of Plato and Aristotle; … Continue reading Classification →.
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  15. Daoist Philosophy.Iep Author - 2016
    Daoist Philosophy Along with Confucianism, “Daoism” is one of the two great indigenous philosophical traditions of China. As an English term, Daoism corresponds to both Daojia, an early Han dynasty term which describes so-called “philosophical” texts and thinkers such as Laozi and … Continue reading Daoist Philosophy →.
     
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  16. Egalitarianism.Iep Author - 2016
    Egalitarianism Are all persons of equal moral worth? Is variation in income and wealth just? Does it matter that the allocation of income and wealth is shaped by undeserved luck? No one deserves the family into which they are born, their innate abilities, or their starting place in society, yet these have a dramatic impact … Continue reading Egalitarianism →.
     
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  17. Hunhu/Ubuntu.Iep Author - 2016
    Hunhu/Ubuntu in the Traditional Thought of Southern Africa Philosophically, the term Hunhu or Ubuntu emphasizes the importance of a group or community. The term finds a clear expression in the Nguni/Ndebele phrase: umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu. This article reflects upon Hunhu/Ubuntu as a traditional, indigenous philosophy of Southern … Continue reading Hunhu/Ubuntu →.
     
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  18. Žižek, Slavoj.Iep Author - 2016
    Slavoj Žižek Slavoj Žižek is a Slovenian-born political philosopher and cultural critic. He was described by British literary theorist, Terry Eagleton, as the “most formidably brilliant” recent theorist to have emerged from Continental Europe. Žižek’s work is infamously idiosyncratic. It features striking dialectical reversals of received common sense; a ubiquitous sense of humor; … Continue reading Žižek, Slavoj →.
     
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  19. Belief, Aim Of.Iep Author - 2015 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
     
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  20. Erasmus, Desiderius.Iep Author - 2016
    Desiderius Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus was one of the leading activists and thinkers of the European Renaissance. His main activity was to write letters to the leading statesmen, humanists, printers, and theologians of the first three and a half decades of the sixteenth century. Erasmus was an indefatigable correspondent, controversialist, self-publicist, satirist, translator, commentator, editor, … Continue reading Erasmus, Desiderius →.
     
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  21. Aesthetics in Continental Philosophy.Iep Author - 2016
    Aesthetics in Continental Philosophy Although aesthetics is a significant area of research in its own right in the analytic philosophical tradition, aesthetics frequently seems to be accorded less value than philosophy of language, logic, epistemology, metaphysics, and other areas of value theory such as ethics and political philosophy. Many of the most prominent analytic philosophers … Continue reading Aesthetics in Continental Philosophy →.
     
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  22. Pluralism, Religious.Iep Author - 2016
    Religious Pluralism Religious pluralism, broadly construed, is a response to the diversity of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions that exist both in the contemporary world and throughout history. The terms “pluralism” and “pluralist” can, depending on context or intended use, signify anything from the mere fact of religious diversity to a particular kind of philosophical … Continue reading Pluralism, Religious →.
     
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  23. Duality in Logic and Language.Iep Author - 2016
    Duality in Logic and Language [draft--do not cite this article] Duality phenomena occur in nearly all mathematically formalized disciplines, such as algebra, geometry, logic and natural language semantics. However, many of these disciplines use the term ‘duality’ in vastly different senses, and while some of these senses are intimately connected to each other, others seem to be entirely … Continue reading Duality in Logic and Language →.
     
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  24. Laozi.Iep Author - 2016
    Laozi Laozi is the name of a legendary Daoist philosopher, the alternate title of the early Chinese text better known in the West as the Daodejing, and the moniker of a deity in the pantheon of organized “religious Daoism” that arose during the later Han dynasty. Laozi is … Continue reading Laozi →.
     
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  25. Thomas Aquinas.Iep Author - 2017 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Thomas Aquinas St. Thomas Aquinas was a Dominican priest and Scriptural theologian. He took seriously the medieval maxim that “grace perfects and builds on nature; it does not set it aside or destroy it.” Therefore, insofar as Thomas thought about philosophy as the discipline that investigates what we can know naturally about God and … Continue reading Thomas Aquinas →.
     
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  26. Political Revolution.Iep Author - 2016 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Political Revolution Revolutions are commonly understood as instances of fundamental socio-political transformation. Since “the age of revolutions” in the late 18th century, political philosophers and theorists have developed approaches aimed at defining what forms of change can count as revolutionary as well as determining if and … Continue reading Political Revolution →.
     
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  27. Gale, Richard M.Iep Author - 2016
    Richard M. Gale Richard Gale was an American philosopher known for defending the A-theory of time against the B-theory. The A-theory implies, for example, that tensed predicates are not reducible to tenseless predicates. Gale also argued against the claim that negative truths are reducible to positive ones. He created a new modal version of … Continue reading Gale, Richard M. →.
     
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  28. Socialism.Iep Author - 2016
    Socialism Socialism is both an economic system and an ideology. A socialist economy features social rather than private ownership of the means of production. It also typically organizes economic activity through planning rather than market forces, and gears production towards needs satisfaction rather than profit accumulation. Socialist ideology … Continue reading Socialism →.
     
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  29. Veṅkaṭanātha.Iep Author - 2016
    Veṅkaṭanātha Veṅkaṭanātha was an Indian polymath who wrote philosophical as well as religious and poetical works in several languages, including Sanskrit, Maṇipravāḷa—a Sanskritised form of literary Tamil—and Tamil. He is traditionally dated to 1269-1370, but as explained by Neevel “the lifespans of … Continue reading Veṅkaṭanātha →.
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  30. Artistic Medium.Iep Author - 2017 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Artistic Medium Artistic medium is an art critical concept that first arose in 18th century European discourse about art. Medium analysis has historically attempted to identify that out of which works of art and, more generally, art forms are created, in order to better articulate norms or standards by which works of art and art … Continue reading Artistic Medium →.
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  31. Tu Weiming.Iep Author - 2016
    Tu Weiming Tu Weiming is one of the most famous Chinese Confucian thinkers of the 20th and 21st centuries. As a prominent member of the third generation of “New Confucians,” Tu stressed the significance of religiosity within Confucianism. Inspired by his teacher Mou Zongsan as well as his decades of study … Continue reading Tu Weiming →.
     
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  32. Habermas, Jürgen.Iep Author - 2016
    Jürgen Habermas Jürgen Habermas produced a large body of work over more than five decades. His early work was devoted to the public sphere, to modernization, and to critiques of trends in philosophy and politics. He then slowly began to articulate theories of rationality, meaning, and truth. His two-volume Theory of Communicative Action in … Continue reading Habermas, Jürgen →.
     
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  33. Geulincx, Arnold.Iep Author - 2017 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Arnold Geulincx Arnold Geulincx was an early-modern Flemish philosopher who initially taught at Leuven University, but fled the Catholic Low Countries when he was fired there in 1658. He settled at Leiden, in the Protestant North, where he worked under the patronage of the Cartesian Calvinist theologian Abraham Heidanus, and … Continue reading Geulincx, Arnold →.
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  34. Scotus: Knowledge of God.Iep Author - 2017 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Scotus: Knowledge of God Any discussion of John Duns Scotus on our knowledge of God has to be a discussion of Scotus’s thesis that we have concepts univocal to God and creatures. By this, Scotus means that someone’s idea can equally represent both God and other types of things. This is striking even to … Continue reading Scotus: Knowledge of God →.
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