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Summary

Philosophers working on the emotions are interested in answering the following kinds of questions:

What are emotions? Are they thoughts, feelings, perceptual or quasi-perceptual states, or something else? Or perhaps they are combination of all these things? Do emotions form a natural class? Are emotions natural kinds? Are emotions in some sense ‘socially constructed’?

What emotions are there? Is love an emotion? How about Schadenfreude? Are moods emotions? What about so-called moral or aesthetic or religious emotions? Are these emotions proper? Again, how are different emotions to be characterized? What distinguishes them from one another?

What is the relationship between emotion and reason? Can emotions be evaluated for their rationality? Or are emotions non-rational mental states? Do we need emotions in order to be ‘rational’?

Closely related to the last few questions, what is the nature of the relationship between emotion and morality? Are emotions needed to have insight into the evaluate realm? Can a person who lacks certain emotional capacities be a moral agent? How might emotion be important for understanding character, vice and virtue? How might emotion be a hindrance to morality?

Each of the emotion subcategories contains details of work on the emotions that is devoted to answering and shedding light on the above sorts of questions, along with many others.

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  1. The Cognitive/Noncognitive Debate in Emotion Theory: A Corrective From Spinoza.Renee England - forthcoming - Emotion Review.
    An intractable problem that characterizes the contemporary philosophical discussion of emotion is whether emotions are fundamentally cognitive or noncognitive. In this article, I will establish that this problem arises from the influence of an underlying philosophical anthropology that entails a mind/body “split” ultimately inherited from Cartesianism, and further show that it can be fruitfully addressed by adopting a contemporary construal of the self and emotions derived from the philosophy of a key critic of Descartes dualism, Spinoza.
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  2. The Integration of Emotional Expression and Experience: A Pragmatist Review of Recent Evidence From Brain Stimulation.Caruana Fausto - 2017 - Emotion Review.
    A common view in affective neuroscience considers emotions as a multifaceted phenomenon constituted by independent affective and motor components. Such dualistic connotation, obtained by rephrasing the classic Darwin and James’s theories of emotion, leads to the assumption that emotional expression is controlled by motor centers in the anterior cingulate, frontal operculum, and supplementary motor area, whereas emotional experience depends on interoceptive centers in the insula. Recent stimulation studies provide a different perspective. I will outline two sets of findings. First, affective (...)
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  3. The Sudden Devotion Emotion: Kama Muta and the Cultural Practices Whose Function Is to Evoke It.Alan Page Fiske, Beate Seibt & Thomas Schubert - 2017 - Emotion Review.
    When communal sharing relationships suddenly intensify, people experience an emotion that English speakers may label, depending on context, “moved,” “touched,” “heart-warming,” “nostalgia,” “patriotism,” or “rapture”. We call the emotion kama muta. Kama muta evokes adaptive motives to devote and commit to the CSRs that are fundamental to social life. It occurs in diverse contexts and appears to be pervasive across cultures and throughout history, while people experience it with reference to its cultural and contextual meanings. Cultures have evolved diverse practices, (...)
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  4. Anger and Its Cousins.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2017 - Emotion Review.
    The widespread assumption that anger is a response to wrongdoing and motivates people to sanction it, as well as the lack of distinction between resentment and indignation, obscure notable differences among these three emotions in terms of their specific beliefs, goals, and action tendencies, their nonmoral or moral character, and the kinds of moral claim implied. We provide a cognitive-motivational analysis of anger, resentment, and indignation, showing that, while sharing a common core, they are distinguishable from one another because they (...)
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  5. Affective Arrangements.Jan Slaby, Rainer Mühlhoff & Philipp Wüschner - 2017 - Emotion Review.
    We introduce the working concept of “affective arrangement.” This concept is the centerpiece of a perspective on situated affectivity that emphasizes relationality, dynamics, and performativity. Our proposal relates to work in cultural studies and continental philosophy in the Spinoza–Deleuze lineage, yet it is equally geared to the terms of recent work in the philosophy of emotion. Our aim is to devise a framework that can help flesh out how affectivity unfolds dynamically in a relational setting by which it is at (...)
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  6. Jealousy as a Specific Emotion: The Dynamic Functional Model.Mingi Chung & Christine R. Harris - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):272-287.
    We review the jealousy literature and present our Dynamic Functional Model of Jealousy, which argues that jealousy evolved and has its own unique motivational state aimed at preventing others from usurping important relationships. It has a core form that exists in infants and nonhuman animals and an elaborated form in humans that emerges as cognitive sophistication develops. The DFMJ proposes that jealousy is an unfolding process with early and late phases that can be differentially impacted by relationship and personality factors. (...)
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  7. Concluding Commentary: Schadenfreude, Gluckschmerz, Jealousy, and Hate—What Are the Emotions?Ira J. Roseman & Amanda K. Steele - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):327-340.
    Schadenfreude, gluckschmerz, jealousy, and hate are distinctive emotional phenomena, understudied and deserving of increased attention. The authors of this special section have admirably synthesized large literatures, describing major characteristics, eliciting conditions, and functions. We discuss the contributions of each article as well as the issues they raise for theories of emotions and some remaining questions, and suggest ways in which these might be profitably addressed.
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  8. Is Hate Worst When It Is Fresh? The Development of Hate Over Time.Aaron Ben-Ze’ev - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):322-324.
    When it comes to eggs, two aspects are central—taste and nutritional value. And it is when eggs are fresh that these are at their peak. Hate “tastes” worst, that is, its negative intensity is highest, when it is fresh. Yet, when hate is not merely a temporary eruption but a constant feature, it distorts the agent’s behavior and attitudes. As such, its moral value worsens with maturity.
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  9. Challenges for the Dynamic Functional Model of Jealousy.Justin D’Arms - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):288-289.
    This comment on Chung and Harris presses for a clearer account of the motivational role of jealousy within the dynamic functional model of jealousy. It also calls into question the inclusion of “elaborated” jealousy within the emotion itself. It argues that differentiating emotional motivation from motivation toward the same goal that an emotion has requires additional resources.
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  10. Author Reply: Why Hate Is Unique and Requires Others for Its Maintenance.Agneta H. Fischer - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):324-326.
    In this reply, I discuss some important issues raised in two commentaries. One relates to the distinction between hate and revenge, which also touches upon the more general problem of the usefulness of distinguishing between various related emotions. I argue that emotion researchers need to define specific emotions carefully in order to be able to examine such emotions without necessarily using emotion words. A second comment focusses on the factors influencing the development of hate over time. The question is whether (...)
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  11. Author Reply: What Jealousy Can Tell Us About Theories of Emotion.Christine R. Harris & Mingi Chung - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):291-292.
    We clarify aspects of our Dynamic Functional Model of Jealousy in response to D’Arms and Stets. Our model proposes that jealousy is an evolved motivational state that arises over threat by a rival to one’s relationship or some aspect of one’s relationship. The formation or loss of relationships rarely occurs instantaneously. Therefore, we argue that jealousy, whose goal is to remove or reduce the rival threat, can occur over a longer time course than is often assumed in theories of specific (...)
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  12. Understudied Negative Emotions: What They Can Tell Us About the Nature of Emotions.Christine R. Harris - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):269-271.
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  13. Why Are Schadenfreude and Gluckschmerz Not Happiness or Anger? Or Are They?Ursula Hess - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):306-308.
    This comment on Smith and van Dijk’s discussion of the antecedents and consequences of schadenfreude and gluckschmerz considers these emotions in an appraisal framework and discusses the usefulness of naming emotions that do not come with ready-made labels in many languages.
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  14. Anger, Feelings of Revenge, and Hate.Janne van Doorn - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):321-322.
    In the current comment, I discuss what is unique about hate in relation to anger and feelings of revenge. It seems that hate can be distinguished from the related emotions anger and feelings of revenge by a difference in focus: Anger focuses on changing/restoring the unjust situation caused by another person, feelings of revenge focus on restoring the self, and hatred focuses on eliminating the hated person/group. Though grounded in existing literature, future research is needed to empirically confirm the unique (...)
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  15. Jealousy as a Specific Emotion: The Dynamic Functional Model.Jan E. Stets - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):289-291.
    The article by Chung and Harris brings together an impressive array of literature to formulate a dynamic functional model of jealousy. There is much to like about the model. However, one concern is how it advances a theory of jealousy. Another concern is how the DFMJ operates over time, with different social groups, and cross-culturally. In general, however, the model offers a useful way to think about jealousy for the future.
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  16. Schadenfreude and Gluckschmerz.Richard H. Smith & Wilco W. Van Dijk - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):293-304.
    We explore why people feel the socially improper emotions of schadenfreude and gluckschmerz. One explanation follows from sentiment relations. Prior dislike leads to both schadenfreude and gluckschmerz. A second explanation relates to concerns over justice. Deserved misfortune is pleasing and undeserved good fortune is displeasing. A third explanation concerns appraisal of the good or bad fortunes of others as creating either benefit or harm for the self or in-group. Especially in competitive situations and when envy is present, gain is pleasing (...)
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  17. Schadenfreude and Gluckschmerz Are Emotional Signals of Balance.Niels van de Ven - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):305-306.
    Smith and van Dijk explore the relationship between the emotions schadenfreude and gluckschmerz, and why people experience these emotions. Their perspective is valuable and adds to a better understanding of how people respond to the fortunes of others. In this manuscript I try to further these ideas by arguing that schadenfreude and gluckschmerz are best seen as signals that indicate that a balance in how we would want the world to be is restored or violated.
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  18. Why We Hate.Agneta Fischer, Eran Halperin, Daphna Canetti & Alba Jasini - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (4):309-320.
    We offer a functional perspective on hate, showing that hate has a unique pattern of appraisals and action tendencies. Hate is based on perceptions of a stable, negative disposition of persons or groups. We hate persons and groups more because of who they are, than because of what they do. Hate has the goal to eliminate its target. Hate is especially significant at the intergroup level, where it turns already devalued groups into victims of hate. When shared among group members, (...)
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  19. Do Reasons Expire? An Essay on Grief.Berislav Marušić - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18 (25).
    Suppose we suffer a loss, such as the death of a loved one. In light of her death, we will typically feel grief, as it seems we should. After all, our loved one’s death is a reason for grief. Yet with the passage of time, our grief will typically diminish, and this seems somehow all right. However, our reason for grief ostensibly remains the same, since the passage of time does not undo our loss. How, then, could it not be (...)
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  20. Improving Emotional Intelligence: A Systematic Review of Existing Work and Future Challenges.I. Kotsou, M. Mikolajczak, A. Heeren, J. Grégoire & C. Leys - forthcoming - Emotion Review.
    Emotional intelligence can be defined as the ability to identify, express, understand, manage, and use emotions. EI has been shown to have an important impact on health, relationships, and work/academic performance. In this article, we present a systematic review of 46 EI intervention studies on adult populations in order to assess their outcomes. Overall, these findings provide some support for the efficacy of EI programs. However, important limitations in most of the studies restrict the generalizability of their results. We discuss (...)
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  21. Four-Branch Model of Ability Emotional Intelligence With Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence: A Meta-Analysis of Relations.Sally Olderbak, Martin Semmler & Philipp Doebler - forthcoming - Emotion Review:175407391877677.
    We meta-analytically investigated relations between the four-branch model of ability emotional intelligence with fluid and crystallized intelligence. We found that for each branch, the strength of relations with Gf and Gc were equivalent. Understanding emotions has the strongest relation with Gf/Gc combined, relative to facilitating thought using emotion, managing emotions, and perceiving emotion ; for the latter, relations were also moderated by stimulus type. We conclude with implications and recommendations for the study of ability EI.
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  22. Admiration and Motivation.Alfred Archer - forthcoming - Emotion Review:175407391878723.
    What is the motivational profile of admiration? In this article, I will investigate what form of connection between admiration and motivation there may be good reason to accept. A number of philosophers have advocated a connection between admiration and motivation to emulate. I will start by examining this view and will then present objections to it. I will then suggest an expanded account of the connection between admiration and motivation, according to which, admiration involves motivation to promote the value that (...)
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  23. Author Reply: We Don’T Yet Know What Emotions Are.Ralph Adolphs & Daniel Andler - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):233-236.
    Our approach to emotion emphasized three key ingredients. We do not yet have a mature science of emotion, or even a consensus view—in this respect we are more hesitant than Sander, Grandjean, and Scherer or Luiz Pessoa. Relatedly, a science of emotion needs to be highly interdisciplinary, including ecology, psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy. We recommend a functionalist view that brackets conscious experiences and that essentially treats emotions as latent variables inferred from a number of measures. But our version of functionalism (...)
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  24. This “Modern Epidemic”: Loneliness as an Emotion Cluster and a Neglected Subject in the History of Emotions.Fay Bound Alberti - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):242-254.
    Loneliness is one of the most neglected aspects of emotion history, despite claims that the 21st century is the loneliest ever. This article argues against the widespread belief that modern-day loneliness is inevitable, negative, and universal. Looking at its language and etymology, it suggests that loneliness needs to be understood firstly as an “emotion cluster” composed of a variety of affective states, and secondly as a relatively recent invention, dating from around 1800. Loneliness can be positive, and as much a (...)
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  25. Components, Networks, and Their Interactions.Phoebe C. Ellsworth - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):232-233.
    Some thoughts on the nature of networks, the prevalence of emotional experiences, and the importance of new questions.
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  26. Utilizing Neutral Affective States in Research: Theory, Assessment, and Recommendations.Karen Gasper - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):255-266.
    Even though researchers regularly use neutral affect induction procedures as a control condition in their work, there is little consensus on what is neutral affect. This article reviews five approaches that researchers have used to operationalize neutral AIPs: to produce a minimal affective state, in-the-middle state, deactivated state, typical state, or indifferent state. For each view, the article delineates the theoretical basis for the neutral AIP, how to assess it, and provides recommendations for when and how to use it. The (...)
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  27. Author Reply: Placing Emotion Within a Science of Brain and Behavior.Luiz Pessoa - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):236-238.
    In this response, I suggest that the focus of “emotion” researchers should be more on striving to develop a science of brain and behavior than on deciding what is the proper status of emotion. Because structure and function are closely intertwined in biological systems, advancing our understanding of complex behaviors will necessitate researching their brain substrates.
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  28. Brain Networks, Emotion Components, and Appraised Relevance.David Sander, Didier Grandjean & Klaus R. Scherer - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):238-241.
    Modeling emotion processes remains a conceptual and methodological challenge in affective sciences. In responding to the other target articles in this special section on “Emotion and the Brain” and the comments on our article, we address the issue of potentially separate brain networks subserving the functions of the different emotion components. In particular, we discuss the suggested role of component synchronization in producing information integration for the dynamic emergence of a coherent emotion process, as well as the links between incentive (...)
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  29. Investigating Emotions as Functional States Distinct From Feelings.Ralph Adolphs & Daniel Andler - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):191-201.
    We defend a functionalist approach to emotion that begins by focusing on emotions as central states with causal connections to behavior and to other cognitive states. The approach brackets the conscious experience of emotion, lists plausible features that emotions exhibit, and argues that alternative schemes are unpromising candidates. We conclude with the benefits of our approach: one can study emotions in animals; one can look in the brain for the implementation of specific features; and one ends up with an architecture (...)
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  30. Identifying Emotional Specificity in Complex Large-Scale Brain Networks.Stefan Koelsch - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):217-218.
    The target article is well in accordance with recent theoretical advances considering the complex large-scale brain network organization underlying emotions. Given current limitations of the methods in brain science, however, research is faced with the difficult question as to how it will be possible to elucidate the complex nonlinear interactions, the neurotransmitters involved, and the excitatory or inhibitory nature of neural processes underlying human emotion in such networks. Moreover, while investigating the network properties of neural processes underlying emotions, it is (...)
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  31. Emotion and the Interactive Brain: Insights From Comparative Neuroanatomy and Complex Systems.Luiz Pessoa - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):204-216.
    Although emotion is closely associated with motivation, and interacts with perception, cognition, and action, many conceptualizations still treat emotion as separate from these domains. Here, a comparative/evolutionary anatomy framework is presented to motivate the idea that long-range, distributed circuits involving the midbrain, thalamus, and forebrain are central to emotional processing. It is proposed that emotion can be understood in terms of large-scale network interactions spanning the neuroaxis that form “functionally integrated systems.” At the broadest level, the argument is made that (...)
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  32. An Appraisal-Driven Componential Approach to the Emotional Brain.David Sander, Didier Grandjean & Klaus R. Scherer - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):219-231.
    This article suggests that methodological and conceptual advancements in affective sciences militate in favor of adopting an appraisal-driven componential approach to further investigate the emotional brain. Here we propose to operationalize this approach by distinguishing five functional networks of the emotional brain: the elicitation network, the expression network, the autonomic reaction network, the action tendency network, and the feeling network, and discuss these networks in the context of the affective neuroscience literature. We also propose that further investigating the “appraising brain” (...)
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  33. Comment: Two Challenges for Adolphs and Andler’s Functionalist Theory of Emotions.Andrea Scarantino - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):202-203.
    Adolphs and Andler’s methodological functionalism recommends that affective science focuses on what emotions do rather than on what emotions are physically constituted by or how emotions feel. In addition, it is suggested that the functional roles of emotions should be extrapolated from a set of “features” emotions intuitively appear to have. In this brief commentary, I discuss both prescriptions, focusing on the concept of function and on the role folk psychological platitudes should play in a functionalist theory of emotions.
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  34. Integrating Perspectives on Affective Neuroscience: Introduction to the Special Section on the Brain and Emotion.Stephan Hamann - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):187-190.
    In this special section, three target articles present three different perspectives on emotion and how it is implemented in the human brain. Fundamental issues are discussed such as the nature and organization of emotion’s representation in the brain and the best approaches for elucidating emotion’s neural basis. Comments and author replies further discuss these issues and explore their interconnections. A common theme of the target articles and commentaries is that multiple approaches and perspectives must be integrated across all levels of (...)
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  35. Using fMRI in Experimental Philosophy: Exploring the Prospects.Rodrigo Díaz - forthcoming - In Eugen Fischer & Mark Curtis (eds.), Methodological Advances in Experimental Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury.
    This chapter analyses the prospects of using neuroimaging methods, in particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), for philosophical purposes. To do so, it will use two case studies from the field of emotion research: Greene et al. (2001) used fMRI to uncover the mental processes underlying moral intuitions, while Lindquist et al. (2012) used fMRI to inform the debate around the nature of a specific mental process, namely, emotion. These studies illustrate two main approaches in cognitive neuroscience: Reverse inference and (...)
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  36. The Break-Up Check: Exploring Romantic Love Through Relationship Terminations.Pilar Lopez-Cantero - 2018 - Philosophia 46 (3):689-703.
    People who experience love often experience break-ups as well. However, philosophers of love have paid little attention to the phenomenon. Here, I address that gap by looking at the grieving process which follows unchosen relationship terminations. I ask which one is the loss that, if it were to be recovered, would stop grief or make it unwarranted. Is it the beloved, the reciprocation of love, the relationship, or all of it? By answering this question I not only provide with an (...)
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  37. The Virtue of Curiosity.Lewis Ross - forthcoming - Episteme:1-16.
    A thriving project in contemporary epistemology concerns identifying and explicating the epistemic virtues. Although there is little sustained argument for this claim, a number of prominent sources suggest that curiosity is an epistemic virtue. In this paper, I provide an account of the virtue of curiosity. After arguing that virtuous curiosity must be appropriately discerning, timely and exacting, I then situate my account in relation to two broader questions for virtue responsibilists: What sort of motivations are required for epistemic virtue? (...)
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  38. Understanding Emotion in Adolescents: A Review of Emotional Frequency, Intensity, Instability, and Clarity. [REVIEW]Natasha H. Bailen, Lauren M. Green & Renee J. Thompson - forthcoming - Emotion Review.
    Adolescence is a time of transition from childhood to adulthood during which significant changes occur across multiple domains, including emotional experience. This article reviews the relevant literature on adolescents’ experience of four specific dimensions of emotion: emotional frequency, intensity, instability, and clarity. In an effort to examine how emotional experiences change as individuals approach adulthood, we examine these dimensions across ages 10 to 19, and review how the emotional functioning of adolescents compares to that of adults. In addition, we explore (...)
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  39. The Intersection of Goals to Experience and Express Emotion.Katharine H. Greenaway & Elise K. Kalokerinos - forthcoming - Emotion Review.
    Experience and expression are orthogonal emotion dimensions: we do not always show what we feel, nor do we always feel what we show. However, the experience and expression dimensions of emotion are rarely considered simultaneously. We propose a model outlining the intersection of goals for emotion experience and expression. We suggest that these goals may be aligned or misaligned. Our model posits these states can be separated into goals to experience and express, experience but not express, express but not experience, (...)
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  40. Emotions and the Body in Early Modern Medicine.Michael Stolberg - forthcoming - Emotion Review.
    Drawing on Latin treatises, letters, and autobiographical writings, this article outlines the changes in the—thoroughly somatic—learned medical understanding of the emotions between 1500 and 1800 and their impact on lay experience. The mixture of the four natural humors explained individuals’ different propensity to certain emotions. The emotions as such, however, were described primarily as movements of the spirits and the blood towards or away from external objects. The term “emotion” emerged. The final part highlights the 18th-century shift from spirits and (...)
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  41. On the Non-Conceptual Content of Affective-Evaluative Experience.Jonathan Mitchell - 2018 - Synthese:1-25.
    Arguments for attributing non-conceptual content to experience have predominantly been motivated by aspects of the visual perception of empirical properties. In this article, I pursue a different strategy, arguing that a specific class of affective-evaluative experiences have non-conceptual content. The examples drawn on are affective-evaluative experiences of first exposure, in which the subject has a felt valenced intentional attitude towards evaluative properties of the object of their experience, but lacks any powers of conceptual discrimination regarding those evaluative properties. I also (...)
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  42. Beyond Belief: The Probability-Based Notion of Surprise in Children.Tiffany Doan, Ori Friedman & Stephanie Denison - forthcoming - Emotion.
    Improbable events are surprising. However, it is unknown whether children consider probability when attributing surprise to other people. We conducted four experiments that investigate this issue. In the first three experiments, children saw stories in which two characters received a red gumball from two gumball machines with different distributions, and children then judged which character was more surprised. Experiment 1 shows development in children’s use of probability to infer surprise. Children aged 7 correctly inferred that the character with a lower (...)
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  43. Was Heisst "Sich Vorstellen, Eine Andere Person zu Sein"?Tammo Lossau - 2014 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 90 (1):307-316.
    Talking about “being another person”, many different things may be meant. I make use of Wollheim’s distinction between three different modes of imagination and invoke four different kinds of possible content of what may be imagined. In effect, I aim at a hopefully complete overview of the possible imaginative projects of “imagining being another person”. I try to keep an eye on the role of numerical identity in each case.
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  44. Bodily Communication of Emotion: Evidence for Extrafacial Behavioral Expressions and Available Coding Systems.Zachary Witkower & Jessica L. Tracy - forthcoming - Emotion Review:175407391774988.
    Although scientists dating back to Darwin have noted the importance of the body in communicating emotion, current research on emotion communication tends to emphasize the face. In this article we review the evidence for bodily expressions of emotions—that is, the handful of emotions that are displayed and recognized from certain bodily behaviors. We also review the previously developed coding systems available for identifying emotions from bodily behaviors. Although no extant coding system provides an exhaustive list of bodily behaviors known to (...)
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  45. Sex Differences in Disgust: Why Are Women More Easily Disgusted Than Men?Laith Al-Shawaf, David M. G. Lewis & David M. Buss - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (2):149-160.
    Women have consistently higher levels of disgust than men. This sex difference is substantial in magnitude, highly replicable, emerges with diverse assessment methods, and affects a wide array of outcomes—including job selection, mate choice, food aversions, and psychological disorders. Despite the importance of this far-reaching sex difference, sound theoretical explanations have lagged behind the empirical discoveries. In this article, we focus on the evolutionary-functional level of analysis, outlining hypotheses capable of explaining why women have higher levels of disgust than men. (...)
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  46. Decentring Emotion Regulation: From Emotion Regulation to Relational Emotion.Ian Burkitt - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (2):167-173.
    This article takes a critical approach to emotion regulation suggesting that the concept needs supplementing with a relational position on the generation and restraint of emotion. I chart the relational approach to emotion, challenging the “two-step” model of emotion regulation. From this, a more interdisciplinary approach to emotion is developed using concepts from social science to show the limits of instrumental, individualistic, and cognitivist orientations in the psychology of emotion regulation, centred on appraisal theory. Using a social interactionist approach I (...)
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  47. The Affective Computing Approach to Affect Measurement.Sidney D’Mello, Arvid Kappas & Jonathan Gratch - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (2):174-183.
    Affective computing adopts a computational approach to study affect. We highlight the AC approach towards automated affect measures that jointly model machine-readable physiological/behavioral signals with affect estimates as reported by humans or experimentally elicited. We describe the conceptual and computational foundations of the approach followed by two case studies: one on discrimination between genuine and faked expressions of pain in the lab, and the second on measuring nonbasic affect in the wild. We discuss applications of the measures, analyze measurement accuracy (...)
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  48. How Efficient Are Emotional Intelligence Trainings: A Meta-Analysis.Sabina Hodzic, Jana Scharfen, Pilar Ripoll, Heinz Holling & Franck Zenasni - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (2):138-148.
    This multilevel meta-analysis examines whether emotional intelligence can be enhanced through training and identifies training effects’ determinants. We identified 24 studies containing 28 samples aiming at increasing individual-level EI among healthy adults. The results revealed a significant moderate standardized mean change between pre- and post-measurement for the main effect of EI training, and a stable pre- to follow-up effect. Additionally, the type of EI model, dimensions of the four branch model, length, and type of publication turned out to be significant (...)
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  49. Empathy: The Role of Expectations.Sabrina Trapp, Simone Schütz-Bosbach & Moshe Bar - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (2):161-166.
    To what extent can we feel what someone else feels? Data from neuroscience suggest that empathy is supported by a simulation process, namely the neural activation of the same or similar regions that subserve the representation of specific states in the observer. However, expectations significantly modulate sensory input, including affective information. For example, expecting painful stimulation can decrease the neural signal and the subjective experience thereof. For an accurate representation of the other person’s state, such top-down processes would have to (...)
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  50. Crying Is in the Eyes of the Beholder: An Attribution Theory Framework of Crying at Work.William Becker, Samantha Conroy, Emilija Djurdjevic & Michael Gross - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (2):125-137.
    This article contributes to research on emotion expression, attributions, and discrete work emotions by developing an observer-focused model to explain the outcomes of crying at work. Our model is focused on crying as a form of emotion expression because crying may be driven by different felt emotions or be used as a means of manipulation. In addition, the model focuses on observers, who must form perceptions of the emotion expression in order to determine an appropriate response. This model is particularly (...)
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