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Summary

Philosophers working on the emotions are interested in answering the following kinds of questions:

What are emotions? Are they thoughts, feelings, perceptual or quasi-perceptual states, or something else? Or perhaps they are combination of all these things? Do emotions form a natural class? Are emotions natural kinds? Are emotions in some sense ‘socially constructed’?

What emotions are there? Is love an emotion? How about Schadenfreude? Are moods emotions? What about so-called moral or aesthetic or religious emotions? Are these emotions proper? Again, how are different emotions to be characterized? What distinguishes them from one another?

What is the relationship between emotion and reason? Can emotions be evaluated for their rationality? Or are emotions non-rational mental states? Do we need emotions in order to be ‘rational’?

Closely related to the last few questions, what is the nature of the relationship between emotion and morality? Are emotions needed to have insight into the evaluate realm? Can a person who lacks certain emotional capacities be a moral agent? How might emotion be important for understanding character, vice and virtue? How might emotion be a hindrance to morality?

Each of the emotion subcategories contains details of work on the emotions that is devoted to answering and shedding light on the above sorts of questions, along with many others.

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  1. Introduction: Special Section to Honor Carroll Izard.J. A. A. Abe & D. Schultz - 2015 - Emotion Review 7 (2):101-103.
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  2. The Intersection of Gender-Related Facial Appearance and Facial Displays of Emotion.R. B. Adams, U. Hess & R. E. Kleck - 2015 - Emotion Review 7 (1):5-13.
  3. Author Reply: We Don’T Yet Know What Emotions Are.Ralph Adolphs & Daniel Andler - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):233-236.
    Our approach to emotion emphasized three key ingredients. We do not yet have a mature science of emotion, or even a consensus view—in this respect we are more hesitant than Sander, Grandjean, and Scherer or Luiz Pessoa. Relatedly, a science of emotion needs to be highly interdisciplinary, including ecology, psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy. We recommend a functionalist view that brackets conscious experiences and that essentially treats emotions as latent variables inferred from a number of measures. But our version of functionalism (...)
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  4. Investigating Emotions as Functional States Distinct From Feelings.Ralph Adolphs & Daniel Andler - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):191-201.
    We defend a functionalist approach to emotion that begins by focusing on emotions as central states with causal connections to behavior and to other cognitive states. The approach brackets the conscious experience of emotion, lists plausible features that emotions exhibit, and argues that alternative schemes are unpromising candidates. We conclude with the benefits of our approach: one can study emotions in animals; one can look in the brain for the implementation of specific features; and one ends up with an architecture (...)
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  5. Emotions and Ethics. A Conversation with Martha C. Nussbaum and Thomas Aquinas.Vaiva Adomaityte - 2015 - Dialogue and Universalism 25 (2):92-103.
    The paper tackles the question of the relevance of emotions in ethics. It argues that emotions are discerning and thus inherent components of morality and they deserve a place in adequate ethical projects. The paper engages into a conversation with Martha C. Nussbaum and Thomas Aquinas. Specifically, it presents accounts of compassion and anger to illustrate the discerning nature of these emotions and the moral value they might signal.
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  6. Michael Laffan and Max Weiss (Eds.): Facing Fear: The History of an Emotion in Global Perspective. [REVIEW]James Aho - 2013 - Human Studies 36 (1):1-5.
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  7. Emotion, Knowledge and Belief.Rodolfo Ahumada - 1969 - Personalist 50 (3):371-382.
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  8. What Good Are Facts? The “Drug” Value of Money as an Exemplar of All Non-Instrumental Value.George Ainslie - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):176-177.
    An emotional value for money is clearly demonstrable beyond its value for getting goods, but this value need not be ascribed to human preparedness for altruism or play. Emotion is a motivated process, and our temptation to “overgraze” positive emotions selects for emotional patterns that are paced by adequately rare occasions. As a much-competed-for tool, money makes an excellent occasion for emotional reward – a prize with value beyond its tool value – but this is true also of the other (...)
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  9. A Data-Based Analysis of the Psychometric Performance of the Differential Emotions Scale.Debo W. Akande - 2002 - Educational Studies 28 (2):123-131.
    This Differential Emotions Scale (DES) is an objective pencil-and-paper instrument designed to measure the subjective-experience components of the fundamental emotions, based on the assumption that mood states involved a characteristic pattern. Following Boyle (Boyle, G.J. Reliability and validity of Izard's Differential Emotions Scale, Personality, 56, pp. 747-750, 1984), the present paper reports a repeated-measure multiple discriminant function analysis for individual items across raters. At least, two-thirds of the DES items are sensitive indicators of the different mood states, however, the construct (...)
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  10. Human Emotions: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective.Laith Al-Shawaf, Daniel Conroy-Beam, Kelly Asao & David M. Buss - 2016 - Emotion Review 8 (2):173-186.
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  11. Sex Differences in Disgust: Why Are Women More Easily Disgusted Than Men?Laith Al-Shawaf, David M. G. Lewis & David M. Buss - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (2):149-160.
    Women have consistently higher levels of disgust than men. This sex difference is substantial in magnitude, highly replicable, emerges with diverse assessment methods, and affects a wide array of outcomes—including job selection, mate choice, food aversions, and psychological disorders. Despite the importance of this far-reaching sex difference, sound theoretical explanations have lagged behind the empirical discoveries. In this article, we focus on the evolutionary-functional level of analysis, outlining hypotheses capable of explaining why women have higher levels of disgust than men. (...)
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  12. Mind and Matter in Music.Gerhard Albersheim - 1964 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 22 (3):289-294.
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  13. This “Modern Epidemic”: Loneliness as an Emotion Cluster and a Neglected Subject in the History of Emotions.Fay Bound Alberti - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):242-254.
    Loneliness is one of the most neglected aspects of emotion history, despite claims that the 21st century is the loneliest ever. This article argues against the widespread belief that modern-day loneliness is inevitable, negative, and universal. Looking at its language and etymology, it suggests that loneliness needs to be understood firstly as an “emotion cluster” composed of a variety of affective states, and secondly as a relatively recent invention, dating from around 1800. Loneliness can be positive, and as much a (...)
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  14. Religion, Emotion, and Symbolic Ritual: The Evolution of an Adaptive Complex.Candace Alcorta & Richard Sosis - 2005 - Human Nature 16:323-359.
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  15. Criticising the Critique: An Appraisal of Al-Samawi’s Denigration of the Companions.Abu-Bakr Ali-Agan - 2010 - Journal of Shi‘a Islamic Studies 3:301-311.
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  16. The Cognitive Functions of Emotion.R. T. Allen - 2000 - Appraisal 3:38.
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  17. Emotion and Personality.Rudolf Allers - 1961 - New Scholasticism 35 (3):382-385.
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  18. The Cognitive Aspect of Emotions.Rudolf Allers - 1942 - The Thomist 4:589.
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  19. A Physiological-Genetic Theory of Feeling and Emotion.F. H. Allport - 1922 - Psychological Review 29 (2):132-139.
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  20. Emotion and Feeling.William P. Alston - 1967 - In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Macmillan. pp. 2--479.
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  21. The Neural Substrate of Emotions and Emotional Processing.Carlos J. Álvarez - 2015 - In Keith Augustine & Michael Martin (eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 171-182.
    Until recently emotion and emotional processing have been largely neglected by experimental psychology and neuroscience more generally. This paper reviews the substantial psychological and neuroscientific evidence that each emotion is localized in specific neural structures, and thus that it is not necessary to invoke souls or spirits to explain emotions or emotional processing often held to be distinctive of a soul. In addition, the paper aims to demonstrate the adaptive and biological value of emotion for humans and other animals. It (...)
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  22. Surmonter Ses Émotions, Conquérir Son Destin.Supakwadee Amatayakul & Nicole G. Albert - 2012 - Diogène 237 (1):109.
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  23. Cultural Scripting of Body Parts for Emotions: On ‘Jealousy’ and Related Emotions in Ewe.Felix K. Ameka - 2002 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 10 (1-2):27-55.
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  24. Emotion and Reality.Guenther Anders-Stern - 1949 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 10:553.
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  25. Emotional Expression.A. K. Anderson - 2009 - In David Sander & Klaus R. Scherer (eds.), The Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 165--167.
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  26. Life, Emotion, and Intellect.Cyril Bruyn Andrews - 1913
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  27. A Reconsideration of James's Theory of Emotion in the Light of Recent Criticisms.James R. Angell - 1916 - Psychological Review 23 (4):251-261.
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  28. Commentary.Erik Angner & Valerie Tiberius - unknown
    In the history of Western philosophy, questions of well-being and happiness have played a central role for some 2,500 years. Yet, when it comes to the systematic empirical study of happiness and satisfaction, philosophers are relative latecomers. Empirically-minded psychologists began studying systematically the determinants and distribution of happiness and satisfaction – understood as positive or desirable subjectively experienced mental states – during the 1920’s and 30’s, as personality psychology emerged as a bona fide subdiscipline of psychology shortly after World War (...)
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  29. Will and Emotion.Elizabeth Anscombe - 1978 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 5:139-148.
    This paper considers and criticizes Brentano's contention of the identity in kind between will and emotion.
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  30. Fear of Small Numbers: An Essay on the Geography of Anger (Review).Anthony Appiah - 2007 - Common Knowledge 13 (1):143-143.
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  31. Fear of Small Numbers: An Essay on the Geography of Anger.K. A. Appiah - 2007 - Common Knowledge 13 (1):143-143.
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  32. Introduction to the Special Issue: ‘Doing Things with Emotions’ / ‘L’Agir des Émotions’.M. Aranguren & J. Arquembourg - 2015 - Social Science Information 54 (4):419-423.
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  33. Beware the Passionate Robot.Michael A. Arbib - 2004 - In J. Fellous (ed.), Who Needs Emotions. Oxford University Press.
  34. Time as Emotion.J. Arlow - 1989 - In J. T. Fraser (ed.), Time and Mind: Interdisciplinary Issues. International Universities Press. pp. 85--98.
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  35. Functions of Positive Emotions: Gratitude as a Motivator of Self-Improvement and Positive Change.Christina N. Armenta, Megan M. Fritz & Sonja Lyubomirsky - 2017 - Emotion Review 9 (3):183-190.
    Positive emotions are highly valued and frequently sought. Beyond just being pleasant, however, positive emotions may also lead to long-term benefits in important domains, including work, physical health, and interpersonal relationships. Research thus far has focused on the broader functions of positive emotions. According to the broaden-and-build theory, positive emotions expand people’s thought–action repertoires and allow them to build psychological, intellectual, and social resources. New evidence suggests that positive emotions—particularly gratitude—may also play a role in motivating individuals to engage in (...)
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  36. Computational Modeling of Emotion: Explorations Through the Anatomy and Physiology of Fear Conditioning.J. Armony, D. Servanschreiber, J. Cohen & J. Ledoux - 1997 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1 (1):28-34.
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  37. Ranck on Les Expressions Exterieures Et Profondes des Emotions Chez l'Homme Et les Animaux. [REVIEW]Felix Arnold - 1907 - Journal of Philosophy 4 (16):444.
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  38. Emotions – Inferences From Hypothetical Hypothalamic Circuits?Magda B. Arnold - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (3):423.
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  39. Historical Development of the Concept of Emotion.Magda B. Arnold - 1973 - Philosophical Studies 22:147-157.
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  40. An Inspiration for Expanding the Self-Expansion Model of Love.Arthur Aron & Elaine N. Aron - 2016 - Emotion Review 8 (2):112-113.
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  41. What Do Emotions Do? A Pragmatist Approach to the Role of Emotions in Media Events.Jocelyne Arquembourg - 2015 - Philosophy Study 5 (8).
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  42. Descartes and Wittgenstein on Emotions.Jorge V. Arregui - 1996 - International Philosophical Quarterly 36 (3):319-334.
  43. The Role of Emotion in Reason.John M. Artz - 2000 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 30 (1):14-16.
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  44. Affective Politics.Yubraj Aryal - 2011 - Journal of Philosophy: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry 6 (15):1-7.
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  45. Affective Turn.Yubraj Aryal - 2011 - Journal of Philosophy: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry 6 (15):72-74.
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  46. Ai Emotions: Will One Know Them When One Sees Them.Zippora Arzi-Gonczarowski - 2002 - In Robert Trappl (ed.), Cybernetics and Systems. Austrian Society for Cybernetics Studies. pp. 2--739.
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  47. EMIA: Emotion Model for Intelligent Agent.Krishna Asawa & Shikha Jain - 2015 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 24 (4):449-465.
    Emotions play a significant role in human cognitive processes such as attention, motivation, learning, memory, and decision making. Many researchers have worked in the field of incorporating emotions in a cognitive agent. However, each model has its own merits and demerits. Moreover, most studies on emotion focus on steady-state emotions than emotion switching. Thus, in this article, a domain-independent computational model of emotions for intelligent agent is proposed that have modules for emotion elicitation, emotion regulation, and emotion transition. The model (...)
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  48. Attention, Videogames and the Retentional Economies of Affective Amplification.J. Ash - 2012 - Theory, Culture and Society 29 (6):3-26.
    This article examines the industrial art of videogame design and production as an exemplar of what could be termed affective design. In doing so, the article theorizes the relationship between affect and attention as part of what Bernard Stiegler calls a ‘retentional economy’ of human and technical memory. Through the examination of a range of different videogames, the article argues that videogame designers utilize techniques of what I term ‘affective amplification’ that seek to modulate affect, which is central to the (...)
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  49. Current Emotion Research in Organizational Behavior.Neal M. Ashkanasy & Ronald H. Humphrey - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (2):214-224.
    Despite a long period of neglect, research on emotion in organizational behavior has developed into a major field over the past 15 years, and is now seen to be part of an affective revolution in the organization sciences. In this article, we review current research on emotion in the organizational behavior field based on five levels of analysis: within person, between persons, dyadic interactions, leadership and teams, and organization-wide. Specific topics we cover include affective events theory, state and trait affect (...)
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  50. Distinct Contributions to Facial Emotion Perception of Foveated Versus Nonfoveated Facial Features.Anthony P. Atkinson & Hannah E. Smithson - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (1):30-35.
    Foveated stimuli receive visual processing that is quantitatively and qualitatively different from nonfoveated stimuli. At normal interpersonal distances, people move their eyes around another’s face so that certain features receive foveal processing; on any given fixation, other features therefore project extrafoveally. Yet little is known about the processing of extrafoveally presented facial features, how informative those extrafoveally presented features are for face perception (e.g., for assessing another’s emotion), or what processes extract task-relevant (e.g., emotion-related) cues from facial features that first (...)
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