Turing was an exceptional mathematician with a peculiar and fascinating personality and yet he remains largely unknown. In fact, he might be considered the father of the von Neumann architecture computer and the pioneer of Artificial Intelligence. And all thanks to his machines; both those that Church called “Turing machines” and the a-, c-, o-, unorganized- and p-machines, which gave rise to evolutionary computations and genetic programming as well as connectionism and learning. This paper looks at all of these and (...) at why he is such an often overlooked and misunderstood figure. (shrink)
In the centenary year of Turing’s birth, a lot of good things are sure to be written about him. But it is hard to find something new to write about Turing. This is the biggest merit of this article: it shows how von Neumann’s architecture of the modern computer is a serendipitous consequence of the universal Turing machine, built to solve a logical problem.
This paper presents the manner in which the DNA, the molecule of life, was discovered. Unlike what many people, even biologists, believe, it was Johannes Friedrich Miescher who originally discovered and isolated nuclein, currently known as DNA, in 1869, 75 years before Watson and Crick unveiled its structure. Also, in this paper we show, and above all demonstrate, the serendipity of this major discovery. Like many of his contemporaries, Miescher set out to discover how cells worked by means of studying (...) and analysing their proteins. During this arduous task, he detected an unexpected substance of unpredicted properties. This new substance precipitated when he added acid to the solution and it dissolved again when adding alkali. Unexpectedly and by a mere fluke, Miescher was the first person to obtain a DNA precipitate. The paper then presents the term serendipity and discusses how it has influenced the discovery of other important scientific milestones. Finally, we address the question of whether serendipitous discoveries can be nurtured and what role the computer could play in this process. (shrink)
Thomas von Aquin behandelt in der Catena aurea jeweils ein Einzelevangelium und kommentiert es durch Autoritätenzitate. Da diese Exzerpte zahlreiche Informationen aus dem Viererkanon zum Inhalt haben, nimmt Thomas stets alle vier Evangelien in den Blick. Sie werden als Ergänzungen und Erklärungen einer Bibelstelle genutzt; insbesondere werden evangelienharmonistische Reflexionen über fehlende und unterschiedliche Aussagen der Evangelisten vorgenommen. Thomas stellt sich in die Reihe der Persönlichkeiten, die bereits dem Vorwurf, die Evangelien enthielten Widersprüche, mit dem Nachweis der Widerspruchslosigkeit zu begegnen (...) suchten. Veranschaulicht wird das harmonistische Bemühen auf der Grundlage der ostmitteldeutschen Übersetzung der Catena aurea super Marcum.Thomas Aquinas deals in Catena aurea steadily one gospel after another. He comments them by quotations of authorities, since those excerpts give numerous information's about the four gospels. Thomas takes permanently all four gospels into consideration and uses them a complement and explanation if each biblical text. He especially reflects missing and distinctive statements. His procedure agrees with those scalars, who tried before to refute the opinion that the gospel texts show contradictions. This harmonistic effort is illustrated in the East Middle German Translation of Catena aurea super Marcum. (shrink)