The Turing Test

Edited by Eric Dietrich (State University of New York at Binghamton, University of Arizona)
About this topic
Summary The Turing test is a test for intelligence in machines.  In 1950, Alan Turing published "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" where he described a game he called the "imitation game" involving a human judge conversing only in written text with a second human and a language-using computer, each hidden away in separate rooms (3 rooms total).  The point of the game is for the computer to converse in such a human-like way with the judge that the judge cannot tell the second human from the computer (in usual renditions of the Test, the second human also tries to convince the judge that he or she is the human, so the test becomes a contest).  The computer wins if the judge cannot tell which conversant is the human and which is the computer.  Turing's point is that were a computer to successfully and repeatedly pass such a test, we should then regard the computer as intelligent on the human level. To date, no computer has passed the Test reliably and often.
Key works Turing 1950; Weizenbaum, Joseph (January 1966), "ELIZA—A Computer Program For the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man And Machine", Communications of the ACM 9 (1): 36–45.
Introductions McCorduck, Pamela (2004), Machines Who Think (2nd ed.), Natick, MA: A. K. Peters, Ltd.; Weizenbaum, Joseph (1976), Computer power and human reason: from judgment to calculationW. H. Freeman and CompanyISBN 0-7167-0463-3; Robert Epstein, Gary Roberts, Grace Beber (eds.) (2008), Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer; Searle 1980
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  1. Ce Test Questions. &Na - 2009 - Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 11 (4):125-126.
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  6. Philosophy of Mind Is (in Part) Philosophy of Computer Science.Darren Abramson - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (2):203-219.
    In this paper I argue that whether or not a computer can be built that passes the Turing test is a central question in the philosophy of mind. Then I show that the possibility of building such a computer depends on open questions in the philosophy of computer science: the physical Church-Turing thesis and the extended Church-Turing thesis. I use the link between the issues identified in philosophy of mind and philosophy of computer science to respond to a prominent argument (...)
  7. Turing's Responses to Two Objections.Darren Abramson - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (2):147-167.
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  8. Editorial: Alan Turing and Artificial Intelligence. [REVIEW]Varol Akman & Patrick Blackburn - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):391-395.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Bilkent University, 06533 Ankara, Turkey E-mail: akman@cs.bilkent.edu.tr; http://www.cs.bilkent.edu.tr/?akman..
  9. A Paradox Related to the Turing Test.Samuel Alexander - 2011 - The Reasoner 5 (6):90-90.
  10. A Psychoanalyst Takes the Turing Test.G. Alper - 1990 - Psychoanalytic Review 77:59-68.
  11. Word Associations Contribute to Machine Learning in Automatic Scoring of Degree of Emotional Tones in Dream Reports.Reza Amini, Catherine Sabourin & Joseph de Koninck - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1570-1576.
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  12. Machines and Thought The Legacy of Alan Turing.Peter Millican Andy Clark (ed.) - 1996
  13. From Taoism to Turing.Hal Arkes - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (3):98-99.
  14. Alan Turing: The EnigmaAndrew Hodges.William Aspray - 1984 - Isis 75 (3):625-626.
  15. Retaking the Test.David Isaac Backer & Tyson Edward Lewis - 2015 - Educational Studies 51 (3):193-208.
  16. The Means Test.Cuthbert Bailey - 1933 - New Blackfriars 14 (154):41-42.
  17. Theses From CPHL709.Paul Bali - manuscript
  18. A Senseless Conversation.Zach Barnett - 2011 - Think 10 (29):9-21.
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  19. Prospects for the Cyberiad: Certain Limits on Human Self-Knowledge in the Cybernetic Age.John Barresi - 1987 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 17 (March):19-46.
  20. Elicited Imitation: A Non-Verbal Test of Recall.Patricia J. Bauer - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (4):175-181.
  21. Alan Turing: Mathematical Mechanist.Anthony F. Beavers - unknown
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  22. Turing's Normal Numbers: Towards Randomness.Verónica Becher - 2012 - In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. pp. 35--45.
  23. Sixteen Years of Artificial Intelligence: Mind Design and Mind Design II.Andrew beedle - 1998 - Philosophical Psychology 11 (2):243 – 250.
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  24. The Turing Test: An Examination of its Nature and its Mentalistic Ontology.Christian Beenfeldt - 2006 - Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 40:109-144.
  25. The Turing Test: An Examination of its Nature and Mental Ontology.Christian Beenfeldt - 2005 - Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 40.
  26. Behaviorism and Psychologism: Why Block's Argument Against Behaviorism is Unsound.Hanoch Ben-Yami - 2005 - Philosophical Psychology 18 (2):179-186.
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  27. An Advanced Test of General Intelligence. [REVIEW]H. F. Benning - 1932 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 10:302.
  28. Turing and the Evaluation of Intelligence.Francesco Bianchini - 2014 - Isonomia: Online Philosophical Journal of the University of Urbino:1-18.
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  30. Intelligence Tests of Blind Subjects with the Modified Bridges Point Scale.W. E. Black - 1928 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 6 (1):64 – 66.
  31. Psychologism and Behaviorism.Ned Block - 1981 - Philosophical Review 90 (1):5-43.
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    On the 27th of October, 1949, the Department of Philosophy at the University of Manchester organized a symposium "Mind and Machine", as Michael Polanyi noted in his Personal Knowledge (1974, p. 261). This event is known, especially among scholars of Alan Turing, but it is scarcely documented. Wolfe Mays (2000) reported about the debate, which he personally had attended, and paraphrased a mimeographed document that is preserved at the Manchester University archive. He forwarded a copy to Andrew Hodges and B. (...)
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  37. Case Study: Just Another Test?Herbert J. Bonifacio & Annie Janvier - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
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  40. Animals, Zombanimals, and the Total Turing Test: The Essence of Artificial Intelligence.Selmer Bringsjord - 2000 - Journal of Logic Language and Information 9 (4):397-418.
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  43. Jensen, Gottfredson, and the Black–White Difference in Intelligence Test Scores.Nathan Brody - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):507.
  44. Post's Problem for Reducibilities of Bounded Complexity.Valeriy K. Bulitko - 2002 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (3):367-373.
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  48. The Measurement of Intelligence by the Binet Tests: Part II.Cyril Burt - 1914 - The Eugenics Review 6 (2):140.
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  50. Extraordinary Litmus Tests-Reply.D. Callahan - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (2):4-5.
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