About this topic
Summary The Turing test is a test for intelligence in machines.  In 1950, Alan Turing published "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" where he described a game he called the "imitation game" involving a human judge conversing only in written text with a second human and a language-using computer, each hidden away in separate rooms (3 rooms total).  The point of the game is for the computer to converse in such a human-like way with the judge that the judge cannot tell the second human from the computer (in usual renditions of the Test, the second human also tries to convince the judge that he or she is the human, so the test becomes a contest).  The computer wins if the judge cannot tell which conversant is the human and which is the computer.  Turing's point is that were a computer to successfully and repeatedly pass such a test, we should then regard the computer as intelligent on the human level. To date, no computer has passed the Test reliably and often.
Key works Turing 1950; Weizenbaum, Joseph (January 1966), "ELIZA—A Computer Program For the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man And Machine", Communications of the ACM 9 (1): 36–45.
Introductions McCorduck, Pamela (2004), Machines Who Think (2nd ed.), Natick, MA: A. K. Peters, Ltd.; Weizenbaum, Joseph (1976), Computer power and human reason: from judgment to calculationW. H. Freeman and CompanyISBN 0-7167-0463-3; Robert Epstein, Gary Roberts, Grace Beber (eds.) (2008), Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer; Searle 1980
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  1. Ce Test Questions. &Na - 2009 - Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 11 (4):125-126.
  2. CE Test. &Na - 2003 - Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 5 (2):32-33.
  3. CE Test. &Na - 2003 - Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 5 (1):11-12.
  4. CE Test. &Na - 2003 - Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 5 (3):58-59.
  5. Ce Test Questions. &Na - 2009 - Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 11 (3):100-101.
  6. Philosophy of Mind Is (in Part) Philosophy of Computer Science.Darren Abramson - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (2):203-219.
    In this paper I argue that whether or not a computer can be built that passes the Turing test is a central question in the philosophy of mind. Then I show that the possibility of building such a computer depends on open questions in the philosophy of computer science: the physical Church-Turing thesis and the extended Church-Turing thesis. I use the link between the issues identified in philosophy of mind and philosophy of computer science to respond to a prominent argument (...)
  7. Turing's Responses to Two Objections.Darren Abramson - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (2):147-167.
    In this paper I argue that Turing’s responses to the mathematical objection are straightforward, despite recent claims to the contrary. I then go on to show that by understanding the importance of learning machines for Turing as related not to the mathematical objection, but to Lady Lovelace’s objection, we can better understand Turing’s response to Lady Lovelace’s objection. Finally, I argue that by understanding Turing’s responses to these objections more clearly, we discover a hitherto unrecognized, substantive thesis in his philosophical (...)
  8. Editorial: Alan Turing and Artificial Intelligence. [REVIEW]Varol Akman & Patrick Blackburn - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):391-395.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Bilkent University, 06533 Ankara, Turkey E-mail: akman@cs.bilkent.edu.tr; http://www.cs.bilkent.edu.tr/?akman..
  9. A Paradox Related to the Turing Test.Samuel Alexander - 2011 - The Reasoner 5 (6):90-90.
  10. A Psychoanalyst Takes the Turing Test.G. Alper - 1990 - Psychoanalytic Review 77:59-68.
  11. Word Associations Contribute to Machine Learning in Automatic Scoring of Degree of Emotional Tones in Dream Reports.Reza Amini, Catherine Sabourin & Joseph De Koninck - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1570-1576.
    Scientific study of dreams requires the most objective methods to reliably analyze dream content. In this context, artificial intelligence should prove useful for an automatic and non subjective scoring technique. Past research has utilized word search and emotional affiliation methods, to model and automatically match human judges’ scoring of dream report’s negative emotional tone. The current study added word associations to improve the model’s accuracy. Word associations were established using words’ frequency of co-occurrence with their defining words as found in (...)
  12. Machines and Thought The Legacy of Alan Turing.Peter Millican Andy Clark (ed.) - 1996
  13. From Taoism to Turing.Hal Arkes - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (3):98-99.
  14. Alan Turing: The Enigma. Andrew Hodges.William Aspray - 1984 - Isis 75 (3):625-626.
  15. Retaking the Test.David Isaac Backer & Tyson Edward Lewis - 2015 - Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association 51 (3):193-208.
  16. The Means Test.Cuthbert Bailey - 1933 - New Blackfriars 14 (154):41-42.
  17. Theses From CPHL709.Paul Bali - manuscript
    on synchronicity, the Fermi Paradox, the Turing Test, and more.
  18. A Senseless Conversation.Zach Barnett - 2011 - Think 10 (29):9-21.
    Can machines think? Until what happened today, I thought that no human-made machine could ever think as a human does. I now know that I was wrong.
  19. Prospects for the Cyberiad: Certain Limits on Human Self-Knowledge in the Cybernetic Age.John Barresi - 1987 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 17 (March):19-46.
  20. Elicited Imitation: A Non-Verbal Test of Recall.Patricia J. Bauer - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (4):175-181.
  21. Alan Turing: Mathematical Mechanist.Anthony F. Beavers - unknown
    I live just off of Bell Road outside of Newburgh, Indiana, a small town of 3,000 people. A mile down the street Bell Road intersects with Telephone Road not as a modern reminder of a technology belonging to bygone days, but as testimony that this technology, now more than a century and a quarter old, is still with us. In an age that prides itself on its digital devices and in which the computer now equals the telephone as a medium (...)
  22. Turing's Normal Numbers: Towards Randomness.Verónica Becher - 2012 - In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. pp. 35--45.
  23. Sixteen Years of Artificial Intelligence: Mind Design and Mind Design II.Andrew beedle - 1998 - Philosophical Psychology 11 (2):243 – 250.
    John Haugeland's Mind design and Mind design II are organized around the idea that the fundamental idea of cognitive science is that, “intelligent beings are semantic engines — in other words, automatic formal systems with interpretations under which they consistently make sense”. The goal of artificial intelligence research, or the problem of “mind design” as Haugeland calls it, is to develop computers that are in fact semantic engines. This paper canvasses the changes in artificial intelligence research reflected in the different (...)
  24. The Turing Test: An Examination of its Nature and its Mentalistic Ontology.Christian Beenfeldt - 2006 - Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 40:109-144.
  25. The Turing Test: An Examination of its Nature and Mental Ontology.Christian Beenfeldt - 2005 - Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 40.
  26. Behaviorism and Psychologism: Why Block's Argument Against Behaviorism is Unsound.Hanoch Ben-Yami - 2005 - Philosophical Psychology 18 (2):179-186.
    Ned Block. Psychologism and behaviorism. Philosophical Review, 90, 5-43.) argued that a behaviorist conception of intelligence is mistaken, and that the nature of an agent's internal processes is relevant for determining whether the agent has intelligence. He did that by describing a machine which lacks intelligence, yet can answer questions put to it as an intelligent person would. The nature of his machine's internal processes, he concluded, is relevant for determining that it lacks intelligence. I argue against Block that it (...)
  27. An Advanced Test of General Intelligence. [REVIEW]H. F. Benning - 1932 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 10 (4):302.
  28. Turing and the Evaluation of Intelligence.Francesco Bianchini - 2014 - Isonomia: Online Philosophical Journal of the University of Urbino:1-18.
    The article deals with some ideas by Turing concerning the background and the birth of the well-known Turing Test, showing the evolution of the main question proposed by Turing on thinking machine. The notions he used, especially that one of imitation, are not so much exactly defined and shaped, but for this very reason they have had a deep impact in artificial intelligence and cognitive science research from an epistemological point of view. Then, it is suggested that the fundamental concept (...)
  29. The Imitation Game.John Mark Bishop - 2010 - Kybernetes 39 (3):398-402.
    This issue of the Kybernetes journal is concerned with the philosophical question- Can a Machine Think? Famously, in his 1950 paper `Computing Machinery andIntelligence' [9], the British mathematician Alan Turing suggested replacing this question - which he found \too meaningless to deserve discussion" - with a simple -behavioural - test based on an imagined `Victorianesque' pastime he entitled the`imitation game'. In this special issue of Kybernetes a selection of authors with a special interest in Turing's work (including those who participated (...)
  30. Intelligence Tests of Blind Subjects with the Modified Bridges Point Scale.W. E. Black - 1928 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 6 (1):64 – 66.
  31. Psychologism and Behaviorism.Ned Block - 1981 - Philosophical Review 90 (1):5-43.
    Let psychologism be the doctrine that whether behavior is intelligent behavior depends on the character of the internal information processing that produces it. More specifically, I mean psychologism to involve the doctrine that two systems could have actual and potential behavior _typical_ of familiar intelligent beings, that the two systems could be exactly alike in their actual and potential behavior, and in their behavioral dispositions and capacities and counterfactual behavioral properties (i.e., what behaviors, behavioral dispositions, and behavioral capacities they would (...)
  32. Imitation Games: Turing, Menard, Van Meegeren. [REVIEW]Brian P. Bloomfield & Theo Vurdubakis - 2003 - Ethics and Information Technology 5 (1):27-38.
    For many, the very idea of an artificialintelligence has always been ethicallytroublesome. The putative ability of machinesto mimic human intelligence appears to callinto question the stability of taken forgranted boundaries between subject/object,identity/similarity, free will/determinism,reality/simulation, etc. The artificiallyintelligent object thus appears to threaten thehuman subject with displacement and redundancy.This article takes as its starting point AlanTuring''s famous ''imitation game,'' (the socalled ''Turing Test''), here treated as aparable of the encounter between human originaland machine copy – the born and the made. Thecultural (...)
  33. Enumeration of Recursive Sets By Turing Machine.E. K. Blum - 1965 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 11 (3):197-201.
  34. Michael Polanyi: Can the Mind Be Represented by a Machine?Paul Richard Blum - 2010 - Existence and Anthropology.
    On the 27th of October, 1949, the Department of Philosophy at the University of Manchester organized a symposium "Mind and Machine", as Michael Polanyi noted in his Personal Knowledge (1974, p. 261). This event is known, especially among scholars of Alan Turing, but it is scarcely documented. Wolfe Mays (2000) reported about the debate, which he personally had attended, and paraphrased a mimeographed document that is preserved at the Manchester University archive. He forwarded a copy to Andrew Hodges and B. (...)
  35. Précis of The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms.Margaret A. Boden - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):519-531.
  36. Turing's Man: Western Culture in the Computer Age.J. D. Bolter - 1985 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 63:520.
  37. Case Study: Just Another Test?Herbert J. Bonifacio & Annie Janvier - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
  38. Article 79 and a Transactions Test Analysis of the CISG.Ronald A. Brand, Harry Flechtner & Franco Ferrari - 2009 - In Ronald A. Brand, Harry Flechtner & Franco Ferrari (eds.), The Draft Uncitral Digest and Beyond: Cases, Analysis and Unresolved Issues in the U.N. Sales Convention. Sellier de Gruyter.
  39. Meeting Floridi's Challenge to Artificial Intelligence From the Knowledge-Game Test for Self-Consciousness.Selmer Bringsjord - 2010 - Metaphilosophy 41 (3):292-312.
    Abstract: In the course of seeking an answer to the question "How do you know you are not a zombie?" Floridi (2005) issues an ingenious, philosophically rich challenge to artificial intelligence (AI) in the form of an extremely demanding version of the so-called knowledge game (or "wise-man puzzle," or "muddy-children puzzle")—one that purportedly ensures that those who pass it are self-conscious. In this article, on behalf of (at least the logic-based variety of) AI, I take up the challenge—which is to (...)
  40. Animals, Zombanimals, and the Total Turing Test: The Essence of Artificial Intelligence.Selmer Bringsjord - 2000 - Journal of Logic Language and Information 9 (4):397-418.
    Alan Turing devised his famous test (TT) through a slight modificationof the parlor game in which a judge tries to ascertain the gender of twopeople who are only linguistically accessible. Stevan Harnad hasintroduced the Total TT, in which the judge can look at thecontestants in an attempt to determine which is a robot and which aperson. But what if we confront the judge with an animal, and arobot striving to pass for one, and then challenge him to peg which iswhich? (...)
  41. Creativity, the Turing Test, and the (Better) Lovelace Test.Selmer Bringsjord, P. Bello & David A. Ferrucci - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (1):3-27.
  42. Test Drive. [REVIEW]Faye Brinsmead - 2006 - Colloquy 11:256-259.
  43. Jensen, Gottfredson, and the Black–White Difference in Intelligence Test Scores.Nathan Brody - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):507.
  44. Post's Problem for Reducibilities of Bounded Complexity.Valeriy K. Bulitko - 2002 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (3):367-373.
    In this paper we consider the we known method by E. Post of solving the problem of construction of recursively enumerable sets that have a degree intermediate between the degrees of recursive and complete sets with respect to a given reducibility. Post considered reducibilities ≤m, ≤btt, ≤tt and ≤T and solved the problem for al of them except ≤T. Here we extend Post's original method of construction of incomplete sets onto two wide classes of sub-Turing reducibilities what were studying in (...)
  45. About Segment Complexity of Turing Reductions.Valeriy K. Bulitko - 1999 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 45 (4):561-571.
  46. Is the Distribution of Coherence a Test of the Model?Theodore H. Bullock - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):296.
  47. The Measurement of Intelligence by the Binet Tests: Part I.Cyril Burt - 1914 - The Eugenics Review 6 (1):36.
  48. The Measurement of Intelligence by the Binet Tests: Part II.Cyril Burt - 1914 - The Eugenics Review 6 (2):140.
  49. Is Frankenstein's Creature a Machine or Artificially Created Human Life? Intentionality Between Searle and Turing.Marco Buzzoni - 2013 - Epistemologia 36 (1):37-53.
  50. Extraordinary Litmus Tests-Reply.D. Callahan - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (2):4-5.
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