With a large number of forcibly displaced people seeking safety, the EU is facing a challenge in maintaining solidarity. Europe has seen millions of asylum seekers crossing European borders, the largest number of asylum seekers since the second world war. Endemic diseases and often failing health systems in their countries of origin, and arduous conditions during transit, raise questions around how to meet the health needs of this vulnerable population on arrival in terms of screening, vaccination, and access to timely (...) and appropriate statutory health services. This paper explores the potential role of the principle of reciprocity, defined as the disposition ‘to return good in proportion to the good we receive, and to make reparations for the harm we have done’, as a mid-level principle in infectious disease screening policies. More than half of the European countries implemented screening programmes for newly arrived asylum seekers. Screening may serve to avoid potential infectious disease risks in the receiving countries as well as help identify health needs of asylum seekers. But screening may infringe upon basic rights of those screened, thus creating an ethical dilemma. The use of the principle of reciprocity can contribute to the identification of potential improvements for current screening programmes and emphasizes the importance of certain rights into guidelines for screening. It may create a two way moral obligation, upon asylum seekers to actively participate in the programme, and upon authorities to reciprocate the asylum seekers’ participation and the benefits for the control of public health. The authors argue that the reciprocity principle leads to a stronger ethical justification of screening programmes and help achieve a balance between justifiable rights claims of the host population and the asylum seekers. The principle deserves a further and more thorough exploration of its potential use in the field of screening, migration and infectious diseases. (shrink)
Drawing on Membership Categorization Analysis, we aim to tease out how narrators talk into being the social group constellations in their storyworlds and how these – potentially shifting – constellations can be related to the narrator’s identity constructions. We investigate two World War II-testimonies narrated by Belgian concentration camp survivors and scrutinize whether the expected Standardized Relational Pair of victim-perpetrator – viz. the camp prisoners versus the Nazis – is in operation, how these two categories are talked into being, whether (...) other social groups are mentioned and how all these processes affect the narrators’ identity work. It proved to be the case that, even though the victim-perpetrator Standardized Relational Pair is indeed present in both testimonies, it functions very differently in both stories, resulting in almost opposing identity work by the two narrators. (shrink)
The concept of sustainability was developed in response to stakeholder demands. One of the key mechanisms for engaging stakeholders is sustainability disclosure, often in the form of a report. Yet, how reporting is used to engage stakeholders is understudied. Using resource dependence and stakeholder theories, we investigate how companies within the same industry address different dependencies on stakeholders for economic, natural environment, and social resources and thus engage stakeholders accordingly. To achieve this objective, we conducted our research using qualitative research (...) methods. Our findings suggest that the resource dependencies on different stakeholders lead to development of different stakeholder relationships and thus appropriate resources within the company to execute engagement strategies that are informing, responding, or involving. Our research explains why diversity exists in sustainability disclosure by studying how it is used to engage stakeholders. We find that five sustainability reporting characteristics are associated with the company’s stakeholder engagement strategy: directness of communication, clarity of stakeholder identity, deliberateness of collecting feedback, broadness of stakeholder inclusiveness, and utilization of stakeholder engagement for learning. Our study develops the literature by providing insight into companies’ choices of stakeholder engagement strategy thus explaining diversity in sustainability reporting based on the characteristics and relationships with specific stakeholders. (shrink)
Past research has focused on individual culpability with the assumption that individuals will further their own self interest over that of the organization, given an appropriate opportunity. In contrast, this research shifts the focus from individual motivation to the influence of the formal and informal control systems of organizations on ethical behaviours. An open-ended interview approach was used to collect data. It was found that pressures within the informal system were the dominant influence in the resolution of ethical issues. The (...) dominance of the informal system, however, varies according to the economic position of the organization. (shrink)
We study the sources of resistance to change among firms in the Canadian petroleum industry in response to a shift in societal level logics related to corporate environmental performance. Despite challenges to its legitimacy as a result of poor environmental performance, the Canadian petroleum industry was divided as to how to respond, with some members ignoring the concerns and resisting change (i.e., laggards) while others took action to ensure continued legitimacy (i.e., leaders). We examine why organizations within the same institutional (...) field responded differently, delaying the industry response. We found that one population of firms was aligned with increasing pressures from its stakeholders for improved environmental performance, and the other was influenced by local cultural, political, and economic ideals less demanding of environmental actions. Our results reveal that several factors both at the institutional field level and the organizational level affected how these two populations reacted to a changing societal logic. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. (shrink)
Les Dialectes Doriens, Phonétique et Morphologic. Thèse d'Agrégation presentée á la Faculté de Philosophic et Lettres de l'Université de Bruxelles, par Émile Boisacq, Docteur en Philosophie et Lettres. Paris, Érnest Thorin, 1891. 220 pages.Der Dialekt Megaras, und der Megarischen Colonien Friedrich von Köppner.—Besondere Abdruck aus dem achtzehnten Supplementbande der ‘Jahrbücher für classische Philologie.’ Leipzig, Teubner, 1891. Pp. 530–563. 1 Mk.
This research, couched in the resourcebased view of the firm, investigates the potential for reducing an organization's decision uncertainty within its structural equation modeling, we empirically test if organizational design can reduce the perceived uncertainty related to an IC context, which we refer to as knowledge uncertainty. We found evidence that decentralization and technology infrastruture support a resultsbased IC mangement contrl system which in turn is associated with reduced support a good overall fit for our model. Our findings suggest that (...) if managers structure their organizational control systems appropriately for developing IC capabilities, these systems can lead to reduced internal uncertainty regarding human, structural, and relational capital. (shrink)
The idea of amalgamation for the Brussels municipalities is already an old one. In addition to the numerous parliamentary attempts to return to the situation of before 1795, when eight Brussels municipalities formed an administrative unit, there were also the Holvoet Report of 1936 and the establishment of the State Commissariat for the Large Agglomerations during the Second World War. In 1942, «Gross Brüssel» was created, but it was dissolved after the liberation. Except for the proposals of the Union of (...) Cities, things remained rather quiet until the first amalgamation operation of 1971. Brussels was not involved in these amalgamation operations primarily because of the complexity of the Brussels problem over which the Flemish and the French speaking groups could not come to an agreement. The recent proposals can be placed into three categories : a complete amalgamation of the 19 municipalities into one entity, a partial amalgamation of 3 to 10 entities, the status quo. Since the amalgamation means an increase in the municipal expenses because of equalisation of the services in the sub-municipalities at a higher level, integral amalgamation of the present 19 municipalities offers no solution for the financial difficulties besetting these municipalities. In addition,this integral amalgamation solution generales negative reactions from the people of Brussel, who see in it a demand of the Flemish Movement. (shrink)
Cet article est une contribution à l’étude de l’expression de la généralité et de l’abstraction en mathématique. Il propose dans cette perspective une analyse des conditions de possibilité de la réflexivité. Certaines de ces conditions sont d’abord dégagées à partir d’exemples élémentaires. Une brève analyse des Disquistiones arithmeticae de Gauss permet ensuite de proposer un critère de démarcation sémiotique pour les mathématiques ensemblistes. L’application de ce critère permet ensuite d’expliquer que la réflexivité s’exprime dans ces mathématiques par des hiérarchies.
L’auteur commence par rappeler la diversité d’aspects des textes mathématiques. Il s’appuie pour cela sur plusieurs études historiques récentes consacrées à l’analyse et aux conséquences de cette diversité dans le cas des mathématiques babyloniennes, grecques et chinoises. Il propose ensuite une analyse sémiotique de la transcription de l’un des textes latins par lesquels l’arithmétique fondée sur les chiffres arabes a été diffusée en Occident. La comparaison des résultats obtenus avec ceux de la même analyse appliquée à la traduction française qui (...) a récemment été donnée de ce texte lui permet de comparer l’évolution de la forme des textes mathématiques avec l’évolution des caractéristiques sémiotiques des nombres. Au cours de cet article, il propose un rapprochement entre le type de «mise en texte» adoptée et certains préjugés formalistes. (shrink)
Appropriate enablers are essential for management of intellectual capital. Through the use of structural equation modeling, we investigate whether organic renewal environments, interactive behaviors, and trust are conducive to intellectual capital management processes, as they each depend upon the establishment of a climate emphasizing mutual respect. Owing to a lack of clarity in the literature, we tested the ordering of the variables and found statistical significance for two ordering alternatives. However, the sequence presented in this article provides the best statistical (...) fit: an organic renewal environment provides a foundation for interactive behaviors, which leads to trust, and thus is consistent with the development of intellectual capital management processes within the organization. (shrink)
This paper is discusses the preliminary research ideas in our attempt to address the development of the resources that an organization needs towards its sustainability performance by investigating two important categories of variables: values and motivators. The paper discusses the preliminary literature review and inputs to the research idea as presented at IABS 2010.
This article investigates the identity constructions of a former hooligan in two repeated narratives, obtained through interviews with a time lapse of six years. In both narratives, the interviewee constructs a similar heroic identity and opposes it to other categories such as cowards and followers. However, when relating how he became a hooligan, the interviewee presents himself as a follower. This contradiction with the heroic identity shows his struggle with group membership and that ‘identity work’ is an ongoing process. On (...) the other hand, the striking similarity between the identity constructions in both interviews supports the thesis of a rehearsed self in big stories, but I argue that this is also due to other reasons, namely the role of the same interviewer who co-constructs the interview but who is also an outsider, and the influence of previous ‘rehearsals’ of the story, both within the group of hooligans and in real life. (shrink)
Understanding firms' interfaces with the community has become a familiar strategic concern for both firms and non-profit organizations. However, it is still not clear when different community engagement strategies are appropriate or how such strategies might benefit the firm and community. In this review, we examine when, how and why firms benefit from community engagement strategies through a systematic review of over 200 academic and practitioner knowledge sources on the antecedents and consequences of community engagement strategy. We analytically describe evidence (...) on the rise of the community engagement strategy literature over time, its geographical spread and methodological evolution. A foundational concept underlying many studies is the ' continuum of community engagement'. We build on this continuum to develop a typology of three engagement strategies: transactional, transitional and transformational engagement. By identifying the antecedents and outcomes of the three strategies, we find that the payoffs from engagement are largely longer-term enhanced firm legitimacy, rather than immediate cost-benefit improvements. We use our systematic review to draw implications for future research and managerial practice. (shrink)
En las últimas décadas, las organizaciones se dirigen hacia un enfoque más igualitario, conforme a los ideales del ‘New Work Order’, razón por la cual los modelos jerárquicos con un solo líder ‘poderoso’ se hacen cada vez menos aceptable. Por motivo de esta tendencia general, ha surgido un interés creciente por una conceptualización compartida o múltiple del liderazgo, como el ‘co-liderazgo’. Sin embargo, pocas investigaciones se han concentrado en la manera en que se establecen constelaciones del co-liderazgo durante la interacción (...) desde una perspectiva discursiva. Además, aunque este proceso del co-liderazgo se realiza sobre la base de recursos verbales y no verbales, el conocimiento sobre el desarrollo de este proceso queda limitado. En este artículo, incorporamos una perspectiva multimodal y, con el método del análisis del discurso, analizamos la constelación del co-liderazgo en una reunión de un movimiento juvenil. Para analizar los procesos del liderazgo en la interacción, los análisis se basan en los conceptos de la postura y la posición deóntica proximal y distal. Además, se investiga el papel de la epistémica en relación con la representación de los derechos deónticos. De los análisis, se desprende que, en esta reunión, hay una distribución clara de los derechos deónticos, a veces relacionada con la posición epistémica de los participantes. Además, el análisis muestra que el co-liderazgo siempre es un proceso esencialmente colaborativo en el que todos los participantes contribuyen. (shrink)
Existing research on women’s construction of professional identities and, more specifically, on leader identities in the workplace, has traditionally focused mainly on western contexts. This article aims to extend this focus by investigating the position of women in the workplace in India. We do this by discursively analyzing audio-taped semi-structured interviews with women who are working in the corporate sector in India. The aim of these analyses is to present a number of case studies about the unique challenges that women (...) face at the workplace in the urban Indian context, especially when they take up leadership positions. The issues they grapple with are the collision of the traditional dominant discourses on appropriate female behavior and the new professional identities that these women wish to embrace. The paper discusses how these female professionals mainly construct two quite diverging identities: either as nurturing mentors or as aggressive professionals who are involved in activities traditionally viewed as “a man’s domain”. Conclusions are then drawn regarding how these professional identities acquiesce to, counter, or — as is the case in one interview — carefully mould, hegemonic discourses of femininity in India. (shrink)
In research interviews, interviewees are usually well aware of why they were selected, and in their narratives they often construct ‘default identities’ in line with the interviewers’ expectations. Furthermore, narrators draw on shared cultural knowledge and master narratives that tend to form an implicit backdrop of their stories. Yet in this article we focus on how some of these master narratives may be mobilized explicitly when default identities are at stake. In particular, we investigate interviews with successful female professionals from (...) diverse geographical contexts. We found that the interviewees deal with challenges to their ‘successful professional’ identities by drawing on categorical narratives or categorical statements. As such, the interviewees talk into being a morally ordered gendered worldview, thus making explicit gendered master narratives about their societies and workplaces. In general, this article shows that categorical narratives and statements can bring master narratives to the surface and that these can thus contribute to the narrators’ identity work. (shrink)
We study the life story of a former SS Leibstandarte soldier and we focus on the way the narrator deals with face threats by negotiating his identity constructions. The interviewee positions himself as a sportsman and an ignorant soldier, thus constructing denial of knowledge of and agreement with Hitler's ideology. These identities can be considered to be complementary, but they are built in quite different ways: the narrator explicitly presents himself as a sportsman, but mitigates his implicit construction of ignorance. (...) Given the social and historical context, this contrast in degree of explicitness is expected since the ignorance claim has been the subject of many previous discourses and debates of this subject. (shrink)
Topology uses simple geometric and algebraic ideas, but its huge success and vast ramifications make it a tough nut for historians of twentieth‐century mathematics. Two books have addressed it well: Dieudonné chronicles about one thousand key definitions and theorems, and essays in James focus on forty central themes. Both assume considerable mathematics, but neither offers a historical synthesis of the simplest core ideas. Now, Alain Herreman uses semiotics to watch these leading ideas develop through the founding works of Henri Poincaré, (...) Oswald Veblen, James Alexander, and Solomon Lefschetz. Herreman states outright that semiotics will not exhaust these meanings, but he makes it a revealing tool.The method is especially suited to Poincaré, who will define one technical term repeatedly in a single work, each time differently, as if it was the first, and perhaps no definition will match any use of the term in proofs. For Poincaré no term gets meaning from a definition. Each functions in relation to the others—that is, specifically in relation to other terms in Poincaré's work. It is no use invoking standards of rigor current in Poincaré's time and place or then‐current definitions. Poincaré was well known at the time for using neither: Poincaré's meanings must be derived from his writing, as Herreman does.Herreman bases his semiotics on Hjelmslev yet refutes Hjelmslev's concern that mathematics may be “monoplanar,” with no content beyond the signs themselves . The book depicts four levels of content at work in these authors: algebraic, geometric, arithmetic, and set theoretic. Herreman says a sign has algebraic content if its use depends on its written expression, the way polynomials are formal expressions added and multiplied by formal rules. Early topologists—here especially Alexander—sought purely combinatorial methods. Thus a “cube” is a set of six “faces,” twelve “edges,” and eight “vertices,” each taken as primitive and described only by a short table showing which ones meet which. Combinatorics typifies arithmetic content for Herreman. Yet a cube is also an infinite set of points. Herreman speaks of geometric content when a sign indicates both a set of parts and a set of points. Today we might use different notations for the set of points and the set of parts—Poincaré et al. did not. Herreman will not reconstruct their works or restate them in other words; rather, he uses these levels of content to organize extensive quotations and analyze the relations in each text as they move toward deeper union of the algebraic and geometric.The chapter on Lefschetz makes a great finale. Lefschetz is arguably Poincaré's closest and greatest student, though the two never met. Like Poincaré's, his work is at once compelling and baffling, decisive for the future of mathematics yet brutally difficult to absorb. Semiotics serves well in presenting this mathematician who “never stated a false theorem or gave a correct proof,” as his friends joked.The book does not go far into theorems. Yet it requires some background. A beginner might enjoy it with Alexandroff , a gem itself, written with unusually strong historic sense. Specialists will enjoy reading it with the original works for its fresh viewpoints and novel connections. It is a fine way to analyze the works, to see how they create their own meanings. (shrink)
Herodotus has often been considered the Father of Ethnography no less than the Father of History. It comes as a paradox, then, that he has been taxed with confusion in his use of two terms that recur over and over in his discussion of peoples, ἕθνος and γνος. Here is the formulation of Raymond Weil:Hérodote definit mal l‘ethnos’. C'est pour lui tantôot une subdivision du ‘génos’, tantôt au contraire un ensemble de ‘géné’. Ainsi 1' ‘ethnos’ des Médes, comme celui des (...) Scythes, groupe plusieurs γνεα. Mais cet ‘ethnos’ scythe porte aussi le nom de ‘génos’, et comprend des ἕθνεα. Les Athéniens sont un ‘ethnos’ hellénique qui fait partie du ‘génos’ ionien, les Lacédémoniens un ‘ethnos’ pélasgique à rattacher au ‘génos’ dorien. (shrink)
Herodotus has often been considered the Father of Ethnography no less than the Father of History. It comes as a paradox, then, that he has been taxed with confusion in his use of two terms that recur over and over in his discussion of peoples, θνος and γνος. Here is the formulation of Raymond Weil: Hérodote definit mal l‘ethnos’. C'est pour lui tantôot une subdivision du ‘génos’, tantôt au contraire un ensemble de ‘géné’. Ainsi 1' ‘ethnos’ des Médes, comme celui (...) des Scythes, groupe plusieurs γνεα. Mais cet ‘ethnos’ scythe porte aussi le nom de ‘génos’, et comprend des θνεα. Les Athéniens sont un ‘ethnos’ hellénique qui fait partie du ‘génos’ ionien, les Lacédémoniens un ‘ethnos’ pélasgique à rattacher au ‘génos’ dorien. (shrink)