Dynamic topological logic provides a context for studying the confluence of the topological semantics for S4, topological dynamics, and temporal logic. The topological semantics for S4 is based on topological spaces rather than Kripke frames. In this semantics, □ is interpreted as topological interior. Thus S4 can be understood as the logic of topological spaces, and □ can be understood as a topological modality. Topological dynamics studies the asymptotic properties of continuous maps on topological spaces. Let a dynamic topological system (...) be a topological space X together with a continuous function f. f can be thought of in temporal terms, moving the points of the topological space from one moment to the next. Dynamic topological logics are the logics of dynamic topological systems, just as S4 is the logic of topological spaces. Dynamic topological logics are defined for a trimodal language with an S4-ish topological modality □ , and two temporal modalities, ○ and * , both interpreted using the continuous function f. In particular, ○ expresses f’s action on X from one moment to the next, and * expresses the asymptotic behaviour of f. (shrink)
We put together several observations on constructive negation. First, Russell anticipated intuitionistic logic by clearly distinguishing propositional principles implying the law of the excluded middle from remaining valid principles. He stated what was later called Peirce’s law. This is important in connection with the method used later by Heyting for developing his axiomatization of intuitionistic logic. Second, a work by Dragalin and his students provides easy embeddings of classical arithmetic and analysis into intuitionistic negationless systems. In the last section, we (...) present in some detail a stepwise construction of negation which essentially concluded the formation of the logical base of the Russian constructivist school. Markov’s own proof of Markov’s principle (different from later proofs by Friedman and Dragalin) is described. (shrink)
Cut reductions are defined for a Kripke-style formulation of modal logic in terms of indexed systems of sequents. A detailed proof of the normalization (cutelimination) theorem is given. The proof is uniform for the propositional modal systems with all combinations of reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity for the accessibility relation. Some new transformations of derivations (compared to standard sequent formulations) are needed, and some additional properties are to be checked. The display formulations  of the systems considered can be presented as (...) encodings of Kripke-style formulations. (shrink)
We formulate epsilon substitution method for elementary analysisEA (second order arithmetic with comprehension for arithmetical formulas with predicate parameters). Two proofs of its termination are presented. One uses embedding into ramified system of level one and cutelimination for this system. The second proof uses non-effective continuity argument.
A Short Introduction to Modal Logic presents both semantic and syntactic features of the subject and illustrates them by detailed analyses of the three best-known modal systems S5, S4 and T. The book concentrates on the logical aspects of ...
This paper considers the computational complexity of the disjunction and existential properties of intuitionistic logic. We prove that the disjunction property holds feasibly for intuitionistic propositional logic; i.e., from a proof of A v B, a proof either of A or of B can be found in polynomial time. For intuitionistic predicate logic, we prove superexponential lower bounds for the disjunction property, namely, there is a superexponential lower bound on the time required, given a proof of A v B, to (...) produce one of A and B which is true. In addition, there is superexponential lower bound on the size of terms which fulfill the existential property of intuitionistic predicate logic. There are superexponential upper bounds for these problems, so the lower bounds are essentially optimal. (shrink)
A simple and complete proof of strong normalization for first- and second-order intuitionistic natural deduction including disjunction, first-order existence and permutative conversions is given. The paper follows the Tait–Girard approach via computability predicates and saturated sets. Strong normalization is first established for a set of conversions of a new kind, then deduced for the standard conversions. Difficulties arising for disjunction are resolved using a new logic where disjunction is restricted to atomic formulas.
We present a survey of proof theory in the USSR beginning with the paper by Kolmogorov  and ending (mostly) in 1969; the last two sections deal with work done by A. A. Markov and N. A. Shanin in the early seventies, providing a kind of effective interpretation of negative arithmetic formulas. The material is arranged in chronological order and subdivided according to topics of investigation. The exposition is more detailed when the work is little known in the West or (...) the original presentation can be improved using notions or results which appeared later. This includes such topics as Novikov's cut-elimination method (regular formulas) and Maslov's inverse method for the predicate logic. (shrink)
The completeness of the modal logic S4 for all topological spaces as well as for the real line , the n-dimensional Euclidean space and the segment etc. was proved by McKinsey and Tarski in 1944. Several simplified proofs contain gaps. A new proof presented here combines the ideas published later by G. Mints and M. Aiello, J. van Benthem, G. Bezhanishvili with a further simplification. The proof strategy is to embed a finite rooted Kripke structure for S4 into a subspace (...) of the Cantor space which in turn encodes . This provides an open and continuous map from onto the topological space corresponding to . The completeness follows as S4 is complete with respect to the class of all finite rooted Kripke structures. (shrink)
Craig interpolation theorem implies that the derivability of X,X′ Y′ implies existence of an interpolant I in the common language of X and X′ Y′ such that both X I and I,X′ Y′ are derivable. For classical logic this extends to X,X′ Y,Y′, but for intuitionistic logic there are counterexamples. We present a version true for intuitionistic propositional logic, and more complicated version for the predicate case.
We describe a natural deduction system NDIL for the second order intuitionistic linear logic which admits normalization and has a subformula property. NDIL is an extension of the system for !-free multiplicative linear logic constructed by the author and elaborated by A. Babaev. Main new feature here is the treatment of the modality !. It uses a device inspired by D. Prawitz' treatment of S4 combined with a construction $<\Gamma>$ introduced by the author to avoid cut-like constructions used in $\otimes$ (...) -elimination and global restrictions employed by Prawitz. Normal form for natural deduction is obtained by Prawitz translation of cut-free sequent derivations. (shrink)
We describe a short model-theoretic proof of an extended normal form theorem for derivations in predicate logic which implies in PRA a normal form theorem for the arithmetic derivations . Consider the Gentzen-type formulation of predicate logic with invertible rules. A derivation with proper variables is one where a variable b can occur in the premiss of an inference L but not below this premiss only in the case when L is () or () and b is its eigenvariable. Free (...) variables of such derivation are eigenvariables and free variables of its last sequent. Then any sequent derivable in predicate logic has a cut-free derivation with proper variables where the main formula of any antecedent rule is underivable. The proof is by a simple modification of the construction of a countermodel of the formula from the open branch of its canonical proof-search tree. It extends to intuitionistic and higher order systems. The proof of the corresponding normalization theorem outlined in  uses the passage to the infinitary derivations enriched by finitary derivations. The normal form after a modification to make it decidable can be considered as a realization of Gentzen's idea stated at the end of , that his notion of reduction for arithmetic can be extended to other fields of mathematics. (shrink)
Epsilon terms indexed by contexts were used by K. von Heusinger to represent definite and indefinite noun phrases as well as some other constructs of natural language. We provide a language and a complete first order system allowing to formalize basic aspects of this representation. The main axiom says that for any finite collection S 1,…,S k of distinct definable sets and elements a 1,…,a k of these sets there exists a choice function assigning a i to S i for (...) all i≤k. We prove soundness and completeness theorems for this system S ε i fin. (shrink)
We present a cut-elimination proof for simple type theory with an axiom of choice formulated in the language with an epsilon-symbol. The proof is modeled after Takahashi's proof of cut-elimination for simple type theory with extensionality. The same proof works when types are restricted, for example for second-order classical logic with an axiom of choice.
This paper presents a formulation and completeness proof of the resolution-type calculi for the first order fragment of Girard's linear logic by a general method which provides the general scheme of transforming a cutfree Gentzen-type system into a resolution type system, preserving the structure of derivations. This is a direct extension of the method introduced by Maslov for classical predicate logic. Ideas of the author and Zamov are used to avoid skolomization. Completeness of strategies is first established for the Gentzen-type (...) system, and then transferred to resolution. The propositional resolution system was implemented by T. Tammet. (shrink)
The epsilon substitution method was proposed by D. Hilbert as a tool for consistency proofs. A version for first order predicate logic had been described and proved to terminate in the monograph “Grundlagen der Mathematik”. As far as the author knows, there have been no attempts to extend this approach to the second order case. We discuss possible directions for and obstacles to such extensions.
A predicate extension SQHT= of the logic of here-and-there was introduced by V. Lifschitz, D. Pearce, and A. Valverde to characterize strong equivalence of logic programs with variables and equality with respect to stable models. The semantics for this logic is determined by intuitionistic Kripke models with two worlds with constant individual domain and decidable equality. Our sequent formulation has special rules for implication and for pushing negation inside formulas. The soundness proof allows us to establish that SQHT= is a (...) conservative extension of the logic of weak excluded middle with respect to sequents without positive occurrences of implication. The completeness proof uses a non-closed branch of a proof search tree. The interplay between rules for pushing negation inside and truth in the “there” world of the resulting Kripke model can be of independent interest. We prove that existence is definable in terms of remaining connectives. (shrink)
A non-effective cut-elimination proof for modal mu-calculus has been given by G. Jäger, M. Kretz and T. Studer. Later an effective proof has been given for a subsystem M 1 with non-iterated fixpoints and positive endsequents. Using a new device we give an effective cut-elimination proof for M 1 without restriction to positive sequents.
A simple cut elimination proof for arithmetic with the epsilon symbol is used to establish the termination of a modified epsilon substitution process. This opens a possibility of extension to much stronger systems.