Studies in marketing ethics often revealed that ethical gaps do exist between marketers and other groups in society. The existence of these ethical gaps could be extremely counterproductive for marketing management. In order to effectively narrow these gaps, a marketing manager must first have a better understanding of causes of these gaps. To this end, this study compares marketing professionals with consumers on some important determinants of the ethical decision-making process. In particular, the marketers and consumers were compared with respect (...) to their personal moral philosophies and ethical perceptions in marketing situations. The data were obtained from a national survey of the practitioner members of the American Marketing Association and members of a consumer panel of a major southern university in the United States. The results generally indicate that marketing professionals are different from consumers with respect to some of the determinants of ethical decisions investigated. Some important managerial implications based on these findings were discussed. (shrink)
We need to clarify “humanist” and “humanism,” terms that have been open to considerable philosophical definition-mongering. I wish to propose a minimal core definition. Although this is normative, it is continuous with common usage. First, humanism expresses a set of values and virtues. emphasizing human freedom and autonomy. This ethical theory contrasts with divine-command ethics. Second, humanism, particularly secular humanism, rejects supernaturalism. Humanism should not be simply equated with atheism; however. it proposes a reflective form of agnostic or skeptical atheism. (...) Third, secular humanism is committed to a key epistemological principle: amethod of inquiry that emphasizes reason and scientific objectivity. Fourth, it has a nonreductive naturalistic ontology drawn from the sciences. Last, humanist philosophers should not only be concerned with theoretical issues, but with the role of humanism in practical life as an alternative to theistic religion. (shrink)
The computational notion of “trading spaces” is highly relevant to the psychological domain of categorization. The “theory” view of concepts can be interpreted as a recoding view. A design principle for exploiting learned recodings in order to handle the type-2 problem of forming sophisticated concepts is outlined.
First encounters : Jesuit logica in the late Ming and early Qing -- Haphazard overtures : logic in nineteenth-century Protestant writings -- Great expectations : Yan Fu and the discovery of European logic -- Spreading the word : logic in late Qing education and popular discourse -- Heritage unearthed : the discovery of Chinese logic -- Textbooks on logic adapted from Japanese, 1902-1911 -- Logical terms in early-twentieth-century textbooks.
Early experimental data on void swelling in electron-irradiated materials disagree with the dislocation bias models based on the dislocation-point defect elastic interactions. Later, this became one of the factors that prompted the development of models based on production bias (PBM) as the main driver for swelling, which assumed that the dislocation bias was much lower than that predicted by theoretical analyses of dislocation bias. However, the PBM in its present form fails to account for important and common observations, namely, the (...) indefinite void growth often observed under cascade irradiation and the swelling saturation observed under high-dose irradiation and in void lattices. In this paper, we show that these contradictions can be naturally resolved in the framework of the rate theory that accounts for the radiation-induced vacancy emission from extended defects, such as voids, dislocations and grain boundaries. This modification introduces a new bias type in the theory, namely, the emission bias. This modified rate theory agrees well with the experimental data and demonstrates that the original dislocation bias should be used in rate theory models along with the emission bias in different irradiation environments. The modified theory predictions include, but are not limited to, the radiation-induced annealing of voids, swelling saturation under high-dose irradiation, generally, and in void lattices, in particular. (shrink)
A set A is m-reducible (or Karp-reducible) to B if and only if there is a polynomial-time computable function f such that, for all x, x ∊ A if and only if f(x) ∊ B. Two sets are: • 1-equivalent if and only if each is m-reducible to the other by one-one reductions; • p-invertible equivalent if and only if each is m-reducible to the other by one-one, polynomial-time invertible reductions; and • p-isomorphic if and only if there is an (...) m-reduction from one set to the other that is one-one, onto, and polynomial-time invertible. In this paper we show the following characterization. THEOREM. The following are equivalent: (a) P = PSPACE. (b) Every two 1-equivalent sets are p-isomorphic. (c) Every two p-invertible equivalent sets are p-isomorphic. (shrink)
The interactions of He and vacancy defects with ?111? screw dislocations in alpha-Fe were modeled using molecular statics, molecular dynamics and transition state energy determinations. The formation energies and binding energies of interstitial He atoms, vacancies and He?vacancy clusters near and within dislocations in alpha-Fe were determined at various locations relative to the dislocation core. Using the dimer transition state method, the migration energies and trajectories of the He and vacancy defects near and within the screw dislocation were also determined. (...) Both interstitial He atoms and single vacancies are attracted to and trapped in the dislocation core region, and they both migrate along the dislocation line with a migration energy of about 0.4 eV, which is about half the migration energy of vacancies in the perfect crystal and about five times the migration energy for interstitial He in the perfect crystal. Divacancies and He?divacancy complexes have migration properties within the dislocation core that are similar to those in the perfect crystal, although the stability of these defects within the dislocation may be somewhat less than in the perfect crystal. (shrink)
Embedded-atom method potentials and atomistic models of coherent (010) interfaces were used to study slip across interfaces in cube-on-cube oriented Cu/Ni nanolayered materials. (111) disconnections form during slip across Cu?Ni interfaces and become significant barriers to continued deformation. A significant barrier exists for the flat coherent interface owing to the large coherency stresses in the Cu/Ni layers that must be overcome by applied stresses but, once these have been overcome, interface transection occurs readily. A disconnection adds an additional barrier because (...) of a residual dislocation with a Burgers vector magnitude equal to the difference between b Cu and b Ni. This barrier depends on the position of the disconnection relative to the glide plane of the transecting glide dislocation and on the disconnection height. Disconnections cause work hardening that prevents shear band formation during deformation and encourages homogeneous shear processes. Disconnection energies are shown to be relatively small and to depend on the disconnection type and size. (shrink)