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Scott J. Vitell [51]Scott John Vitell [4]
  1. Scott J. Vitell, Joseph G. P. Paolillo & James L. Thomas (forthcoming). The Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility: A Study of Marketing Professionals. Business Ethics Quarterly.
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  2. Anusorn Singhapakdi, Scott J. Vitell, Dong-Jin Lee, Amiee Mellon Nisius & Grace B. Yu (2013). The Influence of Love of Money and Religiosity on Ethical Decision-Making in Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics 114 (1):183-191.
    The impact of “love of money” on different aspects of consumers’ ethical beliefs has been investigated by previous research. In this study we investigate the potential impact of “love of money” on a manager’s ethical decision-making in marketing. Another objective of the current study is to investigate the potential impacts of extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity on ethical marketing decision-making. We also include ethical judgments as an element of ethical decision-making. We found “love of money”, both dimensions of religiosity, and ethical (...)
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  3. Foo Nin Ho, Hui-Ming Deanna Wang & Scott J. Vitell (2012). A Global Analysis of Corporate Social Performance: The Effects of Cultural and Geographic Environments. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 107 (4):423-433.
    As more and more multi-national companies expand their operations globally, their responsibilities extend beyond not only the economic motive of profitability but also other social and environmental factors. The objective of this article is to examine the impact of national culture and geographic environment on firms’ corporate social performance (CSP). Empirical tests are based on a global CSP database of companies from 49 countries. Results show that the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are significantly associated with CSP. In addition, European companies are (...)
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  4. Abhijit M. Patwardhan, Megan E. Keith & Scott J. Vitell (2012). Religiosity, Attitude Toward Business, and Ethical Beliefs: Hispanic Consumers in the United States. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 110 (1):61-70.
    Growth of the Hispanic consumer population in America is changing the marketplace landscape. Due to their considerable buying power, a better understanding of Hispanic consumer behavior has become a necessity. The marketing literature has examined issues regarding religiosity and attitude toward business in regards to consumer ethical beliefs as well as research differentiating consumers on the basis of ethnicity due to their inherently different religious principles. Therefore, the present study contributes to the existing consumer ethics literature by examining the roles (...)
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  5. Kathy Wachter, Scott J. Vitell, Ruth K. Shelton & Kyungae Park (2012). Exploring Consumer Orientation Toward Returns: Unethical Dimensions. Business Ethics 21 (1):115-128.
    As customer return rates increase, retailer bottom lines suffer from customers’ misuse of the policies and to the ethics of such practice. The purpose of this study is to explore customers’ orientation toward return behaviors, and to develop a return orientation assessing these dimensions. This research identified three dimensions relevant to consumer return behavior: the planned/unethical returner; the eager returner; and the reluctant/educated returner. A retest with another sample confirmed these three dimensions. Each dimension was analyzed for its relationship with (...)
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  6. Scott J. Vitell, Megan Keith & Manisha Mathur (2011). Antecedents to the Justification of Norm Violating Behavior Among Business Practitioners. Journal of Business Ethics 101 (1):163 - 173.
    This study investigates the role that moral identity, religiosity, and the institutionalization of ethics play in determining the extent of justification of norm violating behavior among business practitioners. Moral justification is where a person, rather than assuming responsibility for an outcome, attempts to legitimize ethically questionable behavior. Results of the study indicate that both the internalization and symbolization dimensions of moral identity as well as intrinsic religiosity and the explicit institutionalization of ethics within the organization are significant determinants of the (...)
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  7. Aysen Bakir & Scott J. Vitell (2010). The Ethics of Food Advertising Targeted Toward Children: Parental Viewpoint. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):299 - 311.
    The children’s market has become significantly more important to marketers in recent years. They have been spending increasing amounts on advertising, particularly of food and beverages, to reach this segment. At the same time, there is a critical debate among parents, government agencies, and industry experts as to the ethics of food advertising practices aimed toward children. The␣present study examines parents’ ethical views of food advertising targeting children. Findings indicate that parents’ beliefs concerning at least some dimensions of moral intensity (...)
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  8. Scott John Vitell, Encarnación Ramos & Ceri M. Nishihara (2010). The Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility in Organizational Success: A Spanish Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (4):467 - 483.
    Ethics has assumed a dominant position in the current economic debate, and this study focuses on ethics as a legitimate underpinning to good business decision making. Using a self-response survey of marketing managers in Spain, the current theory on ethical decision making is extended. Results support the mediating influence of the PRESOR construct (an individual’s perception of the importance of ethics and social responsibility for the effectiveness of the organization) on relativistic and idealistic moral thinking when one is considering the (...)
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  9. Scott J. Vitell (2009). The Role of Religiosity in Business and Consumer Ethics: A Review of the Literature. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):155 - 167.
    In 1949 Culliton noted that "... religion has something to offer business" (Culliton, 1949, p. 265). While religion definitely does have something to offer business, especially business ethics, it is only recently that empirical research linking religiosity and business ethics has been conducted. Indeed, religiosity affords a background, against which the ethical nature of business, including marketing and consumer behavior, can be interpreted. This article offers a descriptive, rather than normative, perspective in reviewing articles linking religion to business and consumer (...)
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  10. Scott John Vitell, Mark N. Bing, H. Kristl Davison, Anthony P. Ammeter, Bart L. Garner & Milorad M. Novicevic (2009). Religiosity and Moral Identity: The Mediating Role of Self-Control. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (4):601 - 613.
    The ethics literature has identified moral motivation as a factor in ethical decision-making. Furthermore, moral identity has been identified as a source of moral motivation. In the current study, we examine religiosity as an antecedent to moral identity and examine the mediating role of self-control in this relationship. We find that intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions of religiosity have different direct and indirect effects on the internalization and symbolization dimensions of moral identity. Specifically, intrinsic religiosity plays a role in counterbalancing the (...)
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  11. Scott J. Vitell & Abhijit Patwardhan (2008). The Role of Moral Intensity and Moral Philosophy in Ethical Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of China and the European Union. Business Ethics 17 (2):196–209.
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  12. Scott John Vitell & Anusorn Singhapakdi (2008). The Role of Ethics Institutionalization in Influencing Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Esprit de Corps. Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2):343 - 353.
    Given increasing ethical problems in business, many organizations have tried to control these problems by institutionalizing ethics such as by creating new ethics positions and formulating and enforcing codes of ethics. In this study, the impact of implicit and explicit forms of institutionalization of ethics on job satisfaction, esprit de corps, and organizational commitment for marketing professionals is investigated. Additionally, the influence of organizational socialization, ethical relativism, and age relative to each of the above organizational climate constructs is examined. Results (...)
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  13. Scott John Vitell, Jatinder J. Singh & Joseph G. P. Paolillo (2007). Consumers' Ethical Beliefs: The Roles of Money, Religiosity and Attitude Toward Business. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 73 (4):369 - 379.
    This article presents the results of a study that investigated the roles that one’s money ethic, religiosity and attitude toward business play in determining consumer attitudes/beliefs in various situations regarding questionable consumer practices. Two dimensions of religiosity – intrinsic and extrinsic religiousness – were studied. A global scale of money ethic was examined, as was a global measure of attitude toward business. Results indicate that both types of religiosity as well as one’s money ethic and attitude toward business were significant (...)
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  14. Ziad Swaidan, Scott J. Vitell, Gregory M. Rose & Faye W. Gilbert (2006). Consumer Ethics: The Role of Acculturation in U.S. Immigrant Populations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 64 (1):1 - 16.
    This study examines the role of acculturation in shaping consumers’ views of ethics. Specifically, it examines the relationships between the desire to keep one’s original culture, the desire to adopt the host culture, and the four dimensions of the Muncy and Vitell (Journal of Business Research Ethics 24(4), 297, 1992) consumer ethics scale. Using two separate immigrant populations – one of former Middle-Eastern residents now living in the U.S. and the other of Asian immigrants in the U.S. – results indicate (...)
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  15. Scott J. Vitell & Encarnación Ramos Hidalgo (2006). The Impact of Corporate Ethical Values and Enforcement of Ethical Codes on the Perceived Importance of Ethics in Business: A Comparison of U.S. And Spanish Managers. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 64 (1):31 - 43.
    This two country study examines the effect of corporate ethical values and enforcement of a code of ethics on perceptions of the role of ethics in the overall success of the firm. Additionally, the impact of organizational commitment and of individual variables such as ethical idealism and relativism was examined. The rationale for examining the perceived importance of the role of ethics in this manner is to determine the extent to which the organization itself can influence employee perceptions regarding ethics (...)
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  16. Scott J. Vitell, Joseph G. P. Paolillo & Jatinder J. Singh (2006). The Role of Money and Religiosity in Determining Consumers' Ethical Beliefs. Journal of Business Ethics 64 (2):117 - 124.
    This article presents the results of a study that investigated the roles that religiosity and ones money ethic play in determining consumer attitudes/beliefs in various situations regarding questionable consumer practices. One dimension of religiosity – intrinsic religiousness – was studied. Four separate dimensions of a money ethic scale were initially examined, but only one was used in the final analyses. Results indicated that both intrinsic religiousness and one’s money ethic were significant determinants of most types of consumer ethical beliefs.
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  17. Scott J. Vitell & James Muncy (2005). The Muncy–Vitell Consumer Ethics Scale: A Modification and Application. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 62 (3):267 - 275.
    This study compares college students with other adults in terms of the Muncy–Vitell (1992) consumer ethics scale. Further, the study updates the Muncy–Vitell consumer ethics scale with modifications that include rewording and the addition of new items. These new items can be grouped into three distinct categories – (1) downloading/buying counterfeit goods, (2) recycling/environmental awareness and (3) doing the right thing/doing good. The study also compares these two groups in terms of their attitude toward business. Results show that there is (...)
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  18. Scott J. Vitell, Joseph G. P. Paolillo & Jatinder J. Singh (2005). Religiosity and Consumer Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 57 (2):175 - 181.
    This article presents the results of an exploratory study that investigated the role that religiosity plays in determining consumer attitudes/beliefs in various situations regarding questionable consumer practices. Two dimensions of religiosity – intrinsic and extrinsic religiousness – were studied. Results indicated that an intrinsic religiousness was a significant determinant of consumer ethical beliefs, but extrinsic religiousness was not related to those beliefs.
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  19. Jamal A. Al-Khatib, Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas & Scott J. Vitell (2004). Organizational Ethics in Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 55 (4):309 - 322.
    Relationships with one's employees, co-workers, or superiors create ethical dilemmas. Employees' judgments and ethical perceptions have been extensively studied in Western cultures, but not in developing countries. The purpose of this investigation is to examine employees' self-reported work-related ethics and compare them to their perceptions of co-workers' and top managements' along various morally challenging situations in three developing countries' organizations. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Oman, known as the Gulf countries, were selected as the research setting - and provided the sampling (...)
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  20. Scott J. Vitell & Joseph G. P. Paolillo (2004). A Cross-Cultural Study of the Antecedents of the Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility. Business Ethics 13 (2-3):185-199.
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  21. Ziad Swaidan, Scott J. Vitell & Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas (2003). Consumer Ethics: Determinants of Ethical Beliefs of African Americans. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 46 (2):175 - 186.
    This study explores the ethical ideol-ogies and ethical beliefs of African American consumers using the Forsyth ethical position questionnaire (EPQ) and the Muncy-Vitell consumer ethics questionnaire (MVQ). The two dimensions of the EPQ (i.e., idealism and relativism) were the independent constructs and the four dimensions of the MVQ (i.e., illegal, active, passive and no harm) were the dependent variables. In addition, this paper explores the consumer ethics of African Americans across four demographic factors (i.e., age, education, gender, and marital status). (...)
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  22. Scott J. Vitell (2003). Consumer Ethics Research: Review, Synthesis and Suggestions for the Future. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 43 (1-2):33 - 47.
    This manuscript reviews and synthesizes most of the major research studies in the area of consumer ethics that have appeared since 1990. It examines both conceptual and empirical works with an objective of encouraging researchers to pursue research in the consumer ethics area. Toward this end, the paper also suggests directions for future research.
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  23. Scott J. Vitell, Aysen Bakir, Joseph G. P. Paolillo, Encarnacion Ramos Hidalgo, Jamal Al-Khatib & Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas (2003). Ethical Judgments and Intentions: A Multinational Study of Marketing Professionals. Business Ethics 12 (2):151–171.
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  24. Scott J. Vitell & Joseph G. P. Paolillo (2003). Consumer Ethics: The Role of Religiosity. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 46 (2):151 - 162.
    This article presents the results of a study that investigated the role that religiosity plays in determining consumer attitudes/beliefs regarding various questionable consumer practices. Additionally, other personal factors were examined including idealism, relativism, consumer alienation and selected demographics such as income and age. All of these constructs were examined as antecedents of consumer ethical beliefs. The results of a post hoc analysis indicated that religiosity was a significant determinate of both idealism and relativism, and since idealism and relativism determine consumer (...)
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  25. Scott J. Vitell, Joseph G. P. Paolillo & James L. Thomas (2003). The Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility. Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (1):63-86.
    This study examined the effect of various antecedent variables on marketers’ perceptions of the role of ethics and socialresponsibility in the overall success of the firm. Variables examined included Hofstede’s cultural dimensions (i.e., power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity, and Confucian dynamism), as well as corporate ethical values and enforcement ofan ethics code. Additionally, individual variables such as ethical idealism and relativism were included. Results indicated that most ofthese variables impacted marketers’ perceptions of the importance of ethics and social responsibility, (...)
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  26. Joseph G. P. Paolillo & Scott J. Vitell (2002). An Empirical Investigation of the Influence of Selected Personal, Organizational and Moral Intensity Factors on Ethical Decision Making. Journal of Business Ethics 35 (1):65 - 74.
    This exploratory study of ethical decision making by individuals in organizations found moral intensity, as defined by Jones (1991), to significantly influence ethical decision making intentions of managers. Moral intensity explained 37% and 53% of the variance in ethical decision making in two decision-making scenarios. In part, the results of this research support our theoretical understanding of ethical/unethical decision-making and serve as a foundation for future research.
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  27. Scott J. Vitell (2001). Introduction to Special Issue on Marketing Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 32 (1):1 - 2.
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  28. Kumar C. Rallapalli, Scott J. Vitell & Sheryl Szeinbach (2000). Marketers' Norms and Personal Values: An Empirical Study of Marketing Professionals. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 24 (1):65 - 75.
    This study explores the relationships among marketers' deontological norms and their personal values. Based on the review of theoretical works in the area of marketing, hypotheses concerning the relationships among marketers' norms and their personal values were developed and tested. Data were collected from 249 marketing professionals. Results from canonical correlation analysis generally indicate that marketers' norms can be partly explained by personal values. Marketers' pricing and distribution norms, information and contract norms, and norms pertaining to marketers' honesty and integrity (...)
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  29. Scott J. Vitell, Erin Baca Dickerson & Troy A. Festervand (2000). Ethical Problems, Conflicts and Beliefs of Small Business Professionals. Journal of Business Ethics 28 (1):15 - 24.
    This paper presents the results of a national study of the beliefs and perceptions of small business professionals concerning ethics within their company and business in general. The study examined their views on the relationship between success and ethical conduct as well as the extent and nature of ethical conflicts experienced by the respondents. Some comparisons are made with similar studies that have been conducted in the past. Respondents have the most ethical conflicts with customers and employees, and with regard (...)
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  30. Scott J. Vitell, Erin Baca Dickerson & Troy A. Festervand (2000). Nobuyuki Chikudate/a Phenomenological Approach to Inquiring Into an Ethically Bankrupted Organization: A Case Study of a Japanese Company Aileen Smith and Violet Rogers/Ethics-Related Responses to Specific Situation Vignettes: Evidence of Gender-Based Differences and Occupational Socialization. Journal of Business Ethics 28:389-390.
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  31. Duffy A. Morf, Michael G. Schumacher & Scott J. Vitell (1999). A Survey of Ethics Officers in Large Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 20 (3):265 - 271.
    Corporations in the United States have been starting ethics programs for a variety of reasons both active and passive. Ethics officers are being charged with improving both company image and the level of ethical decision-making by employees. Thirty ethics officers from Fortune 500 firms were surveyed to develop a database of their duties and the companies' commitment to ethical standards. The results suggest much is being done, both in the diversity of responses and the similarities of commitment and duties.
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  32. Lou E. Pelton, Jhinuk Chowdhury & Scott J. Vitell (1999). A Framework for the Examination of Relational Ethics: An Interactionist Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 19 (3):241 - 253.
    Despite the widespread agreement that the ontology of the marketing discipline is exchange, marketing ethics researchers have largely adopted a monadic viewpoint of ethical decision making. In this research, an interactionist approach is adopted in order to introduce a dyadic perspective of un/ethical decision making. The dyadic model includes each channel member's individual, situational and decision process factors linked by relationalism, an emerging paradigm in marketing channels. Relationalism is represented as a discriminating variable between perceived ethical dilemma and decision behaviour. (...)
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  33. Anusorn Singhapakdi & Scott J. Vitell (1999). From the Guest Editors International Marketing Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 18 (1):1 - 2.
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  34. Anusorn Singhapakdi, Scott J. Vitell, C. P. Rao & David L. Kurtz (1999). Ethics Gap: Comparing Marketers with Consumers on Important Determinants of Ethical Decision-Making. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 21 (4):317 - 328.
    Studies in marketing ethics often revealed that ethical gaps do exist between marketers and other groups in society. The existence of these ethical gaps could be extremely counterproductive for marketing management. In order to effectively narrow these gaps, a marketing manager must first have a better understanding of causes of these gaps. To this end, this study compares marketing professionals with consumers on some important determinants of the ethical decision-making process. In particular, the marketers and consumers were compared with respect (...)
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  35. Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas, Gordon L. Patzer & Scott J. Vitell (1998). A Cross-Cultural Investigation of the Ethical Values of Consumers: The Potential Effect of War and Civil Disruption. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 17 (4):435 - 448.
    Past research has examined the ethical judgments of consumers in the U.S., but few studies have investigated such attitudes in foreign-market settings. The current study compares ethical attitudes of consumers in two countries (Ireland and Lebanon) which share a cultural similarity of ongoing war and terrorism. The findings reveal that both cultures exhibit low sensitivity to ethical issues. Furthermore, the findings show that the Irish consumers are less sensitive to consumer ethical practices, less idealistic, more relativistic, and more Machiavellian than (...)
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  36. Saviour L. S. Nwachukwu & Scott J. Vitell (1997). The Influence of Corporate Culture on Managerial Ethical Judgments. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (8):757-776.
    The contention that organizational culture influences ethical decision making is not disputable. However, the extent to which it influences ethical decision making in the workplace is a topic for scholarly debate and investigation. There are scholars who argue that, though corporate values are a powerful force in explaining the behavior of individuals and groups within organizations, these values are unperceived, unspoken, and taken for granted. However, there are others who argue that the formalization of corporate values facilitates job and role (...)
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  37. Scott J. Vitell & Foo Nin Ho (1997). Ethical Decision Making in Marketing: A Synthesis and Evaluation of Scales Measuring the Various Components of Decision Making in Ethical Situations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 16 (7):699-717.
    The authors present a comprehensive synthesis and evaluation of the published scales measuring the components of the decision making process in ethical situations using the Hunt-Vitell (1993) theory of ethics as a framework to guide the research. Suggestions for future scale development are also provided.
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  38. Anusorn Singhapakdi, C. P. Rao & Scott J. Vitell (1996). Ethical Decision Making: An Investigation of Services Marketing Professionals. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 15 (6):635 - 644.
    This study investigates the relative influences of professional values and selected demographic variables on the ethical perceptions of services marketing professionals. The relationship between ethical perceptions and ethical judgments of service marketers is also examined. The data were obtained from a mail survey of the American Marketing Association's professional members of service industries. The survey results indicate a positive relationship between a service professional's professional values and his/her perceptions of ethical problems. The results also suggest that ethical judgments of a (...)
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  39. Anusorn Singhapakdi, Scott J. Vitell, Kumar C. Rallapalli & Kenneth L. Kraft (1996). The Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility: A Scale Development. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 15 (11):1131 - 1140.
    Marketers must first perceive ethics and social responsibility to be important before their behaviors are likely to become more ethical and reflect greater social responsibility. However, little research has been conducted concerning marketers' perceptions regarding the importance of ethics and social responsibility as components of business decisions. The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid scale for measuring marketers' perceptions regarding the importance of ethics and social responsibility. The authors develop an instrument for the measurement of (...)
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  40. Kumar C. Rallapalli, Scott J. Vitell, Frank A. Wiebe & James H. Barnes (1994). Consumer Ethical Beliefs and Personality Traits: An Exploratory Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 13 (7):487 - 495.
    The present study examines the relationships between consumers'' ethical beliefs and personality traits. Based on a survey of 295 undergraduate business students, the authors found that individuals with high needs for autonomy, innovation, and aggression, as well as individuals with a high propensity for taking risks tend to have less ethical beliefs concerning possible consumer actions. Individuals with a high need for social desirability and individuals with a strong problem solving coping style tend to have more ethical beliefs concerning possible (...)
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  41. Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas, Scott J. Vitell & Jamal A. Al-Khatib (1994). Consumer Ethics: The Possible Effects of Terrorism and Civil Unrest on the Ethical Values of Consumers. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 13 (3):223 - 231.
    Research investigating the consumer's ethical beliefs, ideologies and orientation has been limited. Additionally, despite the repeated call in the literature for cross cultural research, virtually no studies have examined the ethical beliefs and ideologies of consumers from cultures other than those in North America. This study partially fills this gap in the literature by investigating the ethical beliefs, preferred ethical ideology, and degree of Machiavellianism of consumers from Egypt and Lebanon. The results indicate that consumers in Lebanon, which has been (...)
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  42. Anusorn Singhapakdi & Scott J. Vitell (1993). Personal and Professional Values Underlying the Ethical Judgments of Marketers. Journal of Business Ethics 12 (7):525 - 533.
    This study explores the relative influences of two levels of value orientations, personal values and professional values, underlying the ethical judgments of marketing practitioners. The data were obtained from a mail survey of the American Marketing Association''s professional members. The results generally indicate that a marketer''s ethical judgments can be partially explained by his/her personal and professional values.
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  43. Scott J. Vitell (1993). Personal Values Underlying the Moral Philosophies of Marketing Professionals. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 12 (1):91-106.
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  44. Scott J. Vitell, Saviour L. Nwachukwu & James H. Barnes (1993). The Effects of Culture on Ethical Decision-Making: An Application of Hofstede's Typology. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 12 (10):753 - 760.
    This paper addresses a significant gap in the conceptualization of business ethics within different cultural influences. Though theoretical models of business ethics have recognized the importance of culture in ethical decision-making, few have examinedhow this influences ethical decision-making. Therefore, this paper develops propositions concerning the influence of various cultural dimensions on ethical decision-making using Hofstede''s typology.
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  45. Scott J. Vitell & James Muncy (1992). Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Investigation of Factors Influencing Ethical Judgments of the Final Consumer. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 11 (8):585 - 597.
    Business and marketing ethics have come to the forefront in recent years. While consumers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of ethical business and marketing practices, research has been minimal with regard to their ethical beliefs and ideologies. This research investigates general attitudes of consumers relative to business, government and people in general, and compares these attitudes to their beliefs concerning various questionable consumer practices. The results show that consumers'' ethical beliefs are determined, in part, by who is at fault (...)
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  46. Scott J. Vitell, James R. Lumpkin & Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas (1991). Consumer Ethics: An Investigation of the Ethical Beliefs of Elderly Consumers. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 10 (5):365 - 375.
    Business and especially marketing ethics have come to the forefront in recent years. While consumers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of ethical business and marketing practices, research has been minimal with regard to their perceptions of ethical consumer practices. In addition, few studies have examined the ethical beliefs of elderly consumers even though they are an important and rapidly growing segment. This research investigates the relationship between Machiavellianism, ethical ideology and ethical beliefs for elderly consumers. The results indicate that (...)
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  47. Scott J. Vitell, Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas & Troy A. Festervand (1991). The Business Ethics of Pharmacists: Conflicts Practices and Beliefs. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 10 (4):295 - 301.
    This paper represents the responses of 377 pharmacists to a mail survey examining their views concerning ethical conflicts and practices. Besides identifying the sources of ethical conflicts, pharmacists were asked how ethical standards have changed over the last 10 years as well as the factors influencing these changes. Conclusions and implications are outlined and future research needs are examined.
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  48. Scott J. Vitell & Anusorn Singhapakdi (1991). Factors Influencing the Perceived Importance of Stakeholder Groups in Situations Involving Ethical Issues. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 10 (3):53-72.
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