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  1.  18
    The Legitimacy of CSR Actions of Publicly Traded Companies Versus Family-Owned Companies.Rajat Panwar, Karen Paul, Erlend Nybakk, Eric Hansen & Derek Thompson - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (3):1-16.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is one of the ways through which companies gain legitimacy. However, CSR actions themselves are subject to public skepticism because of increased public awareness of greenwashing and scandalous corporate behavior. Legitimacy of CSR actions is indeed influenced by the actions of the company but also is rooted in the basic cultural values of a society and in the ideologies of evaluators. This study examines the legitimacy of CSR actions of publicly traded forest products companies as compared (...)
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  2.  5
    Understanding Instrumental Motivations for Social Responsibility Engagement in a Micro‐Firm Context.Erlend Nybakk & Rajat Panwar - 2015 - Business Ethics: A European Review 24 (1):18-33.
    Firms engage in social responsibility activities for diverse reasons. This study focuses on understanding firms' instrumental motivations for engaging in socially responsible activities. We suggest that the instrumental motivations underlying firms' corporate social responsibility engagement are associated with their market, learning, and risk-related behaviors; thus, we identify market orientation, learning orientation, and risk-taking attitudes as three constructs that influence firms' CSR engagement. This research was conducted in the Norwegian firewood sector, in which CSR expectations are high and in which we (...)
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  3.  2
    Evaluating Social and Environmental Issues by Integrating the Legitimacy Gap With Expectational Gaps: An Empirical Assessment of the Forest Industry.Robert Kozak, Eric Hansen & Rajat Panwar - 2014 - Business and Society 53 (6):853-875.
    This article adopts an issues management approach to corporate social responsibility implementation. Issues evaluation, which is an integral component of issues management, can be conducted by using the concept of three expectational gaps. However, the concept of expectational gaps suffers from an ambiguity that limits its application to issues evaluation. The legitimacy gap concept is used in this article to clarify the ambiguity surrounding expectational gaps. The study thus develops a four-gap framework for conducting a quantitative issues evaluation. This framework (...)
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  4.  4
    Does the Business Case Matter? The Effect of a Perceived Business Case on Small Firms’ Social Engagement.Rajat Panwar, Erlend Nybakk, Eric Hansen & Jonatan Pinkse - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (3):597-608.
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  5.  21
    Where Does Legitimacy Come From? The Role of Company Ownership Type, Perceived Capacity, and Ideology.Karen Paul & Rajat Panwar - 2012 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 23:240-249.
    Business legitimacy is important for any business, especially in times of economic downturn and increased media attention on corporate scandals. However,legitimacy is a quality that comes from society itself, sometimes influenced by the actions or image of the firm, but also rooted in the basic cultural values of the population. This study takes “legitimacy gap” as its dependent variable, defining it as the difference between expected and observed levels of social and environmental performance for both publicly-traded and family-owned business. The (...)
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  6.  9
    Pristine Neighborhoods, Progressive Neighbors.Jennifer DeBoer, Rajat Panwar & Jorge Rivera - 2016 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 27:58-71.
    Management research has extensively considered who, what, when, why, which, and how aspects pertaining to firms’ proactive environmental strategies, yet where aspects have received remarkably less attention. Building on institutional theory and economic geography, we explore three place-based research questions relating social and physical attributes of a place with a firm’s proactive environmental strategies. We contribute to a better understanding of the role of place in three ways. First, we find that geographic concentration of environmentally proactive firms is positively related (...)
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  7.  19
    Churning the Earth: The Making of Global India by Aseem Shrivastava and Ashish Kothari.Rajat Panwar - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics Education 9:493-495.
  8.  6
    Competitive Strategies and Small Firms’ Social Responsibilities.Rajat Panwar, Erlend Nybakk, Jonatan Pinkse & Eric Hansen - 2015 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 26:99-111.
    The literature has long addressed the question if corporate social responsibility can help a firm differentiate from competition and reduce its costs of doing business, ultimately leading to a sustainable competitive advantage. These two possible CSR outcomes, differentiation and cost leadership, also represent the two paths that firms could take in their strategic pursuits. Despite this apparent synergy between a firm’s strategic path and CSR, previous studies have not explored whether firm strategic choices have a bearing upon their level of (...)
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  9.  8
    A Framework Evaluating Social and Environmental Issues.Rajat Panwar, Eric Hansen & Rob Kozak - 2009 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 20:153-159.
    This paper proposes that issues evaluation can be conducted by a framework which integrates the concept of a legitimacy gap with expectational gaps (factual, conformance, and ideal gaps). Using this framework, this paper empirically demonstrates the existence of expectational gaps in the context of the forest products industry by means of a quantitative survey. Results indicate that significant expectational gaps exist. This framework may have relevance for both issues management and legitimacy scholars.
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