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  1. G. Stuart Adam, Stephanie Craft & Elliot D. Cohen (2004). Three Essays on Journalism and Virtue. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 19 (3 & 4):247 – 275.
    In these essays, we are concerned with virtue in journalism and the media but are mindful of the tension between the commercial foundations of publishing and broadcasting, on the one hand, and journalism's democratic obligations on the other. Adam outlines, first, a moral vision of journalism focusing on individualistic concepts of authorship and craft. Next, Craft attempts to bridge individual and organizational concerns by examining the obligations of organizations to the individuals working within them. Finally, Cohen discusses the importance of (...)
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  2. Lauren Aiello & Jennifer M. Proffitt (2008). VNR Usage: A Matter of Regulation or Ethics? Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (3):219 – 234.
    This paper explores the use of video news releases (VNRs) without source disclosure from legal and ethical perspectives. In light of current regulatory debates regarding VNRs, the paper first examines whether journalists' use of corporate VNRs without source disclosure violates FCC regulations. It then questions the ethics of using such VNRs by examining the current code of ethics for both the public relations practitioners creating VNRs and the news organizations airing them. The paper uses the ethical construct of transparency to (...)
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  3. Robert Albin (2008). Journalists as Agents of Cultural Change. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 21 (2):265-274.
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  4. Robert Albin (2007). Journalists as Agents of Cultural Change: From Rationality Back to Nature. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 21 (2):265-274.
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which journalism—print and electronic—shapes our cultural fabric and modes of discourse. Journalists report facts and comment on them in a provocative style. They stimulate us with captivating images and colorful language, shifting our minds from a more intellectual contemplation of reality. Finally, journalists bring death into our lives through grim pictures of wars and natural disasters. I suggest that these relatively recent trends in journalism are responsible for a gradual (...)
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  5. Robert Albin (2004). A Chronicle of the Decline of Rationality: Ethics in the Practice of Journalism. HaKibutz HaMeuchad & Sapir College Publishing.
    The book examines the ethical aspect of journalistic activity in an attempt to understand and render explicit the values which guide journalists in their work, but it emphasizes the point that while such values reflect society's existing professional mores, this particular profession is also placed in such a way as to shape the consciousness and values of those who consume its working product. The central question of this work has to do with the ethical implications of journalistic activity, and more (...)
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  6. David S. Allen (2008). Professional Virtue and the Public Sphere. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (4):320 – 322.
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  7. David S. Allen (1995). Separating the Press and the Public. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 10 (4):197 – 209.
    This article analyzes testimony before four Congressional subcommittees, between 1972 and 1975, on a proposed federal shield law. it is argued that within the testimony the press articulates a public, professional mission, but it fails to clearly define who qualifies for protection as a journalist. Following Jurgen Habermas's idea of communicative ethics, it is suggested that the testimony reveals how closely journalism is tied to the public sphere, but also how questions of journalistic practice are raised outside of that public (...)
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  8. Marianne Allison (1986). A Literature Review of Approaches to the Professionalism of Journalists. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 1 (2):5 – 19.
    This literature review of professionalism was prepared by San Jose State University graduate student Marianne Allison as a research committee project of the Mass Communication and Society Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. The project was prepared under the guidance of Professor Diana Stover Tillinghast. It reviews the literature on two approaches to professionalism in general and of the professionalism of journalists in particular: the ?structural?functionalist approach?; and the ?power approach.?; Traditional and recent discussions of the nature (...)
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  9. Evelyn Alsultany (2012). Protesting Muslim Americans as Patriotic Americans: The All-American Muslim Controversy. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 27 (2):145 - 148.
    Journal of Mass Media Ethics, Volume 27, Issue 2, Page 145-148, April-June.
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  10. J. Herbert Altschull (1996). A Crisis of Conscience: Is Community Journalism the Answer? Journal of Mass Media Ethics 11 (3):166 – 172.
    With lost credibility, ratings, and circulation, journalism faces a crisis of conscience. One answer is participatory community journalism; journalists become activists on behalfofthe process of self-government. A veteran journalist and author of Agents of Power, Altschull questions the press's arrogance, its faith in objectivity, and its unvarying insistence on its First Amendment rights, and asks instead that the public interest be put ahead of the maximization of profit, that media help to mediate public issues, and that the public be allowed (...)
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  11. Sally M. Alvarez (2000). The Global Economy and Kathie Lee: Public Relations and Media. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 15 (2):77 – 88.
    In a congressional hearing in the spring of 1996, talk show host Kathie Lee Gifford was charged with endorsing clothing made in Honduran sweatshops by exploited children. Resulting media coverage focused public attention on a seamy underside of the "global economy." Redemption strategies used by Gifford and her public relations consultant, and repeated and promoted through the mass media, fed a larger controversy over the meaning of the concept of the global economy and its ethical implications for the American public.
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  12. Elyse Amend, Linda Kay & Rosemary C. Reilly (2012). Journalism on the Spot: Ethical Dilemmas When Covering Trauma and the Implications for Journalism Education. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 27 (4):235-247.
    When covering traumatic events, novice journalists frequently face situations they are rarely prepared to resolve. This paper highlights ethical dilemmas faced by journalists who participated in a focus group exploring the news media's trauma coverage. Major themes included professional obligations versus ethical responsibilities, journalists' perceived status and roles, permissible harms, and inexperience. Instructional classroom simulations based on experiential learning theory can bridge the gap between the theory of ethical trauma reporting and realities journalists face when covering events that are often (...)
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  13. Rob Anderson & Robert Dardenne (1996). The American Newspaper as the Public Conversational Commons. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 11 (3):159 – 165.
    Most scholars in political theory and sociology have dismissed journalism as an institutional force in the public sphere, in part because of journalists' largely self-defined and curiously marginalized role as a mere transmission apparatus for traditional news. The authors advocate a philosophy ofpublic journalism faithful to the commons, in which newspapers become a site for public dialogue accessible to all citizens, where positions that could not or would not be explored elsewhere are advanced, argued, assessed, and acted upon.
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  14. Judith Andre (1983). “Censorship”. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 1 (4):25-32.
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  15. Judith Andre, Leonard Fleck & Tom Tomlinson (1999). Improving Our Aim. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (2):130 – 147.
    Bioethicists appearing in the media have been accused of "shooting from the hip" (Rachels, 1991). The criticism is sometimes justified. We identify some reasons our interactions with the press can have bad results and suggest remedies. In particular we describe a target (fostering better public dialogue), obstacles to hitting the target (such as intrinsic and accidental defects in our knowledge) and suggest some practical ways to surmont those obstacles (including seeking out ways to write or speak at length, rather than (...)
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  16. Darla M. Antoine (2011). Unethical Acts: Treating Native Men as Lurking Threat, Leaving Native Women Without Voice. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 26 (3):243 - 245.
    Journal of Mass Media Ethics, Volume 26, Issue 3, Page 243-245, July-September.
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  17. Lawrence Apps (1990). Media Ethics in Australia. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 5 (2):117 – 135.
    Codified ethics for journalists in Australia has a long history, almost as long as that in the United States. Unlike the United States, however, Australia has a unified code of ethics, that of the Australian Journalists' Association, which is generally accepted by the whole industry, both print and broadcast. But over the last 20 years, media consumers have shown they have a poor and declining view of the ethics of Australian journalists, despite the checks and balances that exist. Recent signs, (...)
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  18. M. David Arant & Philip Meyer (1998). Public and Traditional Journalism: A Shift in Values? Journal of Mass Media Ethics 13 (4):205 – 218.
    In a survey of newspaper staff members shows that, although implementation of public journalism projects is widespread at U.S. daily newspapers, tibe majority of jou!rnalists still adhere to traditional values in journalism practice and do not support public journalism values that depart from traditional journalism. Criticism of public journalism is that it poses a danger to traditional professional values of independence and objectivity. In the great majority of comparisons, we found thot journalists supporting certain public journalism practices were at least (...)
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  19. Ronald C. Arnett (2011). Multiplicity, Complexity, and the Necessity of Limits. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 26 (2):176 - 178.
    Journal of Mass Media Ethics, Volume 26, Issue 2, Page 176-178, April-June.
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  20. Seth Ashley (2009). No Impact Man (2009). Directed by Laura Gabbert & Justin Schein. 93 Min. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 24 (4):313-315.
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  21. Syed Irfan Ashraf (2013). Rejecting the Binary Opposition Between Alternative and Mainstream Media. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 28 (4):305-306.
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  22. Joseph B. Atkins (ed.) (2002). The Mission: Journalism, Ethics and the World. Iowa State University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Contributors ix -- Foreword by Douglas A. Boyd andJoseph D. Straubhaar xiii -- Preface byMariaHenson xv -- Acknowledgments xvii -- Part I. Introduction 1 -- Chapter 1. Journalism as a Mission: Ethics and Purpose -- from an International Perspective -- by Joseph B. Atkins 3 -- Chapter 2. Chaos and Order: Sacrificing the Individual for the -- Sake of Social Harmony -- by John C. Merrill 17 -- Part II. In the United States and Latin America (...)
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  23. Roy Alden Atwood (1988). “The Allied Controversy” and the Ethics of Journalism Education in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 3 (1):7 – 17.
    The perennial debate over how much influence industry should have on media education took a new twist in the Pacific Northwest recently when Allied Dailies, a regional newspaper association, launched a controversial program to evaluate area journalism schools. Cooperative schools were promised financial aid and in?kind services; uncooperative schools were threatened with ?benign neglect.?; Educators have given the program mixed reviews: they welcome improved relations between professionals and educators ? but not at the price of coercion, proscription, or loss of (...)
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  24. James Aucoin (1996). Implications of Audience Ethics for the Mass Communicator. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 11:69-81.
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  25. James Aucoin (1993). Journalism, Narrative and Community. Professional Ethics 2 (1/2):67-88.
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  26. James Aucoin (1992). The Arizona Project as a Macintyrean Moment. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 7 (3):169 – 183.
    Some of the best journalism - investigative reporting in particular - results from personal feelings of wanting revenge, which can be an aspect of the ethical duty to promote justice. It may be either wanting revenge for a wrong against society or rather against journalism and freedom of speech and press. Using the Arizona Project as an example in which investigative reporters and editors responded to the murder of reporter Don Bolles, I suggest that journalists, adhering to the virtues of (...)
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  27. William A. Babcock (2010). Bad Ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 25 (1):85 – 86.
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  28. William Babcock & Virginia Whitehouse (2005). Celebrity as a Postmodern Phenomenon, Ethical Crisis for Democracy, and Media Nightmare. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (2 & 3):176 – 191.
    In the postmodern world, the value of knowledge itself is questioned, and by extension those who claim to be authorities on that knowledge. As a result, Arnold Schwarzenegger as action hero is just as credible as Arnold Schwarzenegger as governor, thus redefining the meaning of an informed citizen. If Arnold Schwarzenegger can rescue entire planets, then why can voters not assume that he will be able to save California? The blame for this theoretical shift belongs not with the broader entertainment (...)
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  29. Richard Terrill Baker (1961). The Christian as a Journalist. New York, Association Press.
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  30. Sherry Baker (2008). The Model of the Principled Advocate and the Pathological Partisan: A Virtue Ethics Construct of Opposing Archetypes of Public Relations and Advertising Practitioners. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (3):235 – 253.
    Drawing upon contemporary virtue ethics theory, The Model of The Principled Advocate and The Pathological Partisan is introduced. Profiles are developed of diametrically opposed archetypes of public relations and advertising practitioners. The Principled Advocate represents the advocacy virtues of humility, truth, transparency, respect, care, authenticity, equity, and social responsibility. The Pathological Partisan represents the opposing vices of arrogance, deceit, secrecy, manipulation, disregard, artifice, injustice, and raw self-interest. One becomes either a Principled Advocate or a Pathological Partisan by habitually enacting or (...)
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  31. Sherry Baker (2007). Commentary 2: A Case of Covert Persuasion. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 22 (2 & 3):221 – 225.
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  32. Sherry Baker (1999). Five Baselines for Justification in Persuasion. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 14 (2):69 – 81.
    A framework is introduced consisting of five baselines of ethical justification for professional persuasive communications. The models (self-interest, entitlement, enlightened self-interest, social responsibility, and kingdom of ends) provide a conceptual structure by which to identify and analyze the ethical reasoning, underlying justifications, motivations, and decision making in professional persuasive practices (advertising, public relations, marketing). Although the emphasis of this article is on defining the constructs, their ethical soundness as justification for persuasive practices and their usefulness in establishing direction and methodologies (...)
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  33. Sherry Baker (1998). Creative Ethical Thinking in Canada: A Book Review by Sherry Baker. [REVIEW] Journal of Mass Media Ethics 13 (3):199-199.
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  34. Sherry Baker (1998). Book Review: Creative Ethical Thinking in Canada: A Book Review by Sherry Baker. [REVIEW] Journal of Mass Media Ethics 13 (3):199.
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  35. Sherry Baker (1997). Applying Kidder's Ethical Decision-Making Checklist to Media Ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 12 (4):197 – 210.
    Kidder's checklistfor ethical decrsion making is recommended as an addition to the existing canon of modelsfor mass media ethics. Contributions in Kidder's approach include his dichotomy between ethical dilemmas m d moral temptations, his tests for right-versus-wrong and right-versus-right issues, his framework by which to clarify values in ethical dilemmas, nnd his sequencing of the decision-making process. Kidder's model is surnmnrized nnd discussed, revisions are suggested for classroom use in medin ethics courses, nnd tke revised model is applied to media (...)
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  36. Sherry Baker & David L. Martinson (2001). The Tares Test: Five Principles for Ethical Persuasion. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (2 & 3):148 – 175.
    Whereas professional persuasion is a means to an immediate and instrumental end (such as increased sales or enhanced corporate image), ethical persuasion must rest on or serve a deeper, morally based final (or relative last) end. Among the moral final ends of journalism, for example, are truth and freedom. There is a very real danger that advertisers and public relations practitioners will play an increasingly dysfunctional role in the communications process if means continue to be confused with ends in professional (...)
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  37. Jacqui Banaszynski (2010). Conflicting Loyalties and Personal Choices. In Christopher Meyers (ed.), Journalism Ethics: A Philosophical Approach. Oxford University Press. 237--247.
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  38. Fackson Banda (2008). Negotiating Journalism Ethics in Zambia : Towards a "Glocal" Ethics. In Stephen J. A. Ward & Herman Wasserman (eds.), Media Ethics Beyond Borders: A Global Perspective. Heinemann. 124--142.
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  39. Wendy Barger (2003). Moral Language in Newspaper Commentary: A Kohlbergian Analysis. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (1):29 – 43.
    This study begins with the question of whether the press is conveying messages that help readers in their moral development. Using a Kohlbergian model, this study explores the question by analyzing the moral language in columns and letters to the editor from three Oregon newspapers. The study's content analysis reveals that most arguments presented in the opinion section of the three papers are done so at either Kohlberg's preconventional or conventional levels.
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  40. Wendy Barger (2003). Voice for America? International Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (1):47-58.
    In April 2002, New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for a series of columns he wrote in the months following September 11. On the surface, the columns seemed to fit Cummins Gauthier’s criteria for public grieving: they engaged readers emotionally; they empathized with victims and survivors; and they helped readers develop moral attitudes, opinions and responses. However, in analyzing the columns from a feminist ethic of care perspective—one that expands the boundaries of the moral community (...)
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  41. Wendy Wyatt Barger (2005). True Confessions of The New York Times. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (1):27-44.
    On the morning of May 26, 2004, New York Times readers found a note from the paper’s editors on Page A10. The headline read “From the Editors—The Times and Iraq,” and the 1,000-word article that followed served as a disclosure that the Times had failed in its duty of both aggressive information gathering and careful reporting with a critical eye. Response to the note was fast and widespread as newspeople across the country commented on the paper’s public admission of its (...)
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  42. Wendy Barger & Ralph D. Barney (2004). Media-Citizen Reciprocity as a Moral Mandate. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 19 (3 & 4):191 – 206.
    A participatory democracy necessarily minimizes legal restraints on its citizens, substituting, for the common good, moral obligations to contribute with their activities. This article argues that a democratic society is endangered unless both media and citizens accept reciprocal moral obligations related to the distribution and use of information. Journalists are expected to facilitate distribution of information and engage citizens usefully in the knowledge process, fueling the participatory engine that drives a democracy. Citizens, in return, have a reciprocal obligation to expose (...)
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  43. Dennis Barker (2007). Tricks Journalists Play: How the Truth is Massaged, Distorted, Glamorized and Glossed Over. Giles de la Mare.
    This hard-hitting expose; discusses the erosion of standards and values in the media world of newspapers, TV, and radio over the past 20 years—in particular those of integrity, independence, thought, and accuracy. The general public is becoming increasingly aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in media journalism, which is highlighted by the periodic distortions caused by the political ambitions of chief executives and tycoons, misleading headlines, and its extraordinary obsession with celebrity culture. This study is essential reading for the (...)
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  44. Ralph D. Barney (1997). "Journals" as Dialogue Assignments in Ethics Courses. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 12 (4):243 – 245.
    A series of short papers assigned to help some students begin a nonthreatening dialogue with their ethics instructor is used as an option to the traditional research term paper.
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  45. Ralph D. Barney (1996). Community Journalism: Good Intentions, Questionable Practice. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 11 (3):140 – 151.
    Despite its attraction for journalists and others, communitarianism corrupts a liberal democracy and denies a community the ability to make reason-based decisions by becoming highly rule oriented and static with self-protection as the driving motive. Civic or public journalism that retains its pluralistic characteristics may still encourage moral development of individuals, particularly journalists, to assure a dynamic society. Communitarian journalism, however, devalues truth in favor of community loyalty and conformity at the expense of individual moral development.
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  46. Julia Bauder (ed.) (2008). Media Ethics. Greenhaven Press.
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  47. Fred Beard (2007). Commentary 3: The Ethicality of in-Text Advertising. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 22 (4):356 – 359.
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  48. Regan Becker, Paul Lester & Sherry Baker (2003). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (1):68 – 78.
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  49. Andrew Belsey & Ruth F. Chadwick (eds.) (1992). Ethical Issues in Journalism and the Media. Routledge.
    This book examines the ethical concepts which lie at the heart of journalism, including freedom, democracy, truth, objectivity, honesty and privacy.
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  50. David Benfield (2007). Mattlage on Copyright Relinquishment. Journal of Information Ethics 16 (2):31-33.
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