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  1.  1
    Who Would the Person Be After a Head Transplant? A Confucian Reflection.Lin Bian & Ruiping Fan - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):210-229.
    This essay draws on classical Confucian intellectual resources to argue that the person who emerges from a head transplant would be neither the person who provided the head, nor the person who provided the body, but a new, different person. We construct two types of argument to support this conclusion: one is based on the classical Confucian metaphysics of human life as qi activity; the other is grounded in the Confucian view of personal identity as being inseparable from one’s familial (...)
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  2. What Happens If the Brain Goes Elsewhere? Reflections on Head Transplantation and Personal Embodiment.Mark J. Cherry - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):240-256.
    Brain transplants have long been no more than the subject of science fiction and engaging thought experiments. That is no longer true. Neuroscientists have announced their intention to transplant the head of a volunteer onto a donated body. Response has been decidedly mixed. How should we think about the moral permissibility of head transplants? Is it a life-saving/life-enhancing opportunity that appropriately expands the boundaries of medical practice? Or, is it a bioethical morass that ought not to be attempted? For the (...)
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  3.  4
    Whole-Body/Head Transplantation: Personal Identity, Experimental Surgery, and Bioethics.Mark J. Cherry & Ruiping Fan - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):179-188.
    This issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy brings together an international group of scholars from Hong Kong, Mainland China, and North America, critically to explore whole-body/head transplantation. The proposed procedure raises significant philosophical, ethical, and social/political questions. For example, assuming transplant is successful, who survives the surgery? Does personal identity necessarily follow the head? The contributors to this special thematic issue explore the nature and ground of personal identity, what it would mean to preserve personal identity, given such (...)
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  4.  7
    Losing One’s Head or Gaining a New Body?Jason T. Eberl - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):189-209.
    A surgical head-transplant technique, HEAVEN, promises to offer significantly improved quality of life for quadriplegics and others whose minds are functional, but whose bodies require artificial support to continue living. HEAVEN putatively actualizes a thought-experiment long debated by philosophers concerning the definition of personhood and criterion of personal identity through time and change. HEAVEN’s advocates presume to preserve the identity of the person whose head is transplanted onto another’s living body, leaving one’s previous body behind as one would their corpse. (...)
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  5.  4
    Nosological Diagnosis, Theories of Categorization, and Argumentations by Analogy.Francesco Gagliardi - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):311-330.
    The nosological diagnosis is a particular type of nontheoretical diagnosis consisting of identifying the disease that afflicts the patient without explaining the underlying etiopathological mechanisms. Its origins are within the essentialist point of view on the nature of diseases, which dates back at least to 18th-century taxonomy studies. In this article, we propose a model of nosological diagnosis as a two-phase process composed of the categorization of inductive inferences and argumentations by analogy. In the inductive phase, disease entities are identified (...)
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  6.  5
    Heads, Bodies, Brains, and Selves: Personal Identity and the Ethics of Whole-Body Transplantation.Ana Iltis - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):257-278.
    Plans to attempt what has been called a head transplant, a body transplant, and a head-to-body transplant in human beings raise numerous ethical, social, and legal questions, including the circumstances, if any, under which it would be ethically permissible to attempt whole-body transplantation in human beings, the possible effect of WBT on family relationships, and how families should shape WBT decisions. Our assessment of many of these questions depends partially on how we respond to sometimes centuries-old philosophical thought experiments about (...)
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  7.  6
    A Dilemma for Respecting Autonomy: Bridge Technologies and the Hazards of Sequential Decision-Making.Aidan Kestigian & Alex John London - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):293-310.
    Respect for patient autonomy can apply at two levels: ensuring that patient care reflects their considered values and wishes and honoring patient preferences about how to make momentous decisions. Caregivers who seek to respect patient autonomy in the context of some end-of-life decisions face a dilemma. Because these decisions are fraught, patients may prefer to approach them sequentially, only making decisions at the time they arise. However, respecting patients’ preferences for a sequential approach can increase the likelihood that surrogates and (...)
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  8.  1
    The Ethics of Head Transplant From the Confucian Perspective of Human Virtues.Jianhui Li & Yaming Li - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):230-239.
    Head transplantation has ignited intense discussions about whether it should be done scientifically and ethically. This paper examines the ethics of head transplantation from a Confucian perspective and offers arguments against the permissibility of head transplantation. From a Confucian point of view, human beings are the most precious organisms in the world, and ren and li are the basic moral principles of human beings. As long as head transplant technology remains underdeveloped, this procedure should not be done because it will (...)
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  9.  2
    Head Transplantation and Immortality: When Is Life Worth Living Forever?J. Clint Parker - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):279-292.
    Head transplantation fits within the broader conceptual space occupied by transhumanists and others who seek to extend the lives of human beings indefinitely. It is reasonable to reflect on whether, under what circumstances, and in what ways human immortality would be good. In this paper, I disambiguate the ways in which immortality might be considered a human good and then argue that immortality is neither necessary nor sufficient condition for objective meaning in life. I also argue that mortality is not (...)
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  10.  71
    Reconciling Regulation with Scientific Autonomy in Dual-Use Research.Nicholas G. Evans, Michael J. Selgelid & Robert Mark Simpson - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):72-94.
    In debates over the regulation of communication related to dual-use research, the risks that such communication creates must be weighed against against the value of scientific autonomy. The censorship of such communication seems justifiable in certain cases, given the potentially catastrophic applications of some dual-use research. This conclusion however, gives rise to another kind of danger: that regulators will use overly simplistic cost-benefit analysis to rationalize excessive regulation of scientific research. In response to this, we show how institutional design principles (...)
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  11.  1
    Access-to-Care and Conscience: Conflicting or Coherent?Joel L. Gamble & Nathan K. Gamble - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):54-71.
    “Intervention” is not synonymous with “care.” For an intervention to constitute care—which patients should have a right to access—it must be technically feasible and licit. Now these criteria do not prove sufficient; numerous archaic interventions remain feasible and legally permissible, yet are now bywords for spurious care. Therefore, we propound another necessary condition for an intervention to become care: the physician must rationally judge the intervention to be conducive to the patient’s good. Consequently, the right of access-to-care relies on physicians (...)
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  12.  8
    Why Intellectual Disability Poses a Challenge to the Received View of Capacity and a Potential Response.Abraham Graber & Andy Kreusel - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):117-136.
    While copious quantities of ink have been spilled on the topic of autonomy in the context of health care, little has been written about autonomy in relation to intellectual disability. After presenting the received account of capacity, we argue that it cannot account for the moral permissibility of limiting an individual with intellectual disability’s access to diet soda. In cases of preventative medicine and intellectual disability, the philosophical motivation for the received account of capacity is incompatible with the actions it (...)
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  13. The Ethical Duty to Reduce the Ecological Footprint of Industrialized Healthcare Services and Facilities.Corey Katz - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):32-53.
    According to the widely accepted principles of beneficence and distributive justice, I argue that healthcare providers and facilities have an ethical duty to reduce the ecological footprint of the services they provide. I also address the question of whether the reductions in footprint need or should be patient-facing. I review Andrew Jameton and Jessica Pierce’s claim that achieving ecological sustainability in the healthcare sector requires rationing the treatment options offered to patients. I present a number of reasons to think that (...)
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  14.  2
    The Phenomenology of Healing: Eight Ways of Dealing With the Ill and Impaired Body.Drew Leder - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):137-154.
    Encounters with illness, impairment, and aging can disrupt one’s experiential relationship with self, body, others, and world. “Healing” takes place when the individual is able to re-integrate his or her world, even if the condition is not medically curable. Drawing on work in the phenomenology of the body, this article examines a series of eight “healing strategies” individuals employ, each representing a different way of orienting toward the painful or impaired body. One may lean into freeing oneself from the body, (...)
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  15.  3
    Medical Ethics as Taught and as Practiced: Principlism, Narrative Ethics, and the Case of Living Donor Liver Transplantation.Daniel C. O’Brien - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):95-116.
    The dominant model for bioethical inquiry taught in medical schools is that of principlism. The heritage of this methodology can be traced to the Enlightenment project of generating a universalizable justification for normative morality arising from within the individual, rational agent. This project has been criticized by Alasdair MacIntyre who suggests that its failure has resulted in a fragmented and incoherent contemporary ethical framework characterized by fundamental intractability in moral debate. This incoherence implicates principlist conceptions of bioethics. Medical ethics as (...)
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  16.  2
    Bioethical Boundaries, Critiques of Current Paradigms, and the Importance of Transparency.J. Clint Parker - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):1-17.
    This issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy is dedicated to topics in clinical ethics with essays addressing clinician participation in state sponsored execution, duties to decrease ecological footprints in medicine, the concept of caring and its relationship to conscientious refusal, the dilemmas involved in dual use research, a philosophical and practical critique of principlism, conundrums that arise when applying surrogate decision-making models to patients with moderate intellectual disabilities, the phenomenology of chronic disease, and ethical concerns surrounding the use (...)
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  17.  1
    Health-Care Professionals and Lethal Injection: An Ethical Inquiry.Sarah K. Sawicki - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):18-31.
    The practice of health-care professional involvement in capital punishment has come under scrutiny since the implementation of lethal injection as a method of execution, raising questions of the goals of medicine and the ethics of medicalized procedures. The American Medical Association and other professional associations have issued statements prohibiting physician involvement in capital punishment because medicine is dedicated to preserving life. I address the three primary arguments against health-care professionals being involved in lethal injection and argue that they are not (...)
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  18.  5
    Doctor Ex Machina: A Critical Assessment of the Use of Artificial Intelligence in Health Care.Annika M. Svensson & Fabrice Jotterand - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):155-178.
    This article examines the potential implications of the implementation of artificial intelligence in health care for both its delivery and the medical profession. To this end, the first section explores the basic features of AI and the yet theoretical concept of autonomous AI followed by an overview of current and developing AI applications. Against this background, the second section discusses the transforming roles of physicians and changes in the patient–physician relationship that could be a consequence of gradual expansion of AI (...)
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