The problem of the psychological unconscious has a history of many centuries. Some investigators seek to demonstrate the existence of the unconscious, and others deny it. Fundamental differences exist with respect to the nature of the psychological unconscious even among proponents of that hypothesis. In recent decades interest in the problem of the unconscious has grown substantially in our country. An extensive literature devoted to this subject has appeared in which discussion centers principally on the significance of the psychological unconscious (...) in various spheres of human activity. However, little attention is given in those works to making clear the specifics, the patterns, and the forms in which the unconscious is manifested. Virtually nothing is said about the techniques by which we penetrate the realm of the psychological unconscious, how we achieve knowledge of it, and what the psychological relationship is between the consciousness and the unconscious. (shrink)
A comprehensive progress report, by some thirty scholars, journalists, and educators, on the situation in Germany ten years after the Zusammenbruch of 1945, ranging from the reorganization of business and politics to recent developments in the arts and sciences. Though the authors try mainly to report and inform--and this they do with balance and clarity--there is also a good deal of soul-searching, amounting at times to an outright critique of the way things have been and are being done. The editors (...) refuse to draw, on the basis of "Gestern," any very definite conclusions about "Morgen," beyond the general conviction that at least the future is open.--F. V. (shrink)
t. 1. Obʺektivnai︠a︡ dialektika -- t. 2. Subʺektivnai︠a︡ dialektika -- t. 3. Dialektika prirody i estestvoznanii︠a︡ -- t. 4. Dialektika obshchestvennogo razvitii︠a︡ -- t. 5. Kritika idealisticheskikh kont︠s︡ept︠s︡iĭ dialektiki.
This gracefully written book about Xenophon is primarily intended to present a sympathetic account of the writings of that much maligned and underrated ancient soldier, statesman, and philosopher. Professor Higgins is a "student of literature" who does not attempt to elicit Xenophon’s political philosophy; what he does attempt to do is to present an accurate and sympathetic portrait of a great writer and disciple of Socrates. Such a venture is long past due, and Higgins is especially successful. His careful and (...) sensitive reading of the Xenophonic corpus is nothing short of admirable. The book contains seven chapters beginning with an account of how to read Xenophon: his comments on Xenophonic use of irony are especially instructive. But despite his efforts to contrast one work with another—e.g., the Hiero or Kyroupaideia with the Lacedaemonian Constitution—the author fails to observe larger structural similarities. He seems to be unaware, for example, that there is a significant similarity in the way the Kyroupaideia ends and the way the Lacedaemonian Constitution ends. If he is aware of the parallel peculiarities in these two works, he fails to draw any conclusion from the similarity. This oversight leads Higgins to miss the major points of these two treatises: regimes founded as solidly as Sparta with institutional support for law will last much longer than regimes, such as Persia, which depend upon the actual presence of one strong ruler. That is why Cyrus’s empire collapsed. As soon as Cyrus died: "his children at once fell into dissension, cities and nations began at once to revolt." The Spartan regime, despite its questionable customs and despite its constitutional deficiencies such as the dual monarchy, survived long after the death of Lykourgos. It eventually became the most admired regime of ancient times—not Persia. But Xenophon questions this reputation in the name of justice and piety. (shrink)
A literal German translation of Vico’s De Antiquissima Italorum sapientia liber primus and the Risposte. The entire Latin text of the De antiquissima is presented with a German translation on the opposite page. The Italian Risposte are likewise printed on one page with a German version on the other. The book is attractively published with a soft cover but without an index.
A two-body quantum correlation is calculated for a particle reflecting from a moving mirror. Correlated interference results when the incident and reflected particle substates and their associated mirror substates overlap. Using the Copenhagen interpretation of measurement, an asynchronous joint probability density, which is a function both of the different positions and different times at which the particle and mirror are measured, is derived assuming that no interaction occurs between each measurement. Measurement of the particle first, in the correlated interference region, (...) results in a splitting of the mirror substate into ones which have and have not reflected the particle. An analog of the interference from the Doppler effect for only measurements of the particle, in this two-body system, is shown to be a consequence of the asynchronous measurement. The simplification obtained for a microscopic particle reflecting from a mesoscopic or macroscopic mirror is used to illustrate asynchronous correlation interferometry. In this case, the small displacement between these mirror states can yield negligible environmental decoherence times. In addition, interference of these mirror states does not vanish in the limit of large mirror mass due to the small momentum exchange in reflecting a microscopic particle. (shrink)
Arthur Norman Prior's early theological writings have been relatively neglected for many years. Moreover, to the extent that they have been discussed at all they have been treated mainly as youthful work quite separate from Prior's later work as a philosopher and logician. However, as interest in Prior's achievements has been growing significantly in recent years it has become more important to investigate the development with his overall work. In fact, Prior's putatively "youthful" theological work overlapped his work as a (...) philosopher and logician for many years, as is richly documented by examples discussed in this paper. A particularly important theme is the problem of predestination. This paper presents comprehensive evidence that this theme, which was Prior's most important single preoccupation as a theological writer, was a most important source of inspiration for his development of tense logic. Via questions regarding divine foreknowledge and human free will, predestination was to motivate Prior as a logician to focus on time and tense. Whilst investigating this development, the paper also traces Prior's parallel development from Calvinist Christian believer to a more agnostic position. (shrink)