Memory

Edited by John Sutton (Macquarie University)
Assistant editor: Sadegh Balal Niaki (University of Western Ontario)
About this topic
Summary

Remembering takes many distinctive forms. Philosophers have primarily discussed the form of memory in which I remember episodes and experiences in my own past. Such ‘personal’ (or ‘experiential’ or ‘episodic’) memories seem to represent the past events to which they refer, and to depend on certain kinds of causal connections between past and present. In ‘factual’ or ‘semantic’ memory, in contrast, I need not have personally experienced what I now remember. ‘Declarative’ memory of both these forms aims at truth, but can go wrong in minor or dramatic ways. We also remember both to do certain things (‘prospective’ memory), and how to do certain things (‘procedural’ memory). Philosophers discuss the nature, functions, and mechanisms of memory; its relations to perception, imagination, dreams, emotions, and knowledge; and its connections with personal identity, responsibility, and our moral and social lives. Memory is an active topic of interdisciplinary research between philosophy, cognitive science, and the social sciences.

Key works Theories of memory in the premodern history of philosophy are discussed by Draaisma 2000, Krell 1990, and Sutton 1998. Rich and wide-ranging theoretical treatments include Campbell 2003, Hacking 1995, and Middleton & Brown 2005. The causal theory of memory is developed in Martin & Deutscher 1966, while important work on personal or autobiographical memory includes Campbell 1997, Hoerl 1999, and Goldie 2012. CASEY 1987 offers a phenomenological treatment of memory, while Stern 1991 develops a Wittgensteinian approach. Sheets-Johnstone 2003 discusses kinesthetic or bodily memory. Ideas about social aspects of memory are developed by Wegner et al 1985.
Introductions Warnock 1987 is a fine, wide-ranging first read on the philosophy of memory, while Engel 1999 and Schacter 1996 offer provocative introductions to the psychology of memory. Sutton 2009 surveys a range of ideas about situated and social memory, while Boyer & Wertsch 2009 is a good collection of interdisciplinary essays.
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  1. Business as usual and Ovsyankina effect.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
    Die Wiederaufnahme unterbrochener Handlungen nach der Aussetzung der Maßnahmen zur Eindämmung von CoVid19 veranschaulicht Unveränderlichkeit und Unvergänglichkeit regressives Zustandes, in dem sich weite Teile der Bevölkerung befinden. Nach kurzer Unterbrechung kommt alles in gewöhnten Kreis alltäglicher Routine und Gedankenlosigkeit, mit denen solche Aufgaben erledigt werden. Nichts, aber gar nichts änderte sich nach dem Unglück, das eigentlich, wie in meisten solchen Fällen, die Gelegenheit bietet, über sich selbst und die Welt nachzudenken.
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  2. Investigações acerca do objeto intencional da memória.Úrsula Lied - 2019 - XVII Semana Acadêmica de Filosofia.
    Este artigo pretende analisar três teorias a respeito do que é o objeto intencional da memória. As teorias abordadas são o realismo direto, o realismo representativo e o pragmatismo em filosofia da memória. A primeira delas defende que quando lembramos, acessamos um evento passado sem intermédios; a segunda argumenta que acessamos diretamente uma representação do evento passado; a última, elaborada recentemente, afirma que nossas lembranças são determinadas por nossas ações. Apresentamos a ideia central de cada teoria, com quais outras teorias (...)
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  3. Embodied Remembering.Kellie Williamson & John Sutton - 2014 - In L. A. Shapiro (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition. Routledge. pp. 315--325.
    Experiences of embodied remembering are familiar and diverse. We settle bodily into familiar chairs or find our way easily round familiar rooms. We inhabit our own kitchens or cars or workspaces effectively and comfortably, and feel disrupted when our habitual and accustomed objects or technologies change or break or are not available. Hearing a particular song can viscerally bring back either one conversation long ago, or just the urge to dance. Some people explicitly use their bodies to record, store, or (...)
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  4. Against Overconfidence: Arguing for the Accessibility of Memorial Justification.Jonathan Egeland Harouny - forthcoming - Synthese:1-21.
    In this article, I argue that access internalism should replace preservationism, which has been called “a received view” in the epistemology of memory, as the standard position about memorial justification. My strategy for doing so is two-pronged. First, I argue that the considerations which motivate preservationism also support access internalism. Preservationism is mainly motivated by its ability to answer the explanatory challenges posed by the problem of stored belief and the problem of forgotten evidence. However, as I will demonstrate, access (...)
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  5. The Relationship Between Endowment and Ownership Effects in Memory Across Cultures.Philip Collard, Alexandra Walford, Lucy Vernon, Fumihiko Itagaki & David Turk - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 78:102865.
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  6. Some thoughts on memory from Wittgenstein / Considerações acerca da memória a partir de Wittgenstein.Rodrigo Cid - 2010 - Prometeus: Filosofia em Revista 3:69-78.
    This article intends to present the thought of Wittgenstein – mainly from his notes at Philosophical Investigations (PI), Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology (RPP), and Last Writings on the Philosophy of Psychology (LW) – and of his commentators about important thesis on memory. This one is a major epistemic problem, since our knowledge of the past facts comes from it. Provided that it sometimes fails, is important to know of what we are talking about when we use the term (...)
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  7. Человек – это память.Andrej Poleev - 2019 - Enzymes 17.
    Человек – это память. Чтобы понять, что такое человек, необходимо понять, что такое память.
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  8. Eye-Closure & the Retrieval of Item-Specific Information in Recognition Memory.Andrew Parker & Neil Dagnall - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 77:102858.
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  9. Trusting Your Heart: Long-Term Memory for Bad and Good People is Influenced by Resting Vagal Tone.Katia Mattarozzi, Valentina Colonnello, Julian F. Thayer & Cristina Ottaviani - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 75:102810.
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  10. Not All Information in Visual Working Memory is Forgotten Equally.Katherine C. Moen, Juan D. Guevara Pinto, Megan H. Papesh & Melissa R. Beck - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 74:102782.
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  11. Task Manipulation Effects on the Relationship Between Working Memory and Go/No-Go Task Performance.Elizabeth A. Wiemers & Thomas S. Redick - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 71:39-58.
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  12. Eight-Year-Olds, but Not Six-Year-Olds, Perform Just as Well as Adults When Playing Concentration: Resolving the Enigma?Peter Krøjgaard, Trine Sonne, Maëlle Lerebourg, Rikke Lambek & Osman S. Kingo - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 69:81-94.
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  13. Manipulating Memory Associations Changes Decision-Making Preferences in a Preconditioning Task.Jianqin Wang, Henry Otgaar, Tom Smeets, Mark L. Howe & Chu Zhou - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 69:103-112.
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  14. Blade Runner 2049: A Philosophical Exploration.Timothy Shanahan & Paul Smart (eds.) - 2020 - Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
    Widely acclaimed upon its release as a future classic, Denis Villeneuve’s Blade Runner 2049 is visually stunning, philosophically profound, and a provocative extension of the story in Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner. Containing specially commissioned chapters by a roster of international contributors, this fascinating collection explores philosophical questions that abound in Blade Runner 2049, including: -/- What distinguishes the authentically "human" person? How might natality condition one’s experience of being-in-the-world? How might shared memories feature in the constitution of personal identities? What (...)
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  15. Why Seemingly More Difficult Test Conditions Produce More Accurate Recognition of Semantic Prototype Words: A Recognition Memory Paradox?Jerwen Jou, Eric E. Escamilla, Andy U. Torres, Alejandro Ortiz, Martin Perez & Richard Zuniga - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 63:239-253.
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  16. Tip-of-the-Tongue States Predict Enhanced Feedback Processing and Subsequent Memory.Paul A. Bloom, David Friedman, Judy Xu, Matti Vuorre & Janet Metcalfe - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 63:206-217.
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  17. Who is Prone to Wander and When? Examining an Integrative Effect of Working Memory Capacity and Mindfulness Trait on Mind Wandering Under Different Task Loads.Yu-Jeng Ju & Yunn-Wen Lien - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 63:1-10.
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  18. John Locke and Thomas Reid.Rebecca Copenhaver - 2017 - In Sven Bernecker & Kourken Michaelian (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Memory. pp. 470-479.
  19. Aiding the Search: Examining Individual Differences in Multiply-Constrained Problem Solving.Derek M. Ellis & Gene A. Brewer - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 62:21-33.
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  20. Motivated Forgetting Reduces Veridical Memories but Slightly Increases False Memories in Both Young and Healthy Older People.Alfonso Pitarque, Encarnación Satorres, Joaquín Escudero, Salvador Algarabel, Omar Bekkers & Juan C. Meléndez - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 59:26-31.
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  21. How “Mere” is the Mere Ownership Effect in Memory? Evidence for Semantic Organization Processes.Julia Englert & Dirk Wentura - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 46:71-88.
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  22. Remembering Easter 1916.Dermot Quinn - 2016 - The Chesterton Review 42 (3/4):457-465.
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  23. Maria Michela Sassi , Tracce nella mente. Teorie della memoria da Platone ai moderni.Antonio Cimino - 2008 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 13 (1):269-271.
  24. Incorporating Procedural Knowledge Within a Declarative Modelling System.S. A. Moody - 1996 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 6 (1):45-62.
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  25. Morality, Memory, and Memorial Day.Andrew Fiala - unknown
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  26. Participatory Cultures of Remembrance: The Artistic Memory of the Communist Past in Romania and Bulgaria.Maria-Alina Asavei - 2015 - History of Communism in Europe 6:209-231.
    This paper examines the participatory trend in cultural memory practices, focusing on the participatory artistic memory of communism in Romania and Bulgaria from a comparative perspective. On the one hand, these participatory artistic memory projects examine the ways in which ordinary people and contemporary artists share their memories of the communist past outside of the officially sanctioned interpretations, aiming to foster their own version of “monument” that does not necessarily follow the ossifying politics of monuments. On the other hand, a (...)
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  27. Recalling Trauma: Photographs as Links to a Memory Chain for Survivors of Armed Anti-Communist Resistance in Romania.Ioana Hașu - 2015 - History of Communism in Europe 6:163-180.
    Using the concept of postmemory—coined by Mariane Hirsch—this paper explores the role of photographs in recalling past trauma in two families who participated in the anticommunist armed resistance in Romania. Members of these families were executed and the survivors had to endure further persecution. The interviews revealed that some pictures offer the frame for remembering suppressed memories. The images have peculiar meanings for different generations of the same family. For the participants in this study, seeing the photographs equates to reliving (...)
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  28. Compilation and Creation in Adab and Luga: Studies in Memory of Naphtali Kinberg.M. G. Carter, Albert Arazi, Joseph Sadan & David J. Wasserstein - 2003 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 123 (2):458.
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  29. Studies in Memory of Gaston Wiet.R. Stephen Humphreys & Myriam Rosen-Ayalon - 1981 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 101 (2):224.
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  30. A Scientific Humanist: Studies in Memory of Abraham Sachs.Stephen J. Lieberman, Erle Leichty, Maria deJ Ellis & Pamela Gerardi - 1991 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 111 (1):148.
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  31. Theater of Memory. The Plays of KālidāsaTheater of Memory. The Plays of Kalidasa.José Pereira, Barbara Stoler Miller & Jose Pereira - 1986 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 106 (2):350.
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  32. Abreviaturas Utilizadas = List of Abbrevations.Piedad Yuste Leciñena - 2012 - Endoxa 30:15.
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  33. An Autobiographical Account at Forty.Hu Shih - 1978 - Chinese Studies in History 11 (4):3-25.
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  34. An Autobiographical Account at Forty.Hu Shih - 1978 - Chinese Studies in History 11 (3):3-8.
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  35. An Autobiographical Account at Forty.Hu Shih - 1979 - Chinese Studies in History 12 (3):17-35.
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  36. True Citizens: Violence, Memory, and Identity in the Medieval Community of Perpignan, 1162-1397Philip Daileader.Daniel Lord Smail - 2002 - Speculum 77 (2):503-504.
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  37. Daring to Be Powerful: Remembering Sari Knopp Biklen.Barbara Applebaum - 2015 - Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association 51 (5):420-422.
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  38. An Inquiry Into the Doctrine of Remote Associations.Norman J. Slamecka - 1964 - Psychological Review 71 (1):61-76.
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  39. Extraexperimental Sources of Interference in Forgetting.Benton J. Underwood & Leo Postman - 1960 - Psychological Review 67 (2):73-95.
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  40. Dr. Britt on the Concepts of Learning, Retention, and Reproduction.H. Cason - 1938 - Psychological Review 45 (5):441-443.
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  41. The Mnemonic Feat of the "Shass Pollak".G. M. Stratton - 1917 - Psychological Review 24 (3):244-247.
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  42. Preliminary Report of a Study in the Learning Process Involving Feeling Tone, Transference and Interference.Linus W. Kline & William A. Owens - 1913 - Psychological Review 20 (3):206-244.
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  43. Discussion: Professor Titchener's Theory of Memory and Imagination.Arthur Ernest Davies - 1912 - Psychological Review 19 (2):147-157.
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  44. The Accuracy of Recollection and Observation.Frederick E. Bolton - 1896 - Psychological Review 3 (3):286-295.
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  45. Set-Theoretic and Network Models Reconsidered: A Comment on Hollan's "Features and Semantic Memory.".Lance J. Rips, Edward E. Smith & Edward J. Shoben - 1975 - Psychological Review 82 (2):156-157.
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  46. Process of Recognizing Tachistoscopically Presented Words.David E. Rumelhart & Patricia Siple - 1974 - Psychological Review 81 (2):99-118.
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  47. A Two-Process Memory-Strength Theory for Judgment of Recency.James V. Hinrichs - 1970 - Psychological Review 77 (3):223-233.
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  48. The Interrupted Task Method in Studies of Selective Recall: A Reevaluation of Some Recent Experiments.Thelma G. Alper - 1952 - Psychological Review 59 (1):71-88.
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  49. On Variability, Simpson's Paradox, and the Relation Between Recognition and Recall: Reply to Tulving and Flexser.Douglas L. Hintzman - 1993 - Psychological Review 100 (1):143-148.
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  50. A Retrieval Theory of Priming in Memory.Roger Ratcliff & Gail McKoon - 1988 - Psychological Review 95 (3):385-408.
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