About this topic

Remembering takes many distinctive forms. Philosophers have primarily discussed the form of memory in which I remember episodes and experiences in my own past. Such ‘personal’ (or ‘experiential’ or ‘episodic’) memories seem to represent the past events to which they refer, and to depend on certain kinds of causal connections between past and present. In ‘factual’ or ‘semantic’ memory, in contrast, I need not have personally experienced what I now remember. ‘Declarative’ memory of both these forms aims at truth, but can go wrong in minor or dramatic ways. We also remember both to do certain things (‘prospective’ memory), and how to do certain things (‘procedural’ memory). Philosophers discuss the nature, functions, and mechanisms of memory; its relations to perception, imagination, dreams, emotions, and knowledge; and its connections with personal identity, responsibility, and our moral and social lives. Memory is an active topic of interdisciplinary research between philosophy, cognitive science, and the social sciences.

Key works Theories of memory in the premodern history of philosophy are discussed by Draaisma 2000, Krell 1990, and Sutton 2007. Rich and wide-ranging theoretical treatments include Campbell 2003, Hacking 1995, and Middleton & Brown 2005. The causal theory of memory is developed in Martin & Deutscher 1966, while important work on personal or autobiographical memory includes Campbell 1997, Hoerl 1999, and Goldie 2012. Casey 1987 offers a phenomenological treatment of memory, while Stern 1991 develops a Wittgensteinian approach. Sheets-Johnstone 2003 discusses kinesthetic or bodily memory. Ideas about social aspects of memory are developed by Wegner et al 1985.
Introductions Warnock 1987 is a fine, wide-ranging first read on the philosophy of memory, while Engel 1999 and Schacter 1996 offer provocative introductions to the psychology of memory. Sutton 2009 surveys a range of ideas about situated and social memory, while Boyer & Wertsch 2009 is a good collection of interdisciplinary essays.
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  1. A Note on the Effect of Rhythm on Memory.Henry Foster Adams - 1915 - Psychological Review 22 (4):289-298.
  2. On the Logic of Memory.Tuomo Aho & Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1990 - Acta Philosophica Fennica 49:408-429.
  3. On Some Aspects of Memory.John Aikman - 1901
  4. Forgetting Yourself.Anita L. Allen - 1997 - In Diana T. Meyers (ed.), Feminists Rethink the Self. Westview Press. pp. 104.
  5. An Analysis of Personal Memory.James Thomas Allen - 1975 - Dissertation, University of Georgia
  6. Cueing and Retrieval in Free Recall.Max M. Allen - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (1):29.
  7. Is the Binding of Visual Features in Working Memory Resource-Demanding?Richard J. Allen, Alan D. Baddeley & Graham J. Hitch - 2006 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 135 (2):298-313.
  8. Memory.Arthur Allin - 1901 - Psychological Review 8 (4):437-438.
  9. Scouting the Mandelbrot Set with Memory.Ramón Alonso-Sanz - 2016 - Complexity 21 (5):84-96.
  10. The Interrupted Task Method in Studies of Selective Recall: A Reevaluation of Some Recent Experiments.Thelma G. Alper - 1952 - Psychological Review 59 (1):71-88.
  11. A Therapeutics of Memory: Paule du Bouchet, Emportée. Arles: Actes Sud, 2011.François Amanecer - 2011 - Diogenes 58 (4):119-123.
  12. Acquisition of Motor Skill: IV. Effects of Repeated Periods of Massed Practice.R. B. Ammons & Leslie Willig - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (2):118.
  13. Memory Images and Forms of Memory.Ronald Arthur Amundson - 1975 - Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
  14. Re-Membering in Transition: The Trans-National Stakes of Violence and Denial in Post-Communist Albania.Lori E. Amy - 2010 - History of Communism in Europe 1:207-224.
    Albania represents perhaps the most extreme case of isolation and governmental oppression under communist dictatorship in Southeastern Europe. Not surprisingly, the violence of transition in Albania both reflects and in significant ways differs from the violence of transition in other Southeastern European countries. It’s relation to the former Yugoslavia, for example – where the Ethnic Albanian populations in Kosova and Macedonia complicate a politics of memory and national identity – both imbricates and distances Albania from the Balkan wars. As a (...)
  15. This Is How I Want You to Remember Me.W. Andersen - 2015 - Common Knowledge 21 (1):9-9.
  16. A Theory for the Recognition of Items From Short Memorized Lists.James A. Anderson - 1973 - Psychological Review 80 (6):417-438.
  17. Recognition and Retrieval Processes in Free Recall.John R. Anderson & Gordon H. Bower - 1972 - Psychological Review 79 (2):97-123.
  18. Human Memory: An Adaptive Perspective.John R. Anderson & Robert Milson - 1989 - Psychological Review 96 (4):703-719.
  19. Trashing and Hoarding in Words, Deeds, and Memory: A Sampler From the Fourth World Saami.Myrdene Anderson - 1994 - American Journal of Semiotics 11 (1/2):277-289.
  20. Poststimulus Cuing in Immediate Memory.Nancy S. Anderson - 1960 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 60 (4):216.
  21. A Comparison of Presentation Rates Using a Missing Item Probe Test of Immediate Memory.Nancy S. Anderson & V. David Burns - 1973 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 2 (4):200-202.
  22. Functional Memory Requires a Quite Different Value Metaphor.Norman H. Anderson - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):190.
  23. In Memory of E. Papanoutsos: A Contemporary Case of Utilization of the Aristotelian Catharsis.D. Andriopoulos - 1983 - Philosophical Inquiry 5 (4):174-188.
  24. Can We Identify an Empiricist Theory of Memory in Plato’s Dialogues?D. Z. Andriopoulos - 2015 - Philosophical Inquiry 39 (3-4):124-138.
    Can an empirisist theory of memory be identifi ed in Plato’s dialogues? Research in the dialogues and reconstructing the pertinent references convinced me that- along with the multi-discussed and generally accepted concept of memory within Plato’s metaphysical framework of the theory of knowledge- an empirisist version of memory is utilized by the Athenian philosopher in his argumentations, concerning mainly epistemological issues and problems; in fact, given the republished metaphysical concept of memory, one cannot fi nd, beyond the orthodox, old interpretation (...)
  25. A Connectionist Multiple-Trace Memory Model for Polysyllabic Word Reading.Bernard Ans, Serge Carbonnel & Sylviane Valdois - 1998 - Psychological Review 105 (4):678-723.
  26. Daring to Be Powerful: Remembering Sari Knopp Biklen.Barbara Applebaum - 2015 - Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association 51 (5):420-422.
  27. Phonetical Memory Book.F. Appleby - 1886
  28. Arousal Effects in Intentional Recall and Forgetting.Barbara U. Archer & Robert R. Margolin - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (1):8.
  29. The Expressive Power of Memory Logics.Carlos Areces, Diego Figueira, Santiago Figueira & Sergio Mera - 2011 - Review of Symbolic Logic 4 (2):290-318.
    We investigate the expressive power of memory logics. These are modal logics extended with the possibility to store (or remove) the current node of evaluation in (or from) a memory, and to perform membership tests on the current memory. From this perspective, the hybrid logic (↓), for example, can be thought of as a particular case of a memory logic where the memory is an indexed list of elements of the domain.
  30. A Little Bias Goes a Long Way: The Effects of Feedback on the Strategic Regulation of Accuracy on Formula-Scored Tests.Michelle M. Arnold, Philip A. Higham & Beatriz Martín-Luengo - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 19 (4):383-402.
  31. Participatory Cultures of Remembrance: The Artistic Memory of the Communist Past in Romania and Bulgaria.Maria-Alina Asavei - 2015 - History of Communism in Europe 6:209-231.
    This paper examines the participatory trend in cultural memory practices, focusing on the participatory artistic memory of communism in Romania and Bulgaria from a comparative perspective. On the one hand, these participatory artistic memory projects examine the ways in which ordinary people and contemporary artists share their memories of the communist past outside of the officially sanctioned interpretations, aiming to foster their own version of “monument” that does not necessarily follow the ossifying politics of monuments. On the other hand, a (...)
  32. New Developments in Geophysical Prospection.A. Aspinall - 1992 - In New Developments in Archaeological Science. pp. 233-244.
  33. Memory, Individual and Collective.Aleida Assmann - 2006 - In Robert E. Goodin & Charles Tilly (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis. Oxford University Press. pp. 210--24.
  34. Perception and Memory of Orientation of Forms by Young Readers.Doreen Asso, Safia Magdi & Maria A. Wyke - 1975 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 5 (5):365-368.
  35. Memory, Community, and Opposition to Mosques: The Case of Badalona.Avi Astor - 2012 - Theory and Society 41 (4):325-349.
  36. Memory Without Mnemonics, Asturel's Memory System. Asturel - 1904
  37. Time, Memory and Movement in Gaspar Noe's Irreversible.Paul Atkinson - unknown
  38. Memory, How to Develop, Train and Use It.William Walker Atkinson - 1909
  39. Memory Culture.William Walker Atkinson - 1904
  40. Improving Memory for Temporal Order Through Extended Practice.Bryan C. Auday, Elizabeth Kelminson & Henry A. Cross - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):549-552.
  41. Les Formes de L'Oubli.Marc Augé - 1998
  42. Autobiographical Memory and Survey Methodology: Furthering the Bridge Between Two Disciplines.Nadia Auriat - 1992 - In Martin A. Conway, David C. Rubin, H. Spinnler & W. Wagenaar (eds.), Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 295--312.
  43. Rational Memory Training.Benjamin Fish Austin - 1917
  44. Norman Malcolm's "Memory and Mind". [REVIEW]Edward Wilson Averill - 1978 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (1):140.
  45. Combining Image and Structured Text Retrieval. Advances in XML Information Retrieval and Evaluation.D. N. F. Awang, J. Pehcevski, J. A. Thom & S. M. M. Tahaghoghi - 2006 - In O. Stock & M. Schaerf (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 525-539.
  46. List of Contrlbutors.Murat Aydede, Kent Bach & Rod Bertolet - 1997 - In Dunja Jutronic (ed.), The Maribor Papers in Naturalized Semantics. Maribor. pp. 415.
  47. Effect of Instructions on Memory for Temporal Order.Nina P. Azari, Bryan C. Auday & Henry A. Cross - 1989 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27 (3):203-205.
  48. Episodic Memory Impairment in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease.Brent J. Small & Backman & Lars - 2006 - In Hubert Zimmer, Axel Mecklinger & Ulman Lindenberger (eds.), Handbook of Binding and Memory: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.
  49. A Complete Guide to the Improvement of the Memory; or, the Science of Memory Simplified.James Henry Bacon - 1889
  50. The Science of Memory Simplified and Explained; or, a Rational System for Improving the Memory and Rapidly Acquiring Knowledge.James Henry Bacon - 1862
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