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Memory

Edited by John Sutton (Macquarie University)
Assistant editors: Marina Trakas, Marina Trakas
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Summary

Remembering takes many distinctive forms. Philosophers have primarily discussed the form of memory in which I remember episodes and experiences in my own past. Such ‘personal’ (or ‘experiential’ or ‘episodic’) memories seem to represent the past events to which they refer, and to depend on certain kinds of causal connections between past and present. In ‘factual’ or ‘semantic’ memory, in contrast, I need not have personally experienced what I now remember. ‘Declarative’ memory of both these forms aims at truth, but can go wrong in minor or dramatic ways. We also remember both to do certain things (‘prospective’ memory), and how to do certain things (‘procedural’ memory). Philosophers discuss the nature, functions, and mechanisms of memory; its relations to perception, imagination, dreams, emotions, and knowledge; and its connections with personal identity, responsibility, and our moral and social lives. Memory is an active topic of interdisciplinary research between philosophy, cognitive science, and the social sciences.

Key works Theories of memory in the premodern history of philosophy are discussed by Draaisma 2000, Krell 1990, and Sutton 1998. Rich and wide-ranging theoretical treatments include Campbell 2003, Hacking 1995, and Middleton & Brown 2005. The causal theory of memory is developed in Martin & Deutscher 1966, while important work on personal or autobiographical memory includes Campbell 1997, Hoerl 1999, and Goldie 2012. Casey 1987 offers a phenomenological treatment of memory, while Stern 1991 develops a Wittgensteinian approach. Sheets-Johnstone 2003 discusses kinesthetic or bodily memory. Ideas about social aspects of memory are developed by Wegner et al 1985.
Introductions Warnock 1987 is a fine, wide-ranging first read on the philosophy of memory, while Engel 1999 and Schacter 1996 offer provocative introductions to the psychology of memory. Sutton 2009 surveys a range of ideas about situated and social memory, while Boyer & Wertsch 2009 is a good collection of interdisciplinary essays.
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Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Memory
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  1. Henry Foster Adams (1915). A Note on the Effect of Rhythm on Memory. Psychological Review 22 (4):289-298.
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  2. Tuomo Aho & Ilkka Niiniluoto (1990). On the Logic of Memory. Acta Philosophica Fennica 49:408-429.
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  3. John Aikman (1901). On Some Aspects of Memory.
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  4. Anita L. Allen (1997). Forgetting Yourself. In Diana T. Meyers (ed.), Feminists Rethink the Self. Westview Press. pp. 104.
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  5. James Thomas Allen (1975). An Analysis of Personal Memory. Dissertation, University of Georgia
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  6. Max M. Allen (1969). Cueing and Retrieval in Free Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (1):29.
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  7. Arthur Allin (1901). Memory. Psychological Review 8 (4):437-438.
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  8. Ramón Alonso-Sanz (2016). Scouting the Mandelbrot Set with Memory. Complexity 21 (5):84-96.
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  9. Thelma G. Alper (1952). The Interrupted Task Method in Studies of Selective Recall: A Reevaluation of Some Recent Experiments. Psychological Review 59 (1):71-88.
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  10. François Amanecer (2011). A Therapeutics of Memory: Paule du Bouchet, Emportée. Arles: Actes Sud, 2011. Diogenes 58 (4):119-123.
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  11. Ronald Arthur Amundson (1975). Memory Images and Forms of Memory. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
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  12. Lori E. Amy (2010). Re-Membering in Transition: The Trans-National Stakes of Violence and Denial in Post-Communist Albania. History of Communism in Europe 1:207-224.
    Albania represents perhaps the most extreme case of isolation and governmental oppression under communist dictatorship in Southeastern Europe. Not surprisingly, the violence of transition in Albania both reflects and in significant ways differs from the violence of transition in other Southeastern European countries. It’s relation to the former Yugoslavia, for example – where the Ethnic Albanian populations in Kosova and Macedonia complicate a politics of memory and national identity – both imbricates and distances Albania from the Balkan wars. As a (...)
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  13. W. Andersen (2015). This Is How I Want You to Remember Me. Common Knowledge 21 (1):9-9.
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  14. James A. Anderson (1973). A Theory for the Recognition of Items From Short Memorized Lists. Psychological Review 80 (6):417-438.
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  15. John R. Anderson & Gordon H. Bower (1972). Recognition and Retrieval Processes in Free Recall. Psychological Review 79 (2):97-123.
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  16. John R. Anderson & Robert Milson (1989). Human Memory: An Adaptive Perspective. Psychological Review 96 (4):703-719.
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  17. Myrdene Anderson (1994). Trashing and Hoarding in Words, Deeds, and Memory: A Sampler From the Fourth World Saami. American Journal of Semiotics 11 (1/2):277-289.
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  18. Nancy S. Anderson (1960). Poststimulus Cuing in Immediate Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 60 (4):216.
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  19. Nancy S. Anderson & V. David Burns (1973). A Comparison of Presentation Rates Using a Missing Item Probe Test of Immediate Memory. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 2 (4):200-202.
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  20. Norman H. Anderson (1996). Functional Memory Requires a Quite Different Value Metaphor. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):190.
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  21. D. Andriopoulos (1983). In Memory of E. Papanoutsos: A Contemporary Case of Utilization of the Aristotelian Catharsis. Philosophical Inquiry 5 (4):174-188.
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  22. D. Z. Andriopoulos (2015). Can We Identify an Empiricist Theory of Memory in Plato’s Dialogues? Philosophical Inquiry 39 (3):124-138.
    Can an empirisist theory of memory be identifi ed in Plato’s dialogues? Research in the dialogues and reconstructing the pertinent references convinced me that- along with the multi-discussed and generally accepted concept of memory within Plato’s metaphysical framework of the theory of knowledge- an empirisist version of memory is utilized by the Athenian philosopher in his argumentations, concerning mainly epistemological issues and problems; in fact, given the republished metaphysical concept of memory, one cannot fi nd, beyond the orthodox, old interpretation (...)
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  23. Bernard Ans, Serge Carbonnel & Sylviane Valdois (1998). A Connectionist Multiple-Trace Memory Model for Polysyllabic Word Reading. Psychological Review 105 (4):678-723.
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  24. Barbara Applebaum (2015). Daring to Be Powerful: Remembering Sari Knopp Biklen. Educational Studies 51 (5):420-422.
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  25. F. Appleby (1886). Phonetical Memory Book.
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  26. Barbara U. Archer & Robert R. Margolin (1970). Arousal Effects in Intentional Recall and Forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (1):8.
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  27. Maria-Alina Asavei (2015). Participatory Cultures of Remembrance: The Artistic Memory of the Communist Past in Romania and Bulgaria. History of Communism in Europe 6:209-231.
    This paper examines the participatory trend in cultural memory practices, focusing on the participatory artistic memory of communism in Romania and Bulgaria from a comparative perspective. On the one hand, these participatory artistic memory projects examine the ways in which ordinary people and contemporary artists share their memories of the communist past outside of the officially sanctioned interpretations, aiming to foster their own version of “monument” that does not necessarily follow the ossifying politics of monuments. On the other hand, a (...)
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  28. M. H. Ashcraft & G. A. Radvansky (forthcoming). Learning and Remembering. Cognition.
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  29. Aleida Assmann (2006). Memory, Individual and Collective. In Robert E. Goodin & Charles Tilly (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis. Oxford University Press. pp. 210--24.
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  30. Doreen Asso, Safia Magdi & Maria A. Wyke (1975). Perception and Memory of Orientation of Forms by Young Readers. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 5 (5):365-368.
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  31. Avi Astor (2012). Memory, Community, and Opposition to Mosques: The Case of Badalona. Theory and Society 41 (4):325-349.
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  32. Asturel (1904). Memory Without Mnemonics, Asturel's Memory System.
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  33. Paul Atkinson, Time, Memory and Movement in Gaspar Noe's Irreversible.
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  34. William Walker Atkinson (1909). Memory, How to Develop, Train and Use It.
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  35. William Walker Atkinson (1904). Memory Culture.
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  36. Bryan C. Auday, Elizabeth Kelminson & Henry A. Cross (1991). Improving Memory for Temporal Order Through Extended Practice. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):549-552.
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  37. Marc Augé (1998). Les Formes de L'Oubli.
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  38. Nadia Auriat (1992). Autobiographical Memory and Survey Methodology: Furthering the Bridge Between Two Disciplines. In Martin A. Conway, David C. Rubin, H. Spinnler & W. Wagenaar (eds.), Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 295--312.
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  39. Edward Wilson Averill (1978). Norman Malcolm's "Memory and Mind". [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (1):140.
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  40. D. N. F. Awang, J. Pehcevski, J. A. Thom & S. M. M. Tahaghoghi (2006). Combining Image and Structured Text Retrieval. Advances in XML Information Retrieval and Evaluation. In O. Stock & M. Schaerf (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 525-539.
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  41. Nina P. Azari, Bryan C. Auday & Henry A. Cross (1989). Effect of Instructions on Memory for Temporal Order. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27 (3):203-205.
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  42. Brent J. Small & Backman & Lars (2006). Episodic Memory Impairment in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease. In Hubert Zimmer, Axel Mecklinger & Ulman Lindenberger (eds.), Handbook of Binding and Memory: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.
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  43. James Henry Bacon (1889). A Complete Guide to the Improvement of the Memory; or, the Science of Memory Simplified.
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  44. James Henry Bacon (1862). The Science of Memory Simplified and Explained; or, a Rational System for Improving the Memory and Rapidly Acquiring Knowledge.
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  45. Harry P. Bahrick (1971). Accessibility and Availability of Retrieval Cues in the Retention of a Categorized List. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (1):117.
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  46. Harry P. Bahrick (1969). Measurement of Memory by Prompted Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (2p1):213.
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  47. Harry P. Bahrick, Sandra Clark & Phyllis Bahrick (1967). Generalization Gradients as Indicants of Learning and Retention of a Recognition Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):464.
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  48. Annette C. Baier & Mary Warnock (1990). Memory. Philosophical Review 99 (3):436.
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  49. Tijana Bajović (2012). Flooded with Memories: Emergence and Development of The'memory Boom'. Filozofija I Društvo 23 (3):91-105.
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  50. Tijana Bajović (2012). Poplava sećanja: nastanak i razvoj memory booma. Filozofija I Društvo 3:91-105.
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