Memory

Edited by John Sutton (Macquarie University)
Assistant editor: Sadegh Balal Niaki (University of Western Ontario)
About this topic
Summary

Remembering takes many distinctive forms. Philosophers have primarily discussed the form of memory in which I remember episodes and experiences in my own past. Such ‘personal’ (or ‘experiential’ or ‘episodic’) memories seem to represent the past events to which they refer, and to depend on certain kinds of causal connections between past and present. In ‘factual’ or ‘semantic’ memory, in contrast, I need not have personally experienced what I now remember. ‘Declarative’ memory of both these forms aims at truth, but can go wrong in minor or dramatic ways. We also remember both to do certain things (‘prospective’ memory), and how to do certain things (‘procedural’ memory). Philosophers discuss the nature, functions, and mechanisms of memory; its relations to perception, imagination, dreams, emotions, and knowledge; and its connections with personal identity, responsibility, and our moral and social lives. Memory is an active topic of interdisciplinary research between philosophy, cognitive science, and the social sciences.

Key works Theories of memory in the premodern history of philosophy are discussed by Draaisma 2000, Krell 1990, and Sutton 1998. Rich and wide-ranging theoretical treatments include Campbell 2003, Hacking 1995, and Middleton & Brown 2005. The causal theory of memory is developed in Martin & Deutscher 1966, while important work on personal or autobiographical memory includes Campbell 1997, Hoerl 1999, and Goldie 2012. Casey 1987 offers a phenomenological treatment of memory, while Stern 1991 develops a Wittgensteinian approach. Sheets-Johnstone 2003 discusses kinesthetic or bodily memory. Ideas about social aspects of memory are developed by Wegner et al 1985.
Introductions Warnock 1987 is a fine, wide-ranging first read on the philosophy of memory, while Engel 1999 and Schacter 1996 offer provocative introductions to the psychology of memory. Sutton 2009 surveys a range of ideas about situated and social memory, while Boyer & Wertsch 2009 is a good collection of interdisciplinary essays.
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  1. Norm-induced forgetting: When social norms induce us to forget.Marta Caravà - 2024 - Philosophical Psychology:1-23.
    Sometimes subjects have sufficient internal and external resources to retrieve information stored in memory, in particular information that carries socially charged content. Yet, they fail to do so: they forget it. These cases pose an explanatory challenge to common explanations of forgetting in cognitive science. In this paper, I take this challenge and develop a new explanation of these cases. According to this explanation, these cases are best explained as cases of norm-induced forgetting: cases in which forgetting is caused by (...)
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  2. Working Memory.A. Baddeley - 1986 - Oxford University Press.
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  3. Collective memory and the material shaping of Debussy’s legacy.Marianne Wheeldon - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
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  4. Memory traces, phenomenology and the simulationist vs causal theory dispute.Luiz do Valle Miranda - 2024 - Analiza I Egzystencja 65:21-34.
    Filozofia pamięci jest gorącym tematem w kognitywistyce i filozofii umysłu. Niniejsza praca analizuje spór między symulacjami a przyczynową teorią pamięci poprzez badanie poczucia swojskości i jego związku ze śladami pamięciowymi, a dokładniej w jaki sposób zwiększają one płynność rekonstrukcji przeszłych epizodów. Zrozumienie relacji między śladami swojskości i pamięci, a ponadto relacji między pełnoprawną fenomenologią pamięci a poczuciem subiektywnej pewności epizodu, jaki miał miejsce w przeszłości, prowadzi do odmiennej interpretacji rywalizacji między tym, co przyczynowe, a tym, co symulacyjne.
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  5. Naturalism and simulationism in the philosophy of memory.Nikola Andonovski & Kourken Michaelian - forthcoming - In Ali Hossein Khani & Gary Kemp (eds.), Naturalism and Its Challenges. New York: Routledge.
    In this chapter, we examine the naturalist approach in the philosophy of memory through the lens of the simulation theory of memory. On the theory, episodic memory is a kind of constructive simulation performed by a functionally specialized neurocognitive system. Taking naturalism to be a kind of methodological stance characterized by a cluster of epistemic guidelines, we illustrate the roles these guidelines have played in the development of the theory. We show how scientific evidence has guided both the selection of (...)
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  6. Traitors, Collaborators and Deserters in Contemporary European Politics of Memory.Eleonora Narvelsius & Gelinada Grinchenko (eds.) - 2018 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
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  7. The Craft of Oblivion. Forgetting and Memory in Ancient China.Mercedes Valmisa (ed.) - 2023
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  8. Meyer, Harald (2008). Literary memories of the Pacific war - fiction or nonfiction? Some criteria for further research on Japanese war literature. In: Saaler, S; Schwentker, W. The Power of Memory in Modern Japan. Folkestone, UK: Global Oriental, 243-256.Harald Meyer, S. Saaler & W. Schwentker (eds.) - 2008
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  9. Current Controversies in the Philosophy of Memory.John Sutton & Gerard O'Brien (eds.) - 2023 - Routledge.
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  10. History and memory of the knowledge organization.Claudio Gnoli (ed.) - 2021 - Rio de Janeiro, Brasile:
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  11. Lev Shestov's Angel of Death: Memory, Trauma and Rebirth [by Marina G.Ogden].Ramona Fotiade (ed.) - 2021
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  12. Languages of Trauma. History, Memory, and Media;.Ulrich Koch (ed.) - 2021 - Toronto, ON, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
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  13. Glock, Hans Johann (2007). Perspectives on Wittgenstein: an intermittently opinionated survey. In: Kahane, G; Kanterian, E; Kuusela, O. Wittgenstein's Interpreters. Essays in Memory of Gordon Baker. Oxford: Blackwell, 37-65.Hans Johann Glock, G. Kahane, E. Kanterian & O. Kuusela (eds.) - 2007
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  14. Face Memory and Face Matching: Internal Consistency and Test-Retest Reliability for the CFMT+ and the GFMT-S.Lara Aylin Petersen & Anja Leue - unknown
    The Cambridge Face Memory Test Long (CFMT+) and the Glasgow Face Matching Test Short (GFMT-S) are frequently used tests in face recognition research. No test-retest results in conjunction with internal consistency, mean inter-item correlations (MICs), and pre-post mean differences have been reported. The internal consistency and the MICs provide insights into the homogeneity of items. In an online study (N = 72), we investigated the test-retest reliability, Cronbach’s α, split-half reliability, MICs, and retest mean differences for the CFMT+ and the (...)
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  15. Reimagining narrative of voices: violence, partition, and memory in Bapsi Sidhwa’s Ice Candy Man.Ghulam Rabani & Binod Mishra - forthcoming - Journal for Cultural Research:1-15.
    This article studies the narratives of voices identifying the harrowing aftermath of the 1947 partition of India and Pakistan, and the representations of the contemporary effects of partition in Bapsi Sidhwa’s novel Ice Candy Man. The narrative unfolds past experiences through the eyes of different characters and surroundings from different social, political and religious backgrounds. The novel vividly portrays the horror of violence during the partition, as communities that once coexisted peacefully become engulfed in a whirlwind of hatred and bloodshed. (...)
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  16. Singular thought without temporal representation?Christoph Hoerl - 2024 - Synthese 203 (5):1-17.
    What is required for an individual to entertain a singular thought about an object they have encountered before but that is currently no longer within their perceptual range? More specifically, does the individual have to think about the object as having been encountered in the past? I consider this question against the background of the assumption that non-human animals are cognitively ‘stuck in the present’. Does this mean that, for them, ‘out of sight is out of mind’, as, e.g., Schopenhauer (...)
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  17. Identity, memory, and the search for the disappeared father from the perspective of two Guatemalan filmmakers.Ana Yolanda Contreras - 2024 - ÍSTMICA Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras 1 (33):143-169.
    Este artículo1 explora dos obras cinematográficas guatemaltecas, Polvo (2012) y Nuestras madres (2019), dirigidas por Julio Hernández Cordón y César Díaz correspondientemente. En ambos largometrajes la denuncia sobre la violación de derechos humanos durante el pasado conflicto armado guatemalteco, la búsqueda de padres o familiares desaparecidos y sus secuelas en las víctimas constituyen la temática central. Por tanto, el análisis se centra en la importancia que tiene la búsqueda del padre desaparecido en los hijos, quienes, a raíz de esta vivencia (...)
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  18. Cinematic Time as Spiritual Memory: Tarkovsky and Kierkegaard.Rafael García Pavón - 2024 - In Catalina Elena Dobre, Rafael García Pavón & Francisco Díaz Estrada (eds.), Human Flourishing, Spiritual Awakening and Cultural Renewal: Personal and Communal Challenges. Springer Nature Switzerland. pp. 35-46.
    Cinematographic art can regenerate the experience of time as a spiritual memory because cinema can simultaneously present the modes of time, separating them from chronology and immediacy, seeing and thinking about the reality of the future of the world and, therefore, the crossroads where the spirit is called to create itself in relation to the way things become, which implies choosing to believe that is possible. The aim of this work is to show how the film concept and style of (...)
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  19. Toward A Formal-Pragmatic Theory of Communicative Memory.Connor Moran - 2024 - Res Philosophica 101 (2):271-297.
    This article argues that Habermas’s formal-pragmatics are better understood as a set of weak-universal dispositions susceptible to erosion over the course of a lifetime, if exposed to continual “disappointing” communicative experiences. Habermas’s rational-reconstructive project to explicate the intuitive rule-consciousness held by competent speakers retains immense theoretical value for analyzing both partisan and mass political discourse, if his emphasis on isolated speech situations is supplemented with a logic of communicative memory better accounting for how disagreement antecedes discourse on the formal-pragmatic register. (...)
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  20. Memory and Self-Reference.Jordi Fernández - 2024 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 32 (1):59-77.
    Our memories elicit, in us, both beliefs about what the external world was like in the past, and beliefs about what our own past experience of it was like in the past. What explains the power of memories to do that? I tackle this question by offering an account of the content of our memories. According to this account, our memories are ‘token-reflexives’, in that they represent their own causal origin. My main contention will be that our memories are able (...)
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  21. Home Movies as Reliquaries of Memory: A Phenomenological Perspective.Lourdes Esqueda Verano - 2024 - Film-Philosophy 28 (2):350-374.
    If film immortalises the ephemeral and presentifies the past, this is especially true of home movies, whose content is not the result of a narrative composition or an invention of fiction, but the product of fragments of reality. These three categories – fiction, documentary, and the home movie – have been analysed by Jean-Pierre Meunier and Vivian Sobchack, with an emphasis on the effect that each film mode can have on the spectator, eliciting a particular emotional and cognitive response. But (...)
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  22. Situated Affects and Place Memory.John Sutton - 2024 - Topoi 43:1-14.
    Traces of many past events are often layered or superposed, in brain, body, and world alike. This often poses challenges for individuals and groups, both in accessing specific past events and in regulating or managing coexisting emotions or attitudes. We sometimes struggle, for example, to find appropriate modes of engagement with places with complex and difficult pasts. More generally, there can appear to be a tension between what we know about the highly constructive nature of remembering, whether it is drawing (...)
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  23. Waste-Site Stories: The Recycling of Memory.Brian Neville & Johanne Villeneuve (eds.) - 2012 - SUNY Press.
    Explorations in the aesthetics of waste and the material infrastructure of memory.
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  24. Optimal metacognitive control of memory recall.Frederick Callaway, Thomas L. Griffiths, Kenneth A. Norman & Qiong Zhang - 2024 - Psychological Review 131 (3):781-811.
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  25. Memory-based modes of presentation.François Recanati - 2024 - Synthese 203 (4):1-21.
    To deal with memory-based modes of presentation I propose a couple of revisions to the standard criterion of difference for modes of presentation attributed to Frege. First, we need to broaden the scope of the criterion so that not merely the thoughts of a given subject at a given time may or may not involve the same way of thinking of some object, but also the thoughts of a subject at different times. Second, we need to ‘relativize’ the criterion of (...)
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  26. Memory, non-stationarity, and trend : analysis of environmental time series.Sucharita Ghosh - 2007 - In Felix Kienast, Otto Wildi & S. Ghosh (eds.), A changing world: challenges for landscape research. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
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  27. From Kant to the problem of phenomenological metaphysics. In memory of László Tengelyi.Inga Roemer - unknown
    The article outlines the central lines of László Tengelyi’s intellectual path and hints at some perspectives that could be continued on the basis of his last writings. The first part shows the development of his thought from the first Hungarian works on Kant up to his last book, so as to pose the question of a possible unity in his work. Such a unity can be seen in the diacritical tension, systematically enlarged in each period, between freedom, the story of (...)
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  28. In Situ Reprogramming of Neurons and Glia – A Risk in Altering Memory and Personality?Bor Luen Tang - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 15 (2):90-95.
    The recent emergence of reprogramming technologies to convert brain cell types or epigenetically alter neurons and neural progenitors in vivo and in situ hold significant promises in brain repair and neuronal aging reversal. However, given the significant epigenetic and transcriptomic changes to components of the existing neuronal cells and network, we question if these reprogramming technology might inadvertently alter or erase memory engrams, conceivably resulting in changes in narrative identity or personality. We suggest that the nature of these alterations might (...)
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  29. The Influence of the Renaissance’s Art of Memory on Descartes’ Philosophy.Vardenis Pavardenis - 1998 - Problemos 52.
    The Renaissance’s sources of Descartes’ method are discussed in this article. Main attention is paid to the cabbalistic principles of Ramon Lull’s "Short Art" and Brunian and Ramist art of memory. Descartes knew Lull’s art to which he reffered to in very derogatory terms. The same logical, Pythagorean, and cabbalistic principles of Lullism, however, became the basis for the art of memory of the Renaissance and for the natural magic of the Renaissance, which Descartes knew. The occult art of memory (...)
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  30. Memory and Learning as Key Competences of Living Organisms.G. Witzany - 2018 - In Baluska Frantisek, Gagliano Monica & Guenther Witzany (eds.), Memory and Learning in Plants. Cham: Springer. pp. 1-16.
    Organisms that share the capability of storing information about experiences in the past have an actively generated background resource on which they can compare and evaluate more recent experiences in order to quickly or even better react than in previous situations. This is an essential competence for all reaction and adaptation purposes of living organisms. Such memory/learning skills can be found from akaryotes up to unicellular eukaryotes, fungi, animals and plants, although until recently, it had been mentioned only as a (...)
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  31. Memory and Learning in Plants.Baluska Frantisek, Gagliano Monica & Guenther Witzany (eds.) - 2018 - Cham: Springer.
    This book assembles recent research on memory and learning in plants. Organisms that share a capability to store information about experiences in the past have an actively generated background resource on which they can compare and evaluate coming experiences in order to react faster or even better. This is an essential tool for all adaptation purposes. Such memory/learning skills can be found from bacteria up to fungi, animals and plants, although until recently it had been mentioned only as capabilities of (...)
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  32. Part III. Memory, Mourning and Commemoration. Béranger's Napoleonic songs : mourning, memory, and the future / Sophie-Anne Leterrier ; Paul Hindemith's Minimax and the Trauma of War / Lesley Hughes ; A transatlantic repertoire of resistance and mourning in the post-war years : The songs from the ghettos and camps collected by Shmerke Kaczerginski (Vilnius, New York, Buenos Aires) / Jean-Sébastien Noël ; Singing the Unspeakable in Rwanda in the Summer of 1994 : Music in the Context of the Genocidal Abyss through a Portrait of the Artist.Assumpta Mugiraneza & Benjamin Chemouni - 2023 - In Anaïs Fléchet, Martin Guerpin, Philippe Gumplowicz & Barbara L. Kelly (eds.), Music and postwar transitions in the 19th and 20th centuries. [New York]: Berghahn Books.
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  33. Handbook on the politics of memory.Maria Mälksoo (ed.) - 2023 - Northampton, MA USA: EE | Edward Elgar Publishing.
    Providing a novel multi-disciplinary theorization of memory politics, this insightful Handbook brings varied literatures into a focused dialogue on the ways in which the past is remembered and how these influence transnational, interstate, and global politics in the present. With case studies from Africa, East and Southeast Asia, Europe, South America, and the United States, the Handbook focuses on the political features of historical memory in international relations. Chapters examine key concepts of memory politics, including accountability, commemoration and memorialization, the (...)
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  34. Bergson's scientific metaphysics: matter and memory today.Yasushi Hirai & Henri Bergson (eds.) - 2023 - London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    This volume brings Bergson's key ideas from Matter and Memory into dialogue with contemporary themes on memory and time in science, across analytic and continental philosophy. Focusing specifically on the application of Bergson's ideas to cognitive science, the circuit between perception and memory receives full explication in 15 different essays. By re-reading Bergson through a cognitive lens, the essays provide a series of alternative analytic interpretations to the standard continental approach to Bergson's oeuvre, without fully discounting either approach. The relevance (...)
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  35. Section 2. Memory, Imagination, and Consciousness. Listening Beyond Sound and Life : Reflections on Imagined Music / J. Martin Daughtry ; Young People's Lived Experience of Music in Everyday Life : Psychological and Phenomenological Perspectives. [REVIEW]Ruth Herbert - 2021 - In Harris M. Berger, Friedlind Riedel & David VanderHamm (eds.), The Oxford handbook of the phenomenology of music cultures. New York: Oxford University Press.
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  36. Intersections of law and memory: influencing perceptions of the past.Miroslaw Michal Sadowski - 2024 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This book elaborates a new framework for considering and understanding the relationship between law and memory. How can law influence collective memory? What are the mechanisms law employs to influence social perceptions of the past? And how successful is law in its attempts to rewrite narratives about the past? As the field of memory studies has grown, this book takes a step back from established transitional justice narratives, returning to the core sociological, philosophical and legal theoretical issues that underpin this (...)
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  37. The memory of the world: deep time, animality, and eschatology.Ted Toadvine - 2024 - Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    The Memory of the World argues for a new philosophy of time that takes seriously the multiple, pleated, and entangled temporal events spanning cosmic, geological, evolutionary, and human durations. Ted Toadvine contends that our obsession with the world's precarity relies on a flawed understanding of time that neglects the past and present with the goal of managing the future, misleading sustainability efforts and diminishing our encounters with the world and with human and nonhuman others.
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  38. Spectral memory and "hauntology" in Julie ou La Nouvelle Héloïse.Christophe Martin - 2023 - In Jason Neidleman & Masano Yamashita (eds.), Frameworks of time in Rousseau. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  39. Detection, exploitation and mitigation of memory errors.Oscar Llorente-Vazquez, Igor Santos-Grueiro, Iker Pastor-Lopez & Pablo Garcia Bringas - 2024 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 32 (2):281-292.
    Software vulnerabilities are the root cause for a multitude of security problems in computer systems. Owing to their efficiency and tight control over low-level system resources, the C and C++ programming languages are extensively used for a myriad of purposes, from implementing operating system kernels to user-space applications. However, insufficient or improper memory management frequently leads to invalid memory accesses, eventually resulting in memory corruption vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities are used as a foothold for elaborated attacks that bypass existing defense methods. (...)
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  40. Transfer of working memory training to the inhibitory control of auditory distraction.Florian Kattner - unknown
    Extended working memory training with the dual n-back task has been shown to improve performance on various untrained cognitive tasks, but previous findings were inconsistent with regard to the extent of such transfer. The dual n-back training task addresses multiple components of working memory as sequential information from two different stimulus modalities needs to be simultaneously encoded, maintained, continuously monitored and updated in working memory while irrelevant information needs to be inhibited. However, it is unclear which executive functions account for (...)
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  41. When working memory may be just working, not memory.Andre Beukers, Maia Hamin, Kenneth A. Norman & Jonathan D. Cohen - 2024 - Psychological Review 131 (2):563-577.
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  42. Watsuji Tetsurō’s Memory of Natsume Sōseki: A Translation of “Until I met Sōseki” and “Sōseki’s Character”.Kyle Michael James Shuttleworth - forthcoming - Journal of East Asian Philosophy:1-18.
    The following translation is an extract from the third chapter of Watsuji Tetsurō’s Hidden Japan [埋もれた日本] 1951. The translation is composed of two sections: “Until I met Sōseki” [漱石に逢うまで], and “Sōseki’s Character” [漱石の人物]. The former section discusses Watsuji’s indirect encounters with Natsume, namely, reading Natsume’s work as it was serialized in literary magazines during the Meiji era (1868–1912) and the impression Watsuji formed of Natsume as a teacher at Tokyo First Higher School (Ichikō). The latter section discusses Natsume as Watsuji’s (...)
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  43. A Study on the Relationship between History and Memory in Ricoeur"s Philosophy of History. 손영창 - 2024 - Journal of Korean Philosophical Society 169:165-195.
    리쾨르는 역사를 실증적 지식이 아니라 해석학적 관점에서 이해하고자 한다. 역사는 절대적으로 부재하는 과거와 그것의 흔적으로 남겨진 유산의 두 측면 사이를 진동하고 있다. 우리는 역사를 과거의 한때 존재했었던 것이라는 점에서 역사의 실재성을 말할 수 있지만, 결코 현재에는 존재하지 않는다는 점에서 부재성을 간과할 수 없다. 이런 역사의 부재성으로 인해 역사적 사실보다 역사적 사건과 그것을 수용하는 주체의 역할이 중요하다. 특히 역사 연구는 단지 사실의 차원에만 머무는 것이 아니라 최종적으로 과거 인간들의 행위와 그 결과에 대한 연구를 기반으로 하고 있다. 그러기에 역사 연구자는 역사적 사실을 (...)
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  44. Augustine on memory, the mind, and human flourishing.T. Parker Haratine - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-21.
    Augustine maintains that the mind at least consists of memory, intellect, and will (De Trinitate 10.9.13 & 10.11.17). While it is easy to understand the intellect and will as essential to the mind’s activities, memory proves more difficult to understand. It is not immediately clear, for example, whether a human mind could operate without memory, whether people without memory have minds, and what distinguishes memory from the intellect. To understand the role of memory and its respective activities, this article addresses (...)
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  45. Captioning Deep Learning Based Encoder-Decoder through Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM).Grimsby Chelsea - forthcoming - International Journal of Scientific Innovation.
    This work demonstrates the implementation and use of an encoder-decoder model to perform a many-to-many mapping of video data to text captions. The many-to-many mapping occurs via an input temporal sequence of video frames to an output sequence of words to form a caption sentence. Data preprocessing, model construction, and model training are discussed. Caption correctness is evaluated using 2-gram BLEU scores across the different splits of the dataset. Specific examples of output captions were shown to demonstrate model generality over (...)
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  46. Deep Learning Based Video Captioning through Encoder-Decoder Based Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM).Grimsby Chelsea - forthcoming - International Journal of Advance Computer Science and Application.
    This work demonstrates the implementation and use of an encoder-decoder model to perform a many-to-many mapping of video data to text captions. The many-to-many mapping occurs via an input temporal sequence of video frames to an output sequence of words to form a caption sentence. Data preprocessing, model construction, and model training are discussed. Caption correctness is evaluated using 2-gram BLEU scores across the different splits of the dataset. Specific examples of output captions were shown to demonstrate model generality over (...)
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  47. Deep Learning Based Video Captioning through Encoder-Decoder Based Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM).Grimsby Chelsea - forthcoming - International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications:1-6.
    This work demonstrates the implementation and use of an encoder-decoder model to perform a many-to-many mapping of video data to text captions. The many-to-many mapping occurs via an input temporal sequence of video frames to an output sequence of words to form a caption sentence. Data preprocessing, model construction, and model training are discussed. Caption correctness is evaluated using 2-gram BLEU scores across the different splits of the dataset. Specific examples of output captions were shown to demonstrate model generality over (...)
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  48. Seeking the Sources of a Theologian: In Memory of Fr. Roch Kereszty, O.Cist. (1933–2022).Joseph Van House O. Cist - 2023 - Nova et Vetera 21 (3):781-789.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Seeking the Sources of a Theologian:In Memory of Fr. Roch Kereszty, O.Cist. (1933–2022)Joseph Van House O.Cist.Fr. Roch Kereszty long enjoyed thinking about how, and how much, we can discover the truth about Jesus of Nazareth through historical research into his earthly life. Fr. Roch also often enjoyed indicating that at least part of the answer is that research about a human being can never be content with descriptions of (...)
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  49. Memory identification and its failures.Fabrice Teroni - 2024 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 5.
    When we remember, we often know that we do. How does this memory identification proceed? After having articulated some constraints on an attractive account of memory identification, this paper explores three types of accounts that respectively appeal to features of memory content, of memory as an activity, and of memory as an attitude. It offers reasons to favour an attitudinal account giving pride of place to the feeling of familiarity.
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  50. Stumpf’s Cylinders: On the Externalization of Musical Memory and the Future of Traditional Music.John T. Giordano - 2018 - Fifth Princess Galyani Vadhana International Symposium August 30Th-September 1St, 2018.
    In the year 1900, the German philosopher Carl Stumpf made one of the earliest phonograph recordings to document an example of traditional music. The ensemble he recorded was the Siamese Court Orchestra which was performing in Germany at that time. This led to the establishment of the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv and the beginning of the extensive recording of world traditional music. While written scores have begun to break traditional music away from its dependence on initiation and apprenticeship, the recording of music (...)
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