With the advancement of artificial intelligence and humanoid robotics and an ongoing debate between human rights and rule of law, moral philosophers, legal and political scientists are facing difficulties to answer the questions like, “Do humanoid robots have same rights as of humans and if these rights are superior to human rights or not and why?” This paper argues that the sustainability of human rights will be under question because, in near future the scientists (considerably the most rational people) will (...) be the biggest critics of the human rights. Whereas to make artificial intelligence sustainable, it is very important to reconcile it with human rights. Above all, there is a need to find a consensus between human rights and robotics rights in the framework of our established legal systems. (shrink)
Modal agnosticism is the view that we must be agnostic about whether things could have turned out differently. I argue that claims about unrealised possibilities are not justified by our modal intuitions, nor are they justified by any of the means proposed by philosophers. It follows that we do not have merely metaphysical modal knowledge, and that we must adopt modal agnosticism.
The legal progression in China is portrayed negatively by western scholars who often argue that the state institutions in China are subordinate to the control of Chinese Communist Party’s leadership which makes these institutions politically insignificant. We consider that the legal progression in China has an instrumental role in achieving “Harmonious Socialist Society.” The purpose of this thesis is to provide an analytical literature review of scholastic work to explain the legality of rule of law in China and to elaborate (...) the outcomes of China’s recent legal developments. This paper has two main subjects. First, it examines the nature of law and rule of law in China through the prism of different legal theories. Secondly, by arguing from different political theories, it explains the necessity of customized legal system in China for establishing a Harmonious Socialist Society. By giving different examples from contemporary China, this thesis argues that the legality of the rule of law in China ought to be understood in the context of China’s economic and social progression rather than the western legal scholarship. China’s economic progress demands a customized legal system. In our thesis, we claim that the regular upgradation of laws and introduction of constitutional amendments in China, should be recognized as important achievement which is required for the institutional innovation. Legal progression in China during last decade perfectly fit into the framework of “Socialism with Chinese Characteristics” and is very crucial for building a harmonious socialist society. It is vivid from China’s economic growth and developed international relations. Finally, this paper suggests that the Chinese legal progression can be taken as successful example of legal experimentalism. (shrink)
Scholars in Central Asia have long started exploring the nexus between law and technology. Contemporary Central Asian legal academia is producing research which stands at the junction of law, philosophy, and technology. Central Asia is comparatively not advanced in technology production and imports most the technologies from neighboring tech giants. These technologies are imported as a package along with the laws and regulations proposed by the technology manufacturing country. It has been observed that these regulations don‘t correlate with the existing (...) local and regional legal systems. To meet these demands, this article proposes a new discipline / branch of legal sciences named as ―Central Asia Tech Law to accommodate the technological progression of the 4th industrial revolution. This branch of law strives to promote globalized legal mechanisms to treat technology as per the demands of the Central Asian region and in line with the international norms and standardization. Another purpose of Central Asia Tech Law is to increase the interaction with regional social and applied scientists to set regional technological standards and preferences for Central Asia. (shrink)
ABSTRACT Breast cancer affects well-being and life quality. Despite being labeled as a woman’s disease, the incidence of breast cancer in men is increasing. Men with breast cancer are diagnosed at later stages and experience stigmatization within the health care system. As such, they are prone to gender-based inequalities in health care. This paper examines epistemic injustice in health care professionals and male breast cancer patients’ encounters through analysis of research on the experiences of male breast cancer patients. Research indicates (...) that care professionals often do not seriously consider the complaints of men with breast cancer and do not accurately interpret their symptoms. (shrink)
Consumer buying behavior is an important aspect in every marketing strategy to produce maximum output from the market. This study aims to determine how advertisement affects consumer buying behavior and brand loyalty by considering a mediator between brand awareness and the moderating role of perceived quality. For this purpose, this study targets the rising cosmetics industry. This study used the purposive sampling technique to collect data from 300 respondents with the help of an online survey method via Google doc. The (...) partial least squares structural equation modeling PLS-SEM was applied to verify the hypotheses relationships. The findings have confirmed that advertisements substantially predicted brand awareness, brand loyalty, and consumer buying behavior. Furthermore, brand awareness partially mediated the association of advertisement with brand loyalty and consumer buying behavior. Also, perceived quality is significantly moderated on the association of brand awareness with brand loyalty and consumer buying behavior. Based on such findings, this study has contributed to the literature and provided new insights into the practical implications alongside the future roadmap of the survey. (shrink)
Philosophical inquiries in nursing are useful for analysing and critiquing existing practices, exploring contextual factors affecting practice, adapting to and sustaining ongoing changes in knowledge development, and facilitating the linkages between theory, research and practice. Nurse scholars used several philosophical schools of thought to guide knowledge development and practice. Pragmatism has been described as essential for bridging the theory–practice gap, for engaging in the inquiry-based practice and for translating knowledge into practice. The existing descriptions of pragmatism rely on rudimentary descriptions (...) of “what works” and “inquiry-based action" aspects. However, the operationalist and inferentialist aspects of pragmatism and their worth for nursing knowledge development and practice are yet to be discussed. This paper explores the operationalist and inferentialist pragmatism and highlights the implications of these aspects for nursing knowledge development and practice. It has been argued that the dual aspect of pragmatism offers an approach to develop practical lines of action, evaluate actions in terms of their usefulness and assimilate already learned actions with the new actions. I suggested that moving beyond the rudimentary understanding of pragmatism and embracing and utilizing the dual aspect of pragmatism can bring more significant benefits for nursing. Embracing the dual aspect of pragmatism can enable nurses in developing philosophical reflexivity, emphasizing the experiential context of nursing, generating actionable and ready to use knowledge, and utilizing nursing theories to their fullest potential. (shrink)
Background: Transgender individuals experience discrimination, stigmatization, and unethical and insensitive attitudes in healthcare settings. Therefore, healthcare professionals must be knowledgeable about the ways to deliver ethical and culturally competent care. Ethical considerations: No formal ethical approval was required. Aim: To synthesize the literature and identify gaps about approaches to the provision of ethical and culturally competent care to transgender populations. Design: A Scoping Review Literature Search: Literature was searched within CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Scopus databases using (...) indexed keywords such as “transgender,” “gender non-conforming,” “ethically sensitive care,” and “culturally sensitive care.” In total, 30 articles, which included transgender patients and their families and nurses, doctors, and health professionals who provided care to transgender patients, were selected for review. Data were extracted and synthesized using tabular and narrative summaries and thematic synthesis. Findings: Of 30 articles, 23 were discussion papers, 5 research articles, and 1 each case study and an integrative review. This indicates an apparent dearth of literature about ethical and culturally sensitive care of transgender individuals. The review identified that healthcare professionals should educate themselves about sensitive issues, become more self-aware, put transgender individual in charge during care interactions, and adhere to the principles of advocacy, confidentiality, autonomy, respect, and disclosure. Conclusions: The review identified broad approaches for the provision of ethical and culturally competent care. The identified approaches could be used as the baseline, and further research is warranted to develop and assess organizational and individual-level approaches. (shrink)
The recent progression in AI, nanomedicine and robotics have increased concerns about ethics, policy and law. The increasing complexity and hybrid nature of AI and nanotechnologies impact the functionality of “law in action” which can lead to legal uncertainty and ultimately to a public distrust. There is an immediate need of collaboration between Central Asian biomedical scientists, AI engineers and academic lawyers for the harmonization of AI, nanomedicines and robotics in Central Asian legal system.
This article is an attempt to highlights the importance of Beijing Principle of Artificial Intelligence for Children for preventing the Juvenile Delinquency. The article argues that the artificial intelligence products should protect children's privacy, promote children's physical and mental health, and control potential risks.
The research addresses the effect of sense of control on perceived stress by controlling for the intervening effects of Religiosity and Materialism. A total of 609 emerging adults living in Dhaka city participated in the survey; surveyors used a 48-item structural closed-ended questionnaire to collect the responses. The elicited responses were quantified, and structural equation models were formulated to identify any associations among the variables of interest. The findings suggest that sense of control is a strong determinant of perceived stress; (...) neither religiosity nor materialism mediate the association. The study advances the transactional model of stress and coping. (shrink)
This paper is an attempt to provide an adequate theoretical framework to understand the biological basis of human rights. We argue that the skepticism about human rights is increasing especially among the most rational, innovative and productive community of intellectuals belonging to the applied sciences. By using examples of embryonic stem cell research, a clash between applied scientists and legal scientists cum human rights activists has been highlighted. After an extensive literature review, this paper concludes that the advances in applied (...) sciences proven by empirical evidence should not be restricted by normative theories and philosophies of the social sciences. If we agree on these premises that Human Rights are biological, then biology can provide a framework of cooperation for social and applied scientists. (shrink)
Вступление Кыргызстана в Таможенный союз нанесло серьезный ущерб кыргызскому бренду. Бизнесмены из соседних крупных экономик приобретают продукцию из Кыргызстана и перепродают ее под собственными брендами. Государственная экспортная политика ориентирована на получение экономической прибыли при полном игнорировании вопроса обеспечения безопасности бренда Кыргызстана. Цель данного аналитического документа - предложить идею защиты древних знаний юртового ремесла, персонализировать его с Кыргызстаном и использовать юрту в качестве бренда для всех производимых в Кыргызстане продуктов, особенно для сбыта экспортной качественной сельскохозяйственной продукции. Это предложение требует вмешательства на (...) государственном уровне, которое может гарантировать, что сельскохозяйственная продукция экспортного качества, как фасоль из Таласской области Кыргызстана, должна экспортироваться с использованием юрты в качестве логотипа на ее упаковке, чтобы международный рынок мог признать ее происхождение. Кыргызстан может получить лучшие маркетинговые преимущества, включая продвижение традиционных ремесел и продвижение туристического сектора Кыргызстана, используя только один бренд. Кроме того, в данной статье подчеркивается, что юрта имеет огромный потенциал для включения в герб Кыргызстана. Нынешний государственный герб, используемый в государственных марках, очень похож на гербы соседних стран. В них также изображены птица, горы и солнце. В то время, как юрта может быть с легкостью включена в герб Кыргызстана, чтобы она отличалась от других и использовалась для брендирования продукции из Кыргызстана. (shrink)
When we talk about Human Rights or Democracy, we see that people are not agreeing on a single definition of these terminologies. Everyone has a different interpretation and their own versions. Very basic values are being exploited in our educational institutions. For example, Beauty is exploited on the name of abstract art. No one is teaching, what is beauty itself? But they have given a standard instead of outlining the parameters of beauty. Beauty is value and abstract art may be (...) a preference or standard of this value. Aesthetically it can be satisfying for some people but it cannot be taken as a standard. In an academic institution, values should be taught and students should be allowed to set their own preferences and standards. (shrink)
BackgroundIn Pakistan, drug promotion practices, ethical or unethical, have rarely been in the spotlight. We aimed to assess the perception and barriers of medical representatives and doctors regarding ethical promotion of pharmaceuticals in Pakistan.MethodsA cross sectional survey was conducted in seven major cities of Pakistan for 6-months period. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Logistic regression and five-point Likert scale scoring was used to estimate the perceptions and barriers.ResultsCompared to national companies, the medical representatives of multinational companies strongly believed (...) that their companies follow World Health Organization, International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations and national codes of ethics. MNCs trained their MRs, provide accurate and valid scientific data with adequate system of accountability and controls on product samples, while, NCs sponsor social or entertainment activities, seminars and conferences, and all sort of facilitation in form of gifts of their choice and clinic renovation for medical doctors. MDs perceptions were similar to MRs mentioned above, yet strongly agreed that companies offer cash payments or equivalents to MDs. The MRs of NCs/mncs and MDs agreed/strongly agreed that no external accountability, profiteering, pressure on sale targets, job insecurity, condoning unethical promotion by high-ups’ and business promotion by junior MDs were the predominant barriers.ConclusionIn conclusion, MRs of MNCs and MDs believed that MNCs follow certain codes of ethics in the promotion of pharmaceuticals, while NCs tend to be more profit oriented and even condone unethical promotion. All stakeholders, MRs, MDs and companies, might pose certain barriers, intentionally or unintentionally, in ethical promotion. (shrink)
BackgroundOrgan donation has become one of the most effective ways to save lives and improve the quality of life for patients with end-stage organ failure. No previous studies have investigated the preferences for the different consenting options for organ donation in Egypt. This study aims to assess Egyptians’ preferences regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation, and measure their awareness and acceptance of the Egyptian law articles regulating organ donation.MethodsA cross sectional study was conducted among 2743 participants over two years. (...) Each participant was required to rank eleven consenting options from 1 to 11, and to report his awareness and acceptance of the seven articles of the Egyptian law of organ donation.Results47% of the participants expressed willingness to donate their organs after death. This percentage increased to 78% when consenting options were explained to participants. “Informed consent by donor only” was the most preferred type of consent for one third of respondents. Awareness of the law articles regulating organ donation was relatively low ranging from 56% to 23%.ConclusionCurrently, around half of the Egyptian population agree to posthumous organ donation. This percentage could be increased significantly by raising the awareness about how the process of donation could be regulated and how the patient’s right of decision could be protected. (shrink)
IntroductionThe COVID-19 pandemic has led to unprecedented strain to healthcare systems worldwide and posed unique challenges to the healthcare professionals and the general public.ObjectivesThe aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health, behavioral, and physical wellbeing of HCPs in the early and mid-term periods of the pandemic in comparison to non-HCPs. Thus, facilitating and guiding optimum planning and delivery of support to HCPs.Methods and AnalysisAn observational cross-sectional survey and cohort study aiming to enroll (...) over 1050 participants. Study questionnaires will be completed at baseline and after 6-weeks and 4-months. Recruitment initiated July 2020. The study was designed in London, United Kingdom, but open to participants worldwide. Baseline: Questionnaires comprising of validated self-administered screening tools for depression, anxiety, sleep-related issues, wellbeing, and burnout. The questionnaires also explore changes in behavior and physical wellbeing of the participants. In addition, associations of these mental health and behavioral factors with work-related factors and support will be explored. Six-weeks and 4-months follow-up: Follow-up questionnaires will assess change in symptoms of anxiety and depression, sleep disorders, use of alcohol and other substances, behavioral or interpersonal relationship changes. Physical wellbeing will be assessed through the presence of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection and absence from work. We will also evaluate the impact of variable provision of personal protection equipment, extended working hours, and concern for the wellbeing of family members, anxiety levels, and evidence of burnout.Statistical ConsiderationsThe study has 80% power to detect a 10% difference of combined depression and/or anxiety symptoms between the groups using two-sided type 1 error at 0.05 at baseline. Assuming that only 50% of these HCPs agree to be a part of a cohort survey, we will have 80% power to detect around 12% difference in the two groups in reported physical symptoms, or prevalence of depression and/or anxiety at the end of the study.EthicsThe study was approved by the Cambridge East, Research Ethics Committee.Trial Registration NumberClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04433260. (shrink)
Computer vision and human–computer interaction are essential in many technological fields. Researchers in CV are particularly interested in real-time object detection techniques, which have a wide range of applications, including inspection systems. In this study, we design and implement real-time object detection and recognition systems using the single-shoot detector algorithm and deep learning techniques with pre-trained models. The system can detect static and moving objects in real-time and recognize the object’s class. The primary goals of this research were to investigate (...) and develop a real-time object detection system that employs deep learning and neural systems for real-time object detection and recognition. In addition, we evaluated the free available, pre-trained models with the SSD algorithm on various types of datasets to determine which models have high accuracy and speed when detecting an object. Moreover, the system is required to be operational on reasonable equipment. We tried and evaluated several deep learning structures and techniques during the coding procedure and developed and proposed a highly accurate and efficient object detection system. This system utilizes freely available datasets such as MS Common Objects in Context, PASCAL VOC, and Kitti. We evaluated our system’s accuracy using various metrics such as precision and recall. The proposed system achieved a high accuracy of 97% while detecting and recognizing real-time objects. (shrink)
Product acceptance determination using similarity measure index by neutrosophic statistics / Muhammad Aslam and Rehan Ahmed Khan Sherwani -- New concepts of strongly edge irregular interval-valued neutrosophic graphs / A.A.Talebi, Hossein Rashmanlou and Masoomeh Ghasemi -- The link between neutrosophy and learning : through the related concepts of representation and compression / Philippe Schweizer -- Neutrosophic soft cubic M-subalgebras of B-algebras / Mohsin Khalid, Neha Andaleeb Khalid and Hasan Khalid -- Alpha, beta and gamma product of neutrosophic graphs / (...) Nasir Shah, Said Broumi, Abdul Raheem and Tahir Imran -- Neutrosophic cubic normal ideal and neutrosophic cubic closed normal ideal of PS-algebra / Mohsin Khalid, Hasan khalid and Neha Andaleeb Khalid -- Neutrosophic multisets : an overview / Vakkas Uluçay -- Neutrosophy as a model for knowledge : the influence of representative models on thinking / Philippe Schweizer -- When neutrosophic theory meets three-way decisions / Rui Ren, Chao Zhang and Deyu Li -- Neutrosophic economic order quantity model with more than one price breaks / R. Surya, M. Mullai and G. Madhan Kumar -- General non-square systems of linear equations in single-valued triangular neutrosophic number environment / S.A. Edalatpanah -- Hesitant neutrosophic soft set relations / Abhijit Saha -- Computer application of neutrosophic set operations / S. Saranya, M. Vigneshwaran, Said Broumi -- Triangular bipolar neutrosophic based transportation problem / Avishek Chakraborty -- Studying neutrosophic variables / Rafif Alhabib and Ahmad Salama -- Decision making for logistics center location selection in trapezoidal neutrosophic environment / Kalyan Mondal and Surapati Pramanik -- Weighted similarity measure and decision making model for clinical application of single valued neutrosophic set / R.Binu and P. Isaac -- Rough neutrosophic set : an overview / Surapati Pramanik -- Some new concepts on normalized SVTN-number and multiple criteria decision making / İrfan Deli and Emel Kırmızı Öztürk. (shrink)