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  1. added 2020-05-08
    The Ethics of Digital Well-Being: A Multidisciplinary Perspective.Christopher Burr & Luciano Floridi - forthcoming - In Christopher Burr & Luciano Floridi (eds.), Ethics of Digital Well-Being: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Springer.
    This chapter serves as an introduction to the edited collection of the same name, which includes chapters that explore digital well-being from a range of disciplinary perspectives, including philosophy, psychology, economics, health care, and education. The purpose of this introductory chapter is to provide a short primer on the different disciplinary approaches to the study of well-being. To supplement this primer, we also invited key experts from several disciplines—philosophy, psychology, public policy, and health care—to share their thoughts on what they (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-08
    The Ethics of Digital Well-Being: A Thematic Review.Christopher Burr, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-31.
    This article presents the first thematic review of the literature on the ethical issues concerning digital well-being. The term ‘digital well-being’ is used to refer to the impact of digital technologies on what it means to live a life that is good for a human being. The review explores the existing literature on the ethics of digital well-being, with the goal of mapping the current debate and identifying open questions for future research. The review identifies major issues related to several (...)
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  3. added 2020-05-04
    Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence (Forthcoming).Vincent C. Müller - manuscript
    Handbook in the making. Expected completion for 2020.
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  4. added 2020-04-27
    The Tactile Ethics of Soft Robotics: Designing Wisely for Human–Robot Interaction.Thomas Arnold & Matthias Scheutz - 2017 - Soft Robotics 4 (2):81-87.
    Soft robots promise an exciting design trajectory in the field of robotics and human–robot interaction (HRI), promising more adaptive, resilient movement within environments as well as a safer, more sensitive interface for the objects or agents the robot encounters. In particular, tactile HRI is a critical dimension for designers to consider, especially given the onrush of assistive and companion robots into our society. In this article, we propose to surface an important set of ethical challenges for the field of soft (...)
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  5. added 2020-04-26
    Ethical Issues for Robotics and Autonomous Systems.John McDermid, Vincent C. Müller, Tony Pipe, Zoe Porter & Alan Winfield - 2019 - UK Robotics and Autonomous Systems Network.
    There are unusual challenges in ethics for RAS. Perhaps the issue can best be summarised as needing to consider “technically informed ethics”. The technology of RAS raises issues that have an ethical dimension, and perhaps uniquely so due to the possibility of moving human decision-making which is implicitly ethically informed to computer systems. Further, if seeking solutions to these problems – ethically aligned design, to use the IEEE’s terminology – then the solutions must be technically meaningful, capable of realisation, capable (...)
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  6. added 2020-04-24
    Ethics of Artificial Intelligence.Vincent C. Müller - forthcoming - In Anthony Elliott (ed.), The Routledge social science handbook of AI. London: Routledge. pp. 1-20.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a digital technology that will be of major importance for the development of humanity in the near future. AI has raised fundamental questions about what we should do with such systems, what the systems themselves should do, what risks they involve and how we can control these. - After the background to the field (1), this article introduces the main debates (2), first on ethical issues that arise with AI systems as objects, i.e. tools made and (...)
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  7. added 2020-04-20
    AI Assistants and the Paradox of Internal Automaticity.William A. Bauer & Veljko Dubljević - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-8.
    What is the ethical impact of artificial intelligence assistants on human lives, and specifically how much do they threaten our individual autonomy? Recently, as part of forming an ethical framework for thinking about the impact of AI assistants on our lives, John Danaher claims that if the external automaticity generated by the use of AI assistants threatens our autonomy and is therefore ethically problematic, then the internal automaticity we already live with should be viewed in the same way. He takes (...)
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  8. added 2020-04-13
    Una prospettiva etica sull'Intelligenza Artificiale: princìpi, diritti e raccomandazioni.Stefano Quintarelli, Francesco Corea, Fabio Fossa, Andrea Loreggia & Salvatore Sapienza - 2019 - Rivista di Biodiritto 3:183-204.
    As technologies become more and more pervasive in our everyday life new questions arise, for example, about security, accountability, fairness and ethics. These concerns are about all the realities that are involved or committed in designing, implementing, deploying and using the technology. This document addresses such concerns by presenting a set of practical obligations and recommendations for the development of applications and systems based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. These are derived from a definition of rights resulting from principles and (...)
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  9. added 2020-04-13
    "I Don't Trust You, You Faker!" On Trust, Reliance, and Artificial Agency.Fabio Fossa - 2019 - Teoria 39 (1):63-80.
    The aim of this paper is to clarify the extent to which relationships between Human Agents (HAs) and Artificial Agents (AAs) can be adequately defined in terms of trust. Since such relationships consist mostly in the allocation of tasks to technological products, particular attention is paid to the notion of delegation. In short, I argue that it would be more accurate to describe direct relationships between HAs and AAs in terms of reliance, rather than in terms of trust. However, as (...)
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  10. added 2020-04-13
    Shared Moral Foundations of Embodied Artificial Intelligence.Joe Cruz - 2019 - In Vincent Conitzer, Gillian Hadfield & Shannon Vallor (eds.), AIES '19: Proceedings of the 2019 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society. pp. 139-146.
    Sophisticated AI's will make decisions about how to respond to complex situations, and we may wonder whether those decisions will align with the moral values of human beings. I argue that pessimistic worries about this value alignment problem are overstated. In order to achieve intelligence in its full generality and adaptiveness, cognition in AI's will need to be embodied in the sense of the Embodied Cognition research program. That embodiment will yield AI's that share our moral foundations, namely coordination, sociality, (...)
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  11. added 2020-04-07
    The Relations Between Pedagogical and Scientific Explanations of Algorithms: Case Studies From the French Administration.Maël Pégny - manuscript
    The opacity of some recent Machine Learning (ML) techniques have raised fundamental questions on their explainability, and created a whole domain dedicated to Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI). However, most of the literature has been dedicated to explainability as a scientific problem dealt with typical methods of computer science, from statistics to UX. In this paper, we focus on explainability as a pedagogical problem emerging from the interaction between lay users and complex technological systems. We defend an empirical methodology based on (...)
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  12. added 2020-03-17
    Consequentialism & Machine Ethics: Towards a Foundational Machine Ethic to Ensure the Right Action of Artificial Moral Agents.Josiah Della Foresta - 2020 - Montreal AI Ethics Institute.
    In this paper, I argue that Consequentialism represents a kind of ethical theory that is the most plausible to serve as a basis for a machine ethic. First, I outline the concept of an artificial moral agent and the essential properties of Consequentialism. Then, I present a scenario involving autonomous vehicles to illustrate how the features of Consequentialism inform agent action. Thirdly, an alternative Deontological approach will be evaluated and the problem of moral conflict discussed. Finally, two bottom-up approaches to (...)
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  13. added 2020-03-11
    Robots and Moral Agency.Linda Johansson - 2011 - Dissertation, Stockholm University
    Machine ethics is a field of applied ethics that has grown rapidly in the last decade. Increasingly advanced autonomous robots have expanded the focus of machine ethics from issues regarding the ethical development and use of technology by humans to a focus on ethical dimensions of the machines themselves. This thesis contains two essays, both about robots in some sense, representing these different perspectives of machine ethics. The first essay, “Is it Morally Right to use UAVs in War?” concerns an (...)
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  14. added 2020-03-08
    From What to How: An Initial Review of Publicly Available AI Ethics Tools, Methods and Research to Translate Principles Into Practices.Jessica Morley, Luciano Floridi, Libby Kinsey & Anat Elhalal - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-28.
    The debate about the ethical implications of Artificial Intelligence dates from the 1960s :741–742, 1960; Wiener in Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and the machine, MIT Press, New York, 1961). However, in recent years symbolic AI has been complemented and sometimes replaced by Neural Networks and Machine Learning techniques. This has vastly increased its potential utility and impact on society, with the consequence that the ethical debate has gone mainstream. Such a debate has primarily focused on principles—the (...)
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  15. added 2020-03-08
    Who Should Bear the Risk When Self-Driving Vehicles Crash?Antti Kauppinen - forthcoming - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    The moral importance of liability to harm has so far been ignored in the lively debate about what self-driving vehicles should be programmed to do when an accident is inevitable. But liability matters a great deal to just distribution of risk of harm. While morality sometimes requires simply minimizing relevant harms, this is not so when one party is liable to harm in virtue of voluntarily engaging in activity that foreseeably creates a risky situation, while having reasonable alternatives. On plausible (...)
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  16. added 2020-03-08
    Thinking About ‘Ethics’ in the Ethics of AI.Pak-Hang Wong & Judith Simon - 2020 - IDEES 48.
    A major international consultancy firm identified ‘AI ethicist’ as an essential position for companies to successfully implement artificial intelligence (AI) at the start of 2019. It declares that AI ethicists are needed to help companies navigate the ethical and social issues raised by the use of AI. Top 5 AI hires companies need to succeed in 2019. The view that AI is beneficial but nonetheless potentially harmful to individuals and society is widely shared by the industry, academia, governments, and civil (...)
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  17. added 2020-03-08
    BCI-Mediated Behavior, Moral Luck, and Punishment.Daniel J. Miller - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 1 (11):72-74.
    An ongoing debate in the philosophy of action concerns the prevalence of moral luck: instances in which an agent’s moral responsibility is due, at least in part, to factors beyond his control. I point to a unique problem of moral luck for agents who depend upon Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) for bodily movement. BCIs may misrecognize a voluntarily formed distal intention (e.g., a plan to commit some illicit act in the future) as a control command to perform some overt behavior (...)
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  18. added 2020-03-08
    AI Methods in Bioethics.Joshua August Skorburg, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong & Vincent Conitzer - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics: Empirical Bioethics 1 (11):37-39.
    Commentary about the role of AI in bioethics for the 10th anniversary issue of AJOB: Empirical Bioethics.
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  19. added 2020-03-07
    Digital Well-Being and Manipulation Online.Michael Klenk - forthcoming - In Christopher Burr & Luciano Floridi (eds.), Ethics of Digital Well-being: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer.
    Social media use is soaring globally. Existing research of its ethical implications predominantly focuses on the relationships amongst human users online, and their effects. The nature of the software-to-human relationship and its impact on digital well-being, however, has not been sufficiently addressed yet. This paper aims to close the gap. I argue that some intelligent software agents, such as newsfeed curator algorithms in social media, manipulate human users because they do not intend their means of influence to reveal the user’s (...)
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  20. added 2020-03-05
    The Rise of Artificial Intelligence and the Crisis of Moral Passivity.Berman Chan - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-3.
    Set aside fanciful doomsday speculations about AI. Even lower-level AIs, while otherwise friendly and providing us a universal basic income, would be able to do all our jobs. Also, we would over-rely upon AI assistants even in our personal lives. Thus, John Danaher argues that a human crisis of moral passivity would result However, I argue firstly that if AIs are posited to lack the potential to become unfriendly, they may not be intelligent enough to replace us in all our (...)
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  21. added 2020-03-04
    Automated Influence and the Challenge of Cognitive Security.Sarah Rajtmajer & Daniel Susser - forthcoming - HoTSoS: ACM Symposium on Hot Topics in the Science of Security.
    Advances in AI are powering increasingly precise and widespread computational propaganda, posing serious threats to national security. The military and intelligence communities are starting to discuss ways to engage in this space, but the path forward is still unclear. These developments raise pressing ethical questions, about which existing ethics frameworks are silent. Understanding these challenges through the lens of “cognitive security,” we argue, offers a promising approach.
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  22. added 2020-02-27
    Artificial Wisdom: A Philosophical Framework.Cheng-Hung Tsai - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    Human excellences such as intelligence, morality, and consciousness are investigated by philosophers as well as artificial intelligence researchers. One excellence that has not been widely discussed by AI researchers is practical wisdom, the highest human excellence, or the highest, seventh, stage in Dreyfus’s model of skill acquisition. In this paper, I explain why artificial wisdom matters and how artificial wisdom is possible (in principle and in practice) by responding to two philosophical challenges to building artificial wisdom systems. The result is (...)
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  23. added 2020-02-06
    Predictive Policing and the Ethics of Preemption.Daniel Susser - forthcoming - In Ben Jones & Eduardo Mendieta (eds.), The Ethics of Policing: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. New York, NY: NYU Press.
    The American justice system, from police departments to the courts, is increasingly turning to information technology for help identifying potential offenders, determining where, geographically, to allocate enforcement resources, assessing flight risk and the potential for recidivism amongst arrestees, and making other judgments about when, where, and how to manage crime. In particular, there is a focus on machine learning and other data analytics tools, which promise to accurately predict where crime will occur and who will perpetrate it. Activists and academics (...)
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  24. added 2020-02-06
    Strange Loops: Apparent Versus Actual Human Involvement in Automated Decision-Making.Kiel Brennan-Marquez, Karen Levy & Daniel Susser - forthcoming - Berkeley Technology Law Journal.
    The era of AI-based decision-making fast approaches, and anxiety is mounting about when, and why, we should keep “humans in the loop” (“HITL”). Thus far, commentary has focused primarily on two questions: whether, and when, keeping humans involved will improve the results of decision-making (making them safer or more accurate), and whether, and when, non-accuracy-related values—legitimacy, dignity, and so forth—are vindicated by the inclusion of humans in decision-making. Here, we take up a related but distinct question, which has eluded the (...)
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  25. added 2020-02-05
    Mapping Value Sensitive Design Onto AI for Social Good Principles.Steven Umbrello & Ibo van de Poel - manuscript
    Although not much work has been done regarding the practical implementations of AI4SG principles for design, initial first steps provide promising ways forward. This paper proposes that the Value Sensitive Design (VSD) approach to technology design maps symbiotically onto the initially formulated AI4SG principles and that the VSD bolsters these principles by providing designers and engineers a principled approach to incorporating human values into AI systems design. Likewise, it distinguishes several sources of values in AI systems’ design that not only (...)
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  26. added 2020-02-04
    Critiquing the Reasons for Making Artificial Moral Agents.Aimee van Wynsberghe & Scott Robbins - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (3):719-735.
    Many industry leaders and academics from the field of machine ethics would have us believe that the inevitability of robots coming to have a larger role in our lives demands that robots be endowed with moral reasoning capabilities. Robots endowed in this way may be referred to as artificial moral agents. Reasons often given for developing AMAs are: the prevention of harm, the necessity for public trust, the prevention of immoral use, such machines are better moral reasoners than humans, and (...)
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  27. added 2020-02-03
    The Mind in the Machine: Anthropomorphism Increases Trust in an Autonomous Vehicle.Adam Waytz, Joy Heafner & Nicholas Epley - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 52:113-117.
    Sophisticated technology is increasingly replacing human minds to perform complicated tasks in domains ranging from medicine to education to transportation. We investigated an important theoretical determinant of people's willingness to trust such technology to perform competently—the extent to which a nonhuman agent is anthropomorphized with a humanlike mind—in a domain of practical importance, autonomous driving. Participants using a driving simulator drove either a normal car, an autonomous vehicle able to control steering and speed, or a comparable autonomous vehicle augmented with (...)
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  28. added 2020-01-28
    Freedom in an Age of Algocracy.John Danaher - forthcoming - In Shannon Vallor (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Technology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    There is a growing sense of unease around algorithmic modes of governance ('algocracies') and their impact on freedom. Contrary to the emancipatory utopianism of digital enthusiasts, many now fear that the rise of algocracies will undermine our freedom. Nevertheless, there has been some struggle to explain exactly how this will happen. This chapter tries to address the shortcomings in the existing discussion by arguing for a broader conception/understanding of freedom as well as a broader conception/understanding of algocracy. Broadening the focus (...)
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  29. added 2020-01-22
    The Rhetoric and Reality of Anthropomorphism in Artificial Intelligence.David Watson - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (3):417-440.
    Artificial intelligence has historically been conceptualized in anthropomorphic terms. Some algorithms deploy biomimetic designs in a deliberate attempt to effect a sort of digital isomorphism of the human brain. Others leverage more general learning strategies that happen to coincide with popular theories of cognitive science and social epistemology. In this paper, I challenge the anthropomorphic credentials of the neural network algorithm, whose similarities to human cognition I argue are vastly overstated and narrowly construed. I submit that three alternative supervised learning (...)
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  30. added 2020-01-22
    A Misdirected Principle with a Catch: Explicability for AI.Scott Robbins - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (4):495-514.
    There is widespread agreement that there should be a principle requiring that artificial intelligence be ‘explicable’. Microsoft, Google, the World Economic Forum, the draft AI ethics guidelines for the EU commission, etc. all include a principle for AI that falls under the umbrella of ‘explicability’. Roughly, the principle states that “for AI to promote and not constrain human autonomy, our ‘decision about who should decide’ must be informed by knowledge of how AI would act instead of us” :689–707, 2018). There (...)
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  31. added 2020-01-22
    Man as ‘Aggregate of Data’.Sjoukje van der Meulen & Max Bruinsma - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):343-354.
    Since the emergence of the innovative field of artificial intelligence in the 1960s, the late Hubert Dreyfus insisted on the ontological distinction between man and machine, human and artificial intelligence. In the different editions of his classic and influential book What computers can’t do, he posits that an algorithmic machine can never fully simulate the complex functioning of the human mind—not now, nor in the future. Dreyfus’ categorical distinctions between man and machine are still relevant today, but their relation has (...)
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  32. added 2020-01-22
    The Pharmacological Significance of Mechanical Intelligence and Artificial Stupidity.Adrian Mróz - 2019 - Kultura I Historia 36 (2):17-40.
    By drawing on the philosophy of Bernard Stiegler, the phenomena of mechanical (a.k.a. artificial, digital, or electronic) intelligence is explored in terms of its real significance as an ever-repeating threat of the reemergence of stupidity (as cowardice), which can be transformed into knowledge (pharmacological analysis of poisons and remedies) by practices of care, through the outlook of what researchers describe equivocally as “artificial stupidity”, which has been identified as a new direction in the future of computer science and machine problem (...)
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  33. added 2020-01-22
    Moral Orthoses: A New Approach to Human and Machine Ethics.Marius Dorobantu & Yorick Wilks - 2019 - Zygon 54 (4):1004-1021.
  34. added 2020-01-22
    Artificiële Intelligentie En Normatieve Ethiek : Wie is Verantwoordelijk Voor de Misdaden van LAWS?1.Lode Lauwaert - 2019 - Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 111 (4):585-603.
    Artificial intelligence and normative ethics: Who is responsible for the crime of LAWS?In his text “Killer Robots”, Robert Sparrow holds that killer robots should be forbidden. This conclusion is based on two premises. The first is that attributive responsibility is a necessary condition for admitting an action; the second premise is that the use of killer robots is accompanied by a responsibility gap. Although there are good reasons to conclude that killer robots should be banned, the article shows that Sparrow's (...)
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  35. added 2020-01-22
    Automated Vehicles and Transportation Justice.Shane Epting - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (3):389-403.
    Despite numerous ethical examinations of automated vehicles, philosophers have neglected to address how these technologies will affect vulnerable people. To account for this lacuna, researchers must analyze how driverless cars could hinder or help social justice. In addition to thinking through these aspects, scholars must also pay attention to the extensive moral dimensions of automated vehicles, including how they will affect the public, nonhumans, future generations, and culturally significant artifacts. If planners and engineers undertake this task, then they will have (...)
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  36. added 2020-01-22
    The Picture of Artificial Intelligence and the Secularization of Thought.King-Ho Leung - 2019 - Political Theology 20 (6):457-471.
    This article offers a critical interpretation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) as a philosophical notion which exemplifies a secular conception of thinking. One way in which AI notably differs from the conventional understanding of “thinking” is that, according to AI, “intelligence” or “thinking” does not necessarily require “life” as a precondition: that it is possible to have “thinking without life.” Building on Charles Taylor’s critical account of secularity as well as Hubert Dreyfus’ influential critique of AI, this article offers a theological (...)
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  37. added 2020-01-22
    Remarks on the Possibility of Ethical Reasoning in an Artificial Intelligence System by Means of Abductive Models.David Casacuberta & Alger Sans - 2019 - In Matthieu Fontaine, Cristina Barés-Gómez, Francisco Salguero-Lamillar, Lorenzo Magnani & Ángel Nepomuceno-Fernández (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. Springer Verlag.
  38. added 2020-01-22
    Three Ethical Challenges of Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Cybersecurity.Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (2):187-191.
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  39. added 2020-01-22
    Critical Analysis of the “No Relevant Difference” Argument in Defense of the Rights of Artificial Intelligences.Ali Reza Mazarian - 2019 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 21 (79):165-190.
    Received: 31/10/2018 | Accepted: 28/02/2019 There are many new philosophical queries about the moral status and rights of artificial intelligences; questions such as whether such entities can be considered as morally responsible entities and as having special rights. Recently, the contemporary philosophy of mind philosopher, Eric Schwitzgebel, has tried to defend the possibility of equal rights of AIs and human beings, by designing a new argument. In this paper, after an introduction, the author reviews and analyzes the main argument and (...)
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  40. added 2020-01-22
    Ethical Concerns with the Use of Intelligent Assistive Technology: Findings From a Qualitative Study with Professional Stakeholders.Tenzin Wangmo, Mirjam Lipps, Reto W. Kressig & Marcello Ienca - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-11.
    Advances in artificial intelligence, robotics and wearable computing are creating novel technological opportunities for mitigating the global burden of population ageing and improving the quality of care for older adults with dementia and/or age-related disability. Intelligent assistive technology is the umbrella term defining this ever-evolving spectrum of intelligent applications for the older and disabled population. However, the implementation of IATs has been observed to be sub-optimal due to a number of barriers in the translation of novel applications from the designing (...)
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  41. added 2020-01-22
    Robots Like Me: Challenges and Ethical Issues in Aged Care.Ipke Wachsmuth - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9 (432).
    This paper addresses the issue of whether robots could substitute for human care, given the challenges in aged care induced by the demographic change. The use of robots to provide emotional care has raised ethical concerns, e.g., that people may be deceived and deprived of dignity. In this paper it is argued that these concerns might be mitigated and that it may be sufficient for robots to take part in caring when they behave *as if* they care.
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  42. added 2020-01-22
    Superintelligence as Moral Philosopher.J. Corabi - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (5-6):128-149.
    Non-biological superintelligent artificial minds are scary things. Some theorists believe that if they came to exist, they might easily destroy human civilization, even if destroying human civilization was not a high priority for them. Consequently, philosophers are increasingly worried about the future of human beings and much of the rest of the biological world in the face of the potential development of superintelligent AI. This paper explores whether the increased attention philosophers have paid to the dangers of superintelligent AI is (...)
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  43. added 2020-01-22
    Outline of a Sensory-Motor Perspective on Intrinsically Moral Agents.Christian Balkenius, Lola Cañamero, Philip Pärnamets, Birger Johansson, Martin Butz & Andreas Olsson - 2016 - Adaptive Behavior 24 (5):306-319.
    We propose that moral behaviour of artificial agents could be intrinsically grounded in their own sensory-motor experiences. Such an ability depends critically on seven types of competencies. First, intrinsic morality should be grounded in the internal values of the robot arising from its physiology and embodiment. Second, the moral principles of robots should develop through their interactions with the environment and with other agents. Third, we claim that the dynamics of moral emotions closely follows that of other non-social emotions used (...)
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  44. added 2020-01-22
    Of Animals, Robots and Men.Christine Tiefensee & Johannes Marx - 2015 - Historical Social Research 40:70-91.
    Domesticated animals need to be treated as fellow citizens: only if we conceive of domesticated animals as full members of our political communities can we do justice to their moral standing—or so Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka argue in their widely discussed book Zoopolis. In this contribution, we pursue two objectives. Firstly, we reject Donaldson and Kymlicka’s appeal for animal citizenship. We do so by submitting that instead of paying due heed to their moral status, regarding animals as citizens misinterprets (...)
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  45. added 2020-01-22
    Moral Agency, Moral Responsibility, and Artifacts: What Existing Artifacts Fail to Achieve , and Why They, Nevertheless, Can Make Moral Claims Upon Us.Joel Parthemore & Blay Whitby - 2014 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 6 (2):141-161.
    This paper follows directly from an earlier paper where we discussed the requirements for an artifact to be a moral agent and concluded that the artifactual question is ultimately a red herring. As...
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  46. added 2020-01-22
    Scientific Models and Ethical Issues in Hybrid Bionic Systems Research.Pericle Salvini, Edoardo Datteri, Cecilia Laschi & Paolo Dario - 2008 - AI and Society 22 (3):431-448.
    Research on hybrid bionic systems (HBSs) is still in its infancy but promising results have already been achieved in laboratories. Experiments on humans and animals show that artificial devices can be controlled by neural signals. These results suggest that HBS technologies can be employed to restore sensorimotor functionalities in disabled and elderly people. At the same time, HBS research raises ethical concerns related to possible exogenous and endogenous limitations to human autonomy and freedom. The analysis of these concerns requires reflecting (...)
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  47. added 2020-01-22
    Robotic Pets in the Lives of Preschool Children.Peter H. Kahn, Batya Friedman, Deanne R. Pérez-Granados & Nathan G. Freier - 2006 - Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 7 (3):405-436.
    This study examined preschool children’s reasoning about and behavioral interactions with one of the most advanced robotic pets currently on the retail market, Sony’s robotic dog AIBO. Eighty children, equally divided between two age groups, 34–50 months and 58–74 months, participated in individual sessions with two artifacts: AIBO and a stuffed dog. Evaluation and justification results showed similarities in children’s reasoning across artifacts. In contrast, children engaged more often in apprehensive behavior and attempts at reciprocity with AIBO, and more often (...)
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  48. added 2020-01-21
    Developing Artificial Agents Worthy of Trust: “Would You Buy a Used Car From This Artificial Agent?”. [REVIEW]F. S. Grodzinsky, K. W. Miller & M. J. Wolf - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (1):17-27.
    There is a growing literature on the concept of e-trust and on the feasibility and advisability of “trusting” artificial agents. In this paper we present an object-oriented model for thinking about trust in both face-to-face and digitally mediated environments. We review important recent contributions to this literature regarding e-trust in conjunction with presenting our model. We identify three important types of trust interactions and examine trust from the perspective of a software developer. Too often, the primary focus of research in (...)
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  49. added 2020-01-21
    Computer-Assisted Decision Making in Medicine.J. C. Kunz, E. H. Shortliffe, B. G. Buchanan & E. A. Feigenbaum - 1984 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 9 (2):135-160.
    This article reviews the strengths and limitations of five major paradigms of medical computer-assisted decision making (CADM): (1) clinical algorithms, (2) statistical analysis of collections of patient data, (3) mathematical models of physical processes, (4) decision analysis, and (5) symbolic reasoning or artificial intelligence (Al). No one technique is best for all applications, and there is recent promising work which combines two or more established techniques. We emphasize both the inherent power of symbolic reasoning and the promise of artificial intelligence (...)
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  50. added 2020-01-20
    Algorithmic Fairness From a Non-Ideal Perspective.Sina Fazelpour & Zachary C. Lipton - manuscript
    Inspired by recent breakthroughs in predictive modeling, practitioners in both industry and government have turned to machine learning with hopes of operationalizing predictions to drive automated decisions. Unfortunately, many social desiderata concerning consequential decisions, such as justice or fairness, have no natural formulation within a purely predictive framework. In efforts to mitigate these problems, researchers have proposed a variety of metrics for quantifying deviations from various statistical parities that we might expect to observe in a fair world and offered a (...)
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