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  1. Pragmatism, Artificial Intelligence, and Posthuman Bioethics: Shusterman, Rorty, Foucault. [REVIEW]Jerold J. Abrams - 2004 - Human Studies 27 (3):241-258.
    Michel Foucault's early works criticize the development of modern democratic institutions as creating a surveillance society, which functions to control bodies by making them feel watched and monitored full time. His later works attempt to recover private space by exploring subversive techniques of the body and language. Following Foucault, pragmatists like Richard Shusterman and Richard Rorty have also developed very rich approaches to this project, extending it deeper into the literary and somatic dimensions of self-stylizing. Yet, for a debate centered (...)
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  2. American Philosophy of Technology: The Empirical Turn.Hans Achterhuis (ed.) - 2001 - Indiana University Press.
    Introduces contemporary American philosophy of technology through six of its leading figures. The six American philosophers of technology whose work is profiled in this clear and concise introduction to the field—Albert Borgmann, Hubert Dreyfus, Andrew Feenberg, Donna Haraway, Don Ihde, and Langdon Winner—represent a new, empirical direction in the philosophical study of technology that has developed mainly in North America. In place of the grand philosophical schemes of the classical generation of European philosophers of technology, the contemporary American generation addresses (...)
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  3. Delegating and distributing morality: Can we inscribe privacy protection in a machine? [REVIEW]Alison Adam - 2005 - Ethics and Information Technology 7 (4):233-242.
    This paper addresses the question of delegation of morality to a machine, through a consideration of whether or not non-humans can be considered to be moral. The aspect of morality under consideration here is protection of privacy. The topic is introduced through two cases where there was a failure in sharing and retaining personal data protected by UK data protection law, with tragic consequences. In some sense this can be regarded as a failure in the process of delegating morality to (...)
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  4. Humanoid Robots: A New Kind of Tool.Bryan Adams, Cynthia Breazeal, Rodney Brooks & Brian Scassellati - 2000 - IEEE Intelligent Systems 15 (4):25-31.
    In his 1923 play R.U.R.: Rossum s Universal Robots, Karel Capek coined In 1993, we began a humanoid robotics project aimed at constructing a robot for use in exploring theories of human intelligence. In this article, we describe three aspects of our research methodology that distinguish our work from other humanoid projects. First, our humanoid robots are designed to act autonomously and safely in natural workspaces with people. Second, our robots are designed to interact socially with people by exploiting natural (...)
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  5. Do Expert Systems Have a Moral Cost?Mark Alfino - manuscript
    When professionals are asked about the value of information technology to their work, they typically give two kinds of answers. Some see the advent or arrival of sophisticated information technology as a great boon to their professional lives. For them, the only question is how soon can the technology be deployed to open up new horizons for professional activity and end dull and tedious work. Others sense more acutely the serious..
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  6. Rethinking Autonomy.Richard Alterman - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (1):15-30.
    This paper explores the assumption of autonomy. Several arguments are presented against the assumption of runtime autonomy as a principle of design for artificial intelligence systems. The arguments vary from being theoretical, to practical, and to analytic. The latter parts of the paper focus on one strategy for building non-autonomous systems (the practice view). One critical theme is that intelligence is not located in the system alone, it emerges from a history of interactions among user, builder, and designer over a (...)
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  7. Artificial Brains & Holographic Bodies: Facing the Questions of Progress.John Altmann - manuscript
    This essay discusses the ambitious plans of one Dmitry Itskov who by 2045 wishes to see immortality achieved by way of Artificial Brains and Holographic Bodies. I discuss the ethical implications of such a possibility coming to pass.
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  8. The Status of Machine Ethics: A Report From the AAAI Symposium. [REVIEW]Michael Anderson & Susan Leigh Anderson - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (1):1-10.
    This paper is a summary and evaluation of work presented at the AAAI 2005 Fall Symposium on Machine Ethics that brought together participants from the fields of Computer Science and Philosophy to the end of clarifying the nature of this newly emerging field and discussing different approaches one could take towards realizing the ultimate goal of creating an ethical machine.
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  9. Contracting Agents: Legal Personality and Representation. [REVIEW]Francisco Andrade, Paulo Novais, José Machado & José Neves - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (4):357-373.
    The combined use of computers and telecommunications and the latest evolution in the field of Artificial Intelligence brought along new ways of contracting and of expressing will and declarations. The question is, how far we can go in considering computer intelligence and autonomy, how can we legally deal with a new form of electronic behaviour capable of autonomous action? In the field of contracting, through Intelligent Electronic Agents, there is an imperious need of analysing the question of expression of consent, (...)
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  10. Richard Susskind, The Future of Law, Facing Challenges of Information Technology.Oskamp Anja - 1999 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (4):387-391.
  11. Artificial Intelligence: A Contribution to Systems Theories of Sociology. [REVIEW]Achille Ardigo - 1988 - AI and Society 2 (2):113-120.
    The aim of my contribution is to try to analyse some points of similarity and difference between post-Parsonian social systems theory models for sociology — with special reference to those of W. Buckley, F.E. Emery and N. Luhmann — and expert systems models1 from Artificial Intelligence. I keep specifically to post-Parsonian systems theories within sociology because they assume some postulates and criteria derived from cybernetics and which are at the roots of AI. I refer in particular to the fundamental relevance (...)
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  12. Thinking Inside the Box: Controlling and Using an Oracle AI.Stuart Armstrong, Anders Sandberg & Nick Bostrom - 2012 - Minds and Machines 22 (4):299-324.
    There is no strong reason to believe that human-level intelligence represents an upper limit of the capacity of artificial intelligence, should it be realized. This poses serious safety issues, since a superintelligent system would have great power to direct the future according to its possibly flawed motivation system. Solving this issue in general has proven to be considerably harder than expected. This paper looks at one particular approach, Oracle AI. An Oracle AI is an AI that does not act in (...)
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  13. The “Big Red Button” is Too Late: An Alternative Model for the Ethical Evaluation of AI Systems.Thomas Arnold & Matthias Scheutz - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (1):59-69.
  14. Humans and Hosts in Westworld: What's the Difference?Marcus Arvan - 2018 - In James South & Kimberly Engels (eds.), Westworld and Philosophy. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 26-38.
    This chapter argues there are many hints in the dialogue, plot, and physics of the first season of Westworld that the events in the show do not take place within a theme park, but rather in a virtual reality (VR) world that people "visit" to escape the "real world." The philosophical implications I draw are several. First, to be simulated is to be real: simulated worlds are every bit as real as "the real world", and simulated people (hosts) are every (...)
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  15. How Just Could a Robot War Be?Peter Asaro - 2008 - In P. Brey, A. Briggle & K. Waelbers (eds.), Current Issues in Computing and Philosophy. Ios Press. pp. 50--64.
  16. Emerging AI & Law Approaches to Automating Analysis and Retrieval of Electronically Stored Information in Discovery Proceedings.Kevin D. Ashley & Will Bridewell - 2010 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (4):311-320.
    This article provides an overview of, and thematic justification for, the special issue of the journal of Artificial Intelligence and Law entitled “E-Discovery”. In attempting to define a characteristic “AI & Law” approach to e-discovery, and since a central theme of AI & Law involves computationally modeling legal knowledge, reasoning and decision making, we focus on the theme of representing and reasoning with litigators’ theories or hypotheses about document relevance through a variety of techniques including machine learning. We also identify (...)
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  17. The Intelligence Left in AI.Denis L. Baggi - 2000 - AI and Society 14 (3-4):348-378.
    In its forty years of existence, Artificial Intelligence has suffered both from the exaggerated claims of those who saw it as the definitive solution of an ancestral dream — that of constructing an intelligent machine-and from its detractors, who described it as the latest fad worthy of quacks. Yet AI is still alive, well and blossoming, and has left a legacy of tools and applications almost unequalled by any other field-probably because, as the heir of Renaissance thought, it represents a (...)
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  18. The Perplexing Conclusion: The Essential Difference Between Natural and Artificial Intelligence is Human Beings' Ability to Deceive.Alexander Barzel - 1998 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 15 (2):165–178.
    As opposed to the computer, the human being can intentionally mislead in many different ways, can behave chaotically, and whenever he has the motivation can choose also by improvisation, non‐consequent misleading, and spontaneous manners of reasoning and articulation. Human perception and the elaboration of the experience are existentially interest‐related, and distorted if found necessary. The arbitrariness is unlimited; human beings can initiate and produce absurd combinations, contextual failures and deceptive expressions, and do so also by intonation and body‐language. These are (...)
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  19. Manipulating Search Engine Algorithms: The Case of Google.Judit Bar‐Ilan - 2007 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 5 (2/3):155-166.
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  20. The Ethics of Creating Artificial Consciousness.John Basl - 2013 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 13 (1):23-29.
  21. Social Choice Ethics in Artificial Intelligence.Seth D. Baum - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-12.
    A major approach to the ethics of artificial intelligence is to use social choice, in which the AI is designed to act according to the aggregate views of society. This is found in the AI ethics of “coherent extrapolated volition” and “bottom–up ethics”. This paper shows that the normative basis of AI social choice ethics is weak due to the fact that there is no one single aggregate ethical view of society. Instead, the design of social choice AI faces three (...)
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  22. Social Robots-Emotional Agents: Some Remarks on Naturalizing Man-Machine Interaction.Barbara Becker - 2006 - International Review of Information Ethics 6:37-45.
    The construction of embodied conversational agents - robots as well as avatars - seem to be a new challenge in the field of both cognitive AI and human-computer-interface development. On the one hand, one aims at gaining new insights in the development of cognition and communication by constructing intelligent, physical instantiated artefacts. On the other hand people are driven by the idea, that humanlike mechanical dialog-partners will have a positive effect on human-machine-communication. In this contribution I put for discussion whether (...)
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  23. AAAI: An Argument Against Artificial Intelligence.Sander Beckers - 2018 - In Vincent C. Müller (ed.), Philosophy and theory of artificial intelligence 2017. Berlin: Springer. pp. 235-247.
    The ethical concerns regarding the successful development of an Artificial Intelligence have received a lot of attention lately. The idea is that even if we have good reason to believe that it is very unlikely, the mere possibility of an AI causing extreme human suffering is important enough to warrant serious consideration. Others look at this problem from the opposite perspective, namely that of the AI itself. Here the idea is that even if we have good reason to believe that (...)
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  24. On How to Build a Moral Machine.Paul Bello & Selmer Bringsjord - 2013 - Topoi 32 (2):251-266.
    Herein we make a plea to machine ethicists for the inclusion of constraints on their theories consistent with empirical data on human moral cognition. As philosophers, we clearly lack widely accepted solutions to issues regarding the existence of free will, the nature of persons and firm conditions on moral agency/patienthood; all of which are indispensable concepts to be deployed by any machine able to make moral judgments. No agreement seems forthcoming on these matters, and we don’t hold out hope for (...)
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  25. Computer-Mediated Trust in Self-Interested Expert Recommendations.Jonathan Ben-Naim, Jean-François Bonnefon, Andreas Herzig, Sylvie Leblois & Emiliano Lorini - 2010 - AI and Society 25 (4):413-422.
    Important decisions are often based on a distributed process of information processing, from a knowledge base that is itself distributed among agents. The simplest such situation is that where a decision-maker seeks the recommendations of experts. Because experts may have vested interests in the consequences of their recommendations, decision-makers usually seek the advice of experts they trust. Trust, however, is a commodity that is usually built through repeated face time and social interaction and thus cannot easily be built in a (...)
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  26. Argument in Artificial Intelligence and Law.Trevor Bench-Capon - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (4):249-261.
    In this paper I shall discuss the notion of argument, and the importanceof argument in AI and Law. I shall distinguish four areas where argument hasbeen applied: in modelling legal reasoning based on cases; in thepresentation and explanation of results from a rule based legal informationsystem; in the resolution of normative conflict and problems ofnon-monotonicity; and as a basis for dialogue games to support the modellingof the process of argument. The study of argument is held to offer prospectsof real progress (...)
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  27. Considerations About the Relationship Between Animal and Machine Ethics.Oliver Bendel - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (1):103-108.
  28. Droit de la robotique: Livre blanc.Alain Bensoussan & Renaud Champion - 2016 - SYMOP.
    Histoire et utilisation du robot Bien que la robotique soit un marché économique relativement jeune et en pleine croissance, la genèse des robots remonte à l’Antiquité. Le premier robot à être déployé sur des lignes d’assemblage est Unimate, utilisé dès 1961 par General Motors. La robotique, en se di usant dans tous les pans de notre économie, va impacter les business modèles de nombreuses industries comme l’automobile et l’aéronautique mais aussi la construction ou l’agriculture. Aujourd’hui les robots industriels et de (...)
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  29. The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence: Superintelligence, Life 3.0 and Robot Rights.Kati Tusinski Berg - 2018 - Journal of Media Ethics 33 (3):151-153.
  30. Intelligent Agents in Military, Defense and Warfare: Ethical Issues and Concerns.Mr Sahon Bhattacharyya - unknown
    Due to tremendous progress in digital electronics now intelligent and autonomous agents are gradually being adopted into the fields and domains of the military, defense and warfare. This paper tries to explore some of the inherent ethical issues, threats and some remedial issues about the impact of such systems on human civilization and existence in general. This paper discusses human ethics in contrast to machine ethics and the problems caused by non-sentient agents. A systematic study is made on paradoxes regarding (...)
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  31. On the 'Simulation Argument' and Selective Scepticism.Jonathan Birch - 2013 - Erkenntnis 78 (1):95-107.
    Nick Bostrom’s ‘Simulation Argument’ purports to show that, unless we are confident that advanced ‘posthuman’ civilizations are either extremely rare or extremely rarely interested in running simulations of their own ancestors, we should assign significant credence to the hypothesis that we are simulated. I argue that Bostrom does not succeed in grounding this constraint on credence. I first show that the Simulation Argument requires a curious form of selective scepticism, for it presupposes that we possess good evidence for claims about (...)
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  32. Robots, Ethics and Language.Ingrid Björk & Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos - 2015 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 45 (3):270-273.
  33. Consensus and Authenticity in Representation: Simulation as Participative Theatre. [REVIEW]Michael T. Black - 1993 - AI and Society 7 (1):40-51.
    Representation was invented as an issue during the 17th century in response to specific developments in the technology of simulation. It remains an issue of central importance today in the design of information systems and approaches to artificial intelligence. Our cultural legacy of thought about representation is enormous but as inhibiting as it is productive. The challenge to designers of representative technology is to reshape this legacy by enlarging the politics rather than the technics of simulation.
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  34. Intelligence Unbound: The Future of Uploaded and Machine Minds.Russell Blackford & Damien Broderick (eds.) - 2014 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Intelligence Unbound_ explores the prospects, promises, and potential dangers of machine intelligence and uploaded minds in a collection of state-of-the-art essays from internationally recognized philosophers, AI researchers, science fiction authors, and theorists. Compelling and intellectually sophisticated exploration of the latest thinking on Artificial Intelligence and machine minds Features contributions from an international cast of philosophers, Artificial Intelligence researchers, science fiction authors, and more Offers current, diverse perspectives on machine intelligence and uploaded minds, emerging topics of tremendous interest Illuminates the nature (...)
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  35. Imitation Games: Turing, Menard, Van Meegeren. [REVIEW]Brian P. Bloomfield & Theo Vurdubakis - 2003 - Ethics and Information Technology 5 (1):27-38.
    For many, the very idea of an artificialintelligence has always been ethicallytroublesome. The putative ability of machinesto mimic human intelligence appears to callinto question the stability of taken forgranted boundaries between subject/object,identity/similarity, free will/determinism,reality/simulation, etc. The artificiallyintelligent object thus appears to threaten thehuman subject with displacement and redundancy.This article takes as its starting point AlanTuring''s famous ''imitation game,'' (the socalled ''Turing Test''), here treated as aparable of the encounter between human originaland machine copy – the born and the made. Thecultural (...)
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  36. Minds and Machines Special Issue: Ethics and Artificial Intelligence.Paula Boddington, Peter Millican & Michael Wooldridge - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (4):569-574.
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  37. The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence.Margaret A. Boden (ed.) - 1990 - Oxford University Press.
    This interdisciplinary collection of classical and contemporary readings provides a clear and comprehensive guide to the many hotly-debated philosophical issues at the heart of artificial intelligence.
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  38. Implementation of Moral Uncertainty in Intelligent Machines.Kyle Bogosian - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (4):591-608.
    The development of artificial intelligence will require systems of ethical decision making to be adapted for automatic computation. However, projects to implement moral reasoning in artificial moral agents so far have failed to satisfactorily address the widespread disagreement between competing approaches to moral philosophy. In this paper I argue that the proper response to this situation is to design machines to be fundamentally uncertain about morality. I describe a computational framework for doing so and show that it efficiently resolves common (...)
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  39. ‘I Interact Therefore I Am’: The Self as a Historical Product of Dialectical Attunement.Dimitris Bolis & Leonhard Schilbach - forthcoming - Topoi:1-14.
    In this article, moving from being to becoming, we construe the ‘self’ as a dynamic process rather than as a static entity. To this end we draw on dialectics and Bayesian accounts of cognition. The former allows us to holistically consider the ‘self’ as the interplay between internalization and externalization and the latter to operationalize our suggestion formally. Internalization is considered here as the co-construction of bodily hierarchical models of the world and the organism, while externalization is taken as the (...)
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  40. Formal Analysis of Dynamics Within Philosophy of Mind by Computer Simulation.Tibor Bosse, Martijn C. Schut & Jan Treur - 2009 - Minds and Machines 19 (4):543-555.
    Computer simulations can be useful tools to support philosophers in validating their theories, especially when these theories concern phenomena showing nontrivial dynamics. Such theories are usually informal, whilst for computer simulation a formally described model is needed. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to gradually formalise philosophical theories in terms of logically formalised dynamic properties. One outcome of this process is an executable logic-based temporal specification, which within a dedicated software environment can be used as a simulation model to (...)
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  41. Are We Living in a Computer Simulation?By Nick Bostrom - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):243–255.
    This paper argues that at least one of the following propositions is true: (1) the human species is very likely to go extinct before reaching a “posthuman” stage; (2) any posthuman civilization is extremely unlikely to run a significant number of simulations of their evolutionary history (or variations thereof); (3) we are almost certainly living in a computer simulation. It follows that the belief that there is a significant chance that we will one day become posthumans who run ancestor-simulations is (...)
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  42. Ethical Issues in Advanced Artificial Intelligence.Nick Bostrom - manuscript
    The ethical issues related to the possible future creation of machines with general intellectual capabilities far outstripping those of humans are quite distinct from any ethical problems arising in current automation and information systems. Such superintelligence would not be just another technological development; it would be the most important invention ever made, and would lead to explosive progress in all scientific and technological fields, as the superintelligence would conduct research with superhuman efficiency. To the extent that ethics is a cognitive (...)
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  43. When Machines Outsmart Humans.Nick Bostrom - manuscript
    Artificial intelligence is a possibility that should not be ignored in any serious thinking about the future, and it raises many profound issues for ethics and public policy that philosophers ought to start thinking about. This article outlines the case for thinking that human-level machine intelligence might well appear within the next half century. It then explains four immediate consequences of such a development, and argues that machine intelligence would have a revolutionary impact on a wide range of the social, (...)
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  44. Are You A Computer Simulation?Nick Bostrom - 2009 - In Susan Schneider (ed.), Science Fiction and Philosophy: From Time Travel to Superintelligence. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 20.
  45. Parallel Machines.Andrew Boucher - 1997 - Minds and Machines 7 (4):543-551.
    Because it is time-dependent, parallel computation is fundamentally different from sequential computation. Parallel programs are non-deterministic and are not effective procedures. Given the brain operates in parallel, this casts doubt on AI's attempt to make sequential computers intelligent.
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  46. A Case for Machine Ethics in Modeling Human-Level Intelligent Agents.Robert James M. Boyles - 2018 - Kritike 12 (1):182–200.
    This paper focuses on the research field of machine ethics and how it relates to a technological singularity—a hypothesized, futuristic event where artificial machines will have greater-than-human-level intelligence. One problem related to the singularity centers on the issue of whether human values and norms would survive such an event. To somehow ensure this, a number of artificial intelligence researchers have opted to focus on the development of artificial moral agents, which refers to machines capable of moral reasoning, judgment, and decision-making. (...)
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  47. Bias in Algorithmic Filtering and Personalization.Engin Bozdag - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (3):209-227.
    Online information intermediaries such as Facebook and Google are slowly replacing traditional media channels thereby partly becoming the gatekeepers of our society. To deal with the growing amount of information on the social web and the burden it brings on the average user, these gatekeepers recently started to introduce personalization features, algorithms that filter information per individual. In this paper we show that these online services that filter information are not merely algorithms. Humans not only affect the design of the (...)
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  48. Do We Have Moral Duties Towards Information Objects?Philip Brey - 2008 - Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):109-114.
    In this paper, a critique will be developed and an alternative proposed to Luciano Floridi’s approach to Information Ethics (IE). IE is a macroethical theory that is to both serve as a foundation for computer ethics and to guide our overall moral attitude towards the world. The central claims of IE are that everything that exists can be described as an information object, and that all information objects, qua information objects, have intrinsic value and are therefore deserving of moral respect. (...)
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  49. Chess Isn't Tough Enough: Better Games for Mind-Machine Competition.Selmer Bringsjord - unknown
    That Strong AI is still alive may have a lot to do with its avoidance of true tests. When Kasparov sits down to face the meanest chessbot in town, he has the deck stacked against him: his play may involve super-computation, but we know that perfect chess can be played by a nite-state automaton, so Kasparov loses if the engineers are su - ciently clever : : : (Bringsjord, 1997b), p. 9; para-.
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  50. Ethical Robots: The Future Can Heed Us. [REVIEW]Selmer Bringsjord - 2008 - AI and Society 22 (4):539-550.
    Bill Joy’s deep pessimism is now famous. Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us, his defense of that pessimism, has been read by, it seems, everyone—and many of these readers, apparently, have been converted to the dark side, or rather more accurately, to the future-is-dark side. Fortunately (for us; unfortunately for Joy), the defense, at least the part of it that pertains to AI and robotics, fails. Ours may be a dark future, but we cannot know that on the basis of (...)
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